Type 1 tumor necrosis factor receptor shedding aminopeptidase regulator, also known as endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ARTS-1), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ARTS-1gene.
Endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1 is active in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in protein processing and transport. This protein is an aminopeptidase, which is an enzyme that cleaves other proteins into smaller fragments called peptides.
ERAP1 has two major functions in the immune system:
First, ERAP1 cleaves several proteins called cytokine receptors on the surface of cells. Cleaving these receptors reduces their ability to transmit chemical signals into the cell, which affects the process of inflammation.
Second, ERAP1 trims peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum so that they can be loaded onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. These peptides are attached to MHC class I in the endoplasmic reticulum and exported to the cell surface, where they are displayed to the immune system. If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by triggering the infected cell to self-destruct.
The protein encoded by this gene is an aminopeptidase involved in trimming HLA class I-binding precursors so that they can be presented on MHC class I molecules. The encoded protein acts as a monomer or as a heterodimer with ERAP2. This protein may also be involved in blood pressure regulation by inactivation of angiotensin II. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene.
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