Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2, also known as Mop9, Bmal2, Clif, or Arntl2, is a gene.
Arntl2 is a paralog to Arntl, which are both homologs of the Drosophila Cycle. Homologs were also isolated in fish, birds and mammals such as mice and humans. Based on phylogenetic analyses, it was proposed that Arntl2 arose from duplication of the Arntl gene early in the vertebrate lineage, followed by rapid divergence of the Arntl gene copy. The protein product of the gene interacts with both CLOCK and NPAS2 to bind to E-box sequences in regulated promoters and activate their transcription. Although Arntl2 is not required for normal function of the mammalian circadian oscillator, it may play an important role in mediating the output of the circadian clock. Perhaps because of this, there is relatively little published literature on the role of Arntl2 in regulation of physiology.
In over expression studies, ARNTL2 protein forms a heterodimer with CLOCK to regulate E-box sequences in the Pai-1 promoter. Recent work suggest that this interaction may be in concert with ARNTL/CLOCK heterodimeric complexes.
^ abcHogenesch JB, Gu YZ, Moran SM, et al. (2000). "The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9 is a brain-specific heterodimeric partner of circadian and hypoxia factors". J. Neurosci. 20 (13): RC83. PMID10864977.
^Ikeda M, Yu W, Hirai M, et al. (2000). "cDNA cloning of a novel bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily gene, BMAL2: its mRNA expression, subcellular distribution, and chromosomal localization". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275 (2): 493–502. PMID10964693. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3248.
^ abMaemura K, de la Monte SM, Chin MT, et al. (2000). "CLIF, a novel cycle-like factor, regulates the circadian oscillation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (47): 36847–51. PMID11018023. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000629200.
^Hung MS, Avner P, Rogner UC (2006). "Identification of the transcription factor ARNTL2 as a candidate gene for the type 1 diabetes locus Idd6". Hum. Mol. Genet. 15 (18): 2732–42. PMID16893914. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl209.
^Schoenhard JA, Smith LH, Painter CA, Eren M, Johnson CH, Vaughan DE (2003). "Regulation of the PAI-1 promoter by circadian clock components: differential activation by BMAL1 and BMAL2". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 35 (5): 473–81. PMID12738229. doi:10.1016/S0022-2828(03)00051-8.