ASML Holding

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ASML Holding N.V.
TypeNaamloze vennootschap
IndustrySemiconductor industry
Founded1984; 38 years ago (1984)
HeadquartersVeldhoven, Netherlands
Key people
Peter Wennink (CEO)
Gerard Kleisterlee (Chairman of the supervisory board)
ProductsPhotolithography systems for the semiconductor industry
RevenueIncrease 18.61 billion (2021)[1]
Increase €5.88 billion (2021)[1]
Total assetsIncrease €30.23 billion (2021)[1]
Total equityDecrease €10.14 billion (2021)[1]
Number of employees
32,016 (December 2021)[1]
Footnotes / references
>14,000 patents (2021)

ASML Holding N.V. (commonly shortened to ASML and originally standing for "Advanced Semiconductor Materials Lithography") is a Dutch multinational corporation founded in 1984 and specializing in the development and manufacturing of photolithography systems, used to produce computer chips. Currently it is the largest supplier of photolithography systems primarily for the semiconductor industry and the sole supplier of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) photolithography machines in the world. ASML employs more than 31,000 people from 120 nationalities, relies on a vast network of more than 4,600 tier 1 suppliers and has offices in the Netherlands, the United States, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the United Kingdom, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.


The photolithography machines manufactured by ASML are used in the production of computer chips. In these machines, patterns are optically imaged onto a silicon wafer that is covered with a film of light-sensitive material (photoresist). This procedure is repeated dozens of times on a single wafer. The photoresist is then further processed to create the actual electronic circuits on the silicon. The optical imaging that ASML's machines deal with is used in the fabrication of nearly all integrated circuits, and as of 2010, ASML has 67 percent of the worldwide sales of lithography machines,[2] with the competition consisting of Ultratech, Canon and Nikon.

Immersion lithography[edit]

Immersion lithography was developed by Burn-Jeng Lin, and ASML cooperated with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing (TSMC) since then. TSMC began commercial production of 90 nanometer semiconductor nodes using ASML immersion lithography in 2004.[3] As of 2011, their high-end TWINSCAN NXT:1950i system is used for producing features down to 32 nanometres (and outlook for 22 nm) at up to 200 wafers per hour,[4] using a water immersion lens and an argon fluoride laser that produces light at a wavelength of 193 nm. As of 2011, an average lithography machine costs 27 million euros.[5]

EUV lithography[edit]

ASML manufactures extreme ultraviolet lithography machines that produce light in the 13.3–13.7 nm wavelength range. A high-energy laser is focused on microscopic droplets of molten tin to produce a plasma, which emits EUV light.

In 2009, the IMEC research center in Belgium produced the world's first functional 22 nm CMOS SRAM memory cells with a prototype EUV lithography machine.[6] Series-produced (non-prototype) EUV machines were shipped in 2011.[5]


In addition to immersion-based lithography and EUV lithography, ASML has a substantial intellectual property portfolio covering imprint lithography.[7]


ASML's corporate headquarters is in Veldhoven, Netherlands. It is also the location for research, development, manufacturing and assembly. ASML has a worldwide customer base and over sixty service points in sixteen countries. The company is listed on both the AEX and NASDAQ Stock Exchanges, as ASML. It is also a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 and NASDAQ-100.[8]

The company (originally named ASM Lithography, current name ASML, which is an official name and not an abbreviation)[9] was founded in 1984 as a joint venture between the Dutch companies Advanced Semiconductor Materials International (ASMI) and Philips. Nowadays it is a public company with only a minority of the shares owned by Philips, around 25%.[10] When the company became independent in 1988, it was decided that changing the name was not desirable, and the abbreviation ASML became the official company name.[11]

In 2000, ASML acquired the Silicon Valley Group (SVG), a US lithography equipment manufacturer, in a bid to supply 193 nm scanners to Intel Corp.[12][13]

ASML is subject to cyclical industrial dynamics. For example, at the end of 2008, ASML experienced a large drop in sales, which led management to cut the workforce by about 1000 worldwide—mostly contract workers[14]—and to apply for support from the Dutch national unemployment fund to prevent even larger layoffs.[15] Two and a half years later, ASML expected a record-high revenue.[16]

In July 2012, Intel announced a deal to invest $4.1 billion into ASML in exchange for 15% ownership, in order to speed up the transition from 300 mm to 450 mm wafers and further development of EUV lithography.[17][18] This deal is without exclusive rights to future ASML products and, as of July 2012, ASML is offering another 10% of the shares to other companies.[19] As part of their EUV strategy, ASML announced the acquisition of DUV and EUV sources manufacturer Cymer in October 2012.[20]

In November 2013, ASML paused development of 450 mm lithography equipment, citing uncertain timing of chipmaker demand.[21]

In 2015, ASML suffered intellectual property theft. A number of employees had been found stealing confidential data from its Silicon Valley software subsidiary that develops software for machine optimization.[22]

In June 2016, ASML announced their plans to acquire Taiwan-based Hermes Microvision Inc. for about $3.1 billion to add technology for creating smaller and more advanced semiconductors.[23]

In November 2020, ASML revealed that it had acquired the German optical-glassmaking firm Berliner Glas Group in order to meet the increasing need for componentry for its EUV systems.[24]

After reporting earnings in July 2021, the company said they had a near monopoly for machines used by TSMC and Samsung Electronics to make the advanced chips. The electronics manufacturers use Extreme ultraviolet lithography equipment to make the latest generations of chips.


Financial data in € billions[25]
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Revenue 5.245 5.856 6.287 6.795 9.053 10.944 11.820 13.979 18.611
Net Income 1.016 1.197 1.387 1.472 2.119 2.592 2.592 3.554 5.883
Assets 11.514 12.204 13.295 17.206 18.196 20.137 22.630 27.267 30.231
Employees 10,360 11,318 12,168 13,991 16,219 20,044 23,219 26,614 29,861


  1. ^ a b c d e "ASML 2021 Annual Report" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  2. ^ ASML: Sustainability - performance and targets Archived 14 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine. (2011)
  3. ^ "90 nm Technology". TSMC. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  4. ^ ASML Enhances NXT:1950i to Meet Challenging Imaging and Overlay Requirements and Provide a Cost Effective Platform for 22nm Archived 5 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Press release, 12 July 2011.
  5. ^ a b Third quarter 2011 results Archived 5 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ASML press release.
  6. ^ IMEC presents functional 22 nm SRAM cells fabricated using EUV technology Archived 1 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. IMEC press release, 22 April 2009.
  7. ^ For example, U. S. Patents 7618250, 7692771 and U. S. Patent Applications 20070018360, 20100193994.
  8. ^ "Frankfurt Stock Exchange". Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  9. ^ "About ASML: Questions and Answers". ASML Holding. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  10. ^ "ASML corporate history". Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  11. ^ "ASML: About ASML". 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ ASML Takes Action to Adjust Its Organization Due to Severe Order Slowdown Archived 15 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine Press release.
  15. ^ Chip-Equipment Firm ASML Cuts Outlook, Sets Layoffs Archived 25 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine., 19 December 2008.
  16. ^ ASML Sees Record Year Archived 25 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Wall Street Journal, April 2011.
  17. ^ ASML wins funds for chip technology from Intel Archived 1 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters, 10 July 2012.
  18. ^ ASML Announces Customer Co-Investment Program Aimed at Accelerating Innovation Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ASML Press release, 9 July 2012.
  19. ^ "Intel funds next-gen chipmaking, buys into ASML for $4.1 billion". Reuters. 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  20. ^ [1] Archived 8 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine ASML Press release, 17 October 2012
  21. ^ "ASML 2013 Annual Report Form (20-F)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. 11 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2017. In November 2013, following our customers' decision, ASML decided to pause the development of 450 mm lithography systems until customer demand and the timing related to such demand is clear.
  22. ^ Deutsch, Toby Sterling, Anthony (11 April 2019). "ASML says it suffered intellectual property theft, rejects 'Chinese' label". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  23. ^ Ian King, Bloomberg. "ASML to Acquire Taiwan's Hermes Microvision for $3.1 Billion Archived 4 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine." 15 June 2016. 16 June 2016.
  24. ^ "ASML acquisition of Berliner Glas Group completed". Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  25. ^ "ASML Dividende | KGV | Bilanz | Umsatz | Gewinn". (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2022.

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