AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the US Public Health Service in 1968. In 1972, it was revised and issued as the second edition by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1985, the subsequent fourth edition was split into two volumes. Volume I includes stationary point and area source emission factors, and Volume II includes mobile source emission factors. Volume I is currently in its fifth edition and is available on the Internet. Volume II is no longer maintained as such, but roadway air dispersion models for estimating emissions from onroad vehicles and from non-road vehicles and mobile equipment are also available on the Internet.
In routine common usage, Volume I of the emission factor compilation is very often referred to as simply AP 42.
Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.
The equation for the estimation of emissions before emission reduction controls are applied is:
- E = A × EF
and for emissions after reduction controls are applied:
- E = A × EF × (1-ER/100)
|E||= emissions, in units of pollutant per unit of time|
|A||= activity rate, in units of weight, volume, distance, or duration per unit of time|
|EF||= emission factor, in units of pollutant per unit of weight, volume, distance, or duration|
|ER||= overall emission reduction efficiency, in %|
Chapters in AP 42, Volume I, Fifth Edition
|Chapter 1||External Combustion Sources|
|Chapter 2||Solid Waste Disposal|
|Chapter 3||Stationary Internal Combustion Sources|
|Chapter 4||Evaporation Loss Sources|
|Chapter 5||Petroleum Industry|
|Chapter 6||Organic Chemical Process Industry|
|Chapter 7||Liquid Storage Tanks|
|Chapter 8||Inorganic Chemical Industry|
|Chapter 9||Food and Agricultural Industries|
|Chapter 10||Wood Products Industry|
|Chapter 11||Mineral Products Industry|
|Chapter 12||Metallurgical Industry|
|Chapter 13||Miscellaneous Sources|
|Chapter 14||Greenhouse Gas Biogenic Sources|
|Chapter 15||Ordnance Detonation|
|Appendix A||Miscellaneous Data & Conversion Factors|
|| Particle Size Distribution Data and Sized Emission Factors
for Selected Sources
|Appendix B.2||Generalized Particle Size Distributions|
|Appendix C.1||Procedures for Sampling Surface/Bulk Dust Loading|
|| Procedures for Laboratory Analysis of Surface/Bulk Dust
Chapter 5, Section 5.1 "Petroleum Refining" discusses the air pollutant emissions from the equipment in the various refinery processing units as well as from the auxiliary steam-generating boilers, furnaces and engines, and Table 5.1.1 includes the pertinent emission factors. Table 5.1.2 includes the emission factors for the fugitive air pollutant emissions from the large wet cooling towers in refineries and from the oil/water separators used in treating refinery wastewater.
The fugitive air pollutant emission factors from relief valves, piping valves, open-ended piping lines or drains, piping flanges, sample connections, and seals on pump and compressor shafts are discussed and included the report EPA-458/R-95-017, "Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates" which is included in the Chapter 5 section of AP 42. That report includes the emission factors developed by the EPA for petroleum refineries and for the synthetic organic chemical industry (SOCMI).
In most cases, the emission factors in Chapter 5 are included for both uncontrolled conditions before emission reduction controls are implemented and controlled conditions after specified emission reduction methods are implemented.
Chapter 7 "Liquid Storage Tanks" is devoted to the methodology for calculating the emissions losses from the six basic tank designs used for organic liquid storage: fixed roof (vertical and horizontal), external floating roof, domed external (or covered) floating roof, internal floating roof, variable vapor space, and pressure (low and high). The methodology in Chapter 7 was developed by the American Petroleum Institute in collaboration with the EPA.
The EPA has developed a software program named "TANKS" which performs the Chapter 7 methodology for calculating emission losses from storage tanks. The program's installer file along with a user manual, and the source code are available on the Internet.
Chapters 5 and 7 discussed above are illustrative of the type of information contained in the other chapters of AP 42. It should also be noted that many of the fugitive emission factors in Chapter 5 and the emissions calculation methodology in Chapter 7 and the TANKS program also apply to many other industrial categories besides the petroleum industry.
Other sources of emission factors
- The Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Manual, Version 1.7, Oct 2010.
- United Kingdom's emission factor database.
- European Environment Agency's 2007 Emission Inventory Guidebook.
- Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (reference manual).
- Fugitive emissions leaks from ethylene and other chemical plants.
- Australian National Pollutant Inventory Emissions Estimation Technique Manuals.
- Canadian GHG Inventory Methodologies.
- Sangea - American Petroleum Institute Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies.
- Mining Association Of Canada Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies.