ASEAN–China Free Trade Area
|China–ASEAN Free Trade Area|
ASEAN–China Free Trade Area
|Vietnamese alphabet||Khu vực mậu dịch tự do Trung Quốc – ASEAN|
|Indonesian||Kawasan Perdagangan Bebas ASEAN-Cina|
The ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA), also known as China–ASEAN Free Trade Area is a free trade area among the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the People's Republic of China. The initial framework agreement was signed on 4 November 2002 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with the intention to establish a free trade area among the eleven nations by 2010. The free trade area came into effect on 1 January 2010. The ASEAN–China Free Trade Area is the largest free trade area in terms of population and third largest in terms of nominal GDP.
ASEAN members and the People's Republic of China had a combined nominal gross domestic product of approximately US$6 trillion in 2008. The free trade area had the third largest trade volume after the European Economic Area and the North American Free Trade Area.
(2008 unless noted)
(bln USD, 2008, IMF)
|Brunei Darussalam||Bandar Seri Begawan||5,765||490,000||19.7||dollar||Malay|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||329,847||28,200,000||221.6||ringgit||Malay, Mandarin, English, Tamil|
|181.9||dollar||Malay, Mandarin, English, Tamil|
|People's Republic of China||Beijing||9,640,821||1,338,612,968
Members of ASEAN have a combined population of more than 580 million.
Indonesia accounts for more than 40 percent of the region's population, and its people have voiced the greatest amount of opposition to the agreement. Several days following the implementation of the free trade area, it announced plans to renegotiate tariffs on 228 product categories. In exchange, Indonesia would accelerate implementation of the agreement on 153 categories.
People's Republic of China
China first proposed the idea of a free trade area in November 2000. It had overtaken the United States as the third largest trading partner of ASEAN, after Japan and the European Union, when the free trade area came into effect. Between 2003 and 2008, trade with ASEAN grew from US$59.6 billion to US$192.5 billion. China's transformation into a major economic power in the 21st century has led to an increase of foreign investments in the bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties. China is also the world's largest exporter.
Leaders of ASEAN and China, during a meeting in Singapore in November 2000, decided to explore measures aimed at economic integration within the region. In Brunei the following year, they endorsed the establishment of an ASEAN–China Free Trade Area.
- Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei Darussalam
- Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia
- Megawati Soekarnoputri, President of Indonesia
- Bounnhang Vorachith, Prime Minister of Laos
- Mahathir bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia
- Than Shwe, Prime Minister of Myanmar
- Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, President of the Philippines
- Goh Chok Tong, Prime Minister of Singapore
- Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister of Thailand
- Phan Văn Khải, Prime Minister of Vietnam
- Zhu Rongji, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
Amendments for the framework of the free trade area mostly concerned Vietnam. These amendments were designed to assist Vietnam lower tariffs and put forth dates as guidelines.
Negotiations on upgrading the Free Trade Area are expected to conclude in 2015. The upgrade will allow more goods to be traded tariff free and normalize procedures for services, investment, and customs.
The free trade agreement reduced tariffs on 7,881 product categories, or 90 percent of imported goods, to zero. This reduction took effect in China and the six original members of ASEAN: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The remaining four countries will follow suit in 2015. The average tariff rate on Chinese goods sold in ASEAN countries decreased from 12.8 to 0.6 percent on 1 January 2010 pending implementation of the free trade area by the remaining ASEAN members. Meanwhile, the average tariff rate on ASEAN goods sold in China decreased from 9.8 to 0.1 percent.
- ASEAN Free Trade Area
- Chiang Mai Initiative
- Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia
- Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (between ROC and PRC)
- List of free trade agreements
- ASEAN–India Free Trade Area (AIFTA)
- Bamboo network
- Nanning-Singapore Economic Corridor
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- equivalent to US$11.4 trillion by PPP in 2008
- Brown, Kevin (1 January 2010). "Biggest regional trade deal unveiled". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
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- Wattanapruttipaisan, Thitapha (April 2003). "ASEAN—China Free Trade Area: Advantages, Challenges, and Implications for the Newer ASEAN Member Countries". ASEAN Economic Bulletin (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies) 20 (1): 31 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (. ))
- "Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-Operation Between the Association of South East Asian Nations and the People's Republic of China". ASEAN. 6 October 2003. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "ASEAN-6 zero tariffs take effect immediately". The Jakarta Post. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
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- Li, Qiaoyi (30 December 2009). "New Year, new ASEAN free trade bloc". Global Times. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
- Dyer, Ellie; Kunmakara, May (1 January 2010). "With new year, Kingdom joins world's largest FTA". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "Zero tariffs for ASEAN-6 starting". The China Post. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Documents on the ASEAN–China Free Trade Area
- ASEAN-China Free Trade Area Business Portal
- China's official CAFTA website (Chinese)
- Xinhua News Agency's CAFTA coverage (Chinese)
- China Asean Free Trade website (Chinese)