APG IV system

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The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). It was published in 2016, seven years after its predecessor the APG III system was published in 2009, and 18 years after the first APG system was published in 1998.[1] In 2009, a linear arrangement of the system was published separately;[2] the APG IV paper includes such an arrangement, cross-referenced to the 2009 one.[1]

Compared to the APG III system, the APG IV system recognizes five new orders (Boraginales, Dilleniales, Icacinales, Metteniusales and Vahliales), along with some new families, making a total of 64 angiosperm orders and 416 families.[1] In general, the authors describe their philosophy as "conservative", based on making changes from APG III only where "a well-supported need" has been demonstrated. This has sometimes resulted in placements that are not compatible with published studies, but where further research is needed before the classification can be changed.[3]

Short version[edit]

Detailed version[edit]

Key to symbols used:

* = the family has been added or its circumscription changed since the APG III system of 2009
† = the order has been added since the APG III system

Basal angiosperms[edit]

Magnoliids[edit]

Independent lineage: unplaced to more inclusive clade[edit]

Monocots[edit]

Probable sister of eudicots[edit]

Eudicots[edit]

Core eudicots[edit]

Superrosids[edit]

Rosids[edit]

COM clade; placement uncertain[edit]

Rosids continued[edit]

Superasterids[edit]

Asterids[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Like the earlier APG systems, the APG IV revision is based on a phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms, as shown below.[4]

angiosperms


Amborellales




Nymphaeales




Austrobaileyales


Core angiosperms


Chloranthales


magnoliids



Magnoliales



Laurales





Piperales



Canellales





monocots


Acorales




Alismatales




Petrosaviales





Pandanales



Dioscoreales





Liliales




Asparagales


commelinids


Arecales




Poales




Commelinales



Zingiberales













Ceratophyllales


eudicots


Ranunculales




Proteales




Trochodendrales




Buxales


core eudicots

(continued)












core eudicots


Gunnerales


Pentapetalae


Dilleniales


superrosids


Saxifragales


rosids


Vitales



fabids


Zygophyllales





Fabales




Rosales




Fagales



Cucurbitales







Celastrales




Malpighiales



Oxalidales






malvids



Geraniales



Myrtales





Crossosomatales




Picramniales




Sapindales




Huerteales




Brassicales



Malvales











superasterids


Berberidopsidales




Santalales




Caryophyllales


asterids


Cornales




Ericales



campanulids


Aquifoliales




Asterales



Escalloniales




Bruniales




Apiales




Dipsacales



Paracryphiales







lamiids


Icacinales




Metteniusales




Garryales




Boraginales



Gentianales



Vahliales



Lamiales



Solanales














References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Batsch and Grisebach.