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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases ATG12, APG12, APG12L, FBR93, HAPG12, autophagy related 12
External IDs MGI: 1914776 HomoloGene: 37953 GeneCards: 9140
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ATG12 204833 at tn.png

PBB GE ATG12 213026 at tn.png

PBB GE ATG12 213930 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 115.83 – 115.84 Mb Chr 18: 46.73 – 46.74 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Autophagy-related protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATG12 gene.[1][2]

Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998).[supplied by OMIM][2]

Autophagy requires the covalent attachment of the protein Atg12 to ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugation system. The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate then promotes the conjugation of ATG8 to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine.[3]

Atg12 was found to be involved in apoptosis. This protein promotes apoptosis through an interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.[4]


  1. ^ Mizushima N, Sugita H, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y (Jan 1999). "A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy". J Biol Chem 273 (51): 33889–33892. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.51.33889. PMID 9852036. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ATG12 ATG12 autophagy related 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)". 
  3. ^ J. Geng, and D. J. Klionsky, 'The Atg8 and Atg12 Ubiquitin-Like Conjugation Systems in Macroautophagy. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' Review Series', EMBO Rep, 9 (2008), 859-64.
  4. ^ A. D. Rubinstein, M. Eisenstein, Y. Ber, S. Bialik, and A. Kimchi, 'The Autophagy Protein Atg12 Associates with Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Members to Promote Mitochondrial Apoptosis', Mol Cell, 44 (2011), 698-709

Further reading[edit]