|A Civil Action|
|Directed by||Steven Zaillian|
|Written by||Steven Zaillian|
|Based on||A Civil Action|
by Jonathan Harr
|Cinematography||Conrad L. Hall|
|Edited by||Wayne Wahrman|
|Music by||Danny Elfman|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures Distribution|
United International Pictures
|Box office||$56 million|
A Civil Action is a 1998 American legal drama film written and directed by Steven Zaillian, based on the 1995 book of the same name by Jonathan Harr. Starring John Travolta, Robert Duvall, James Gandolfini, Dan Hedaya, John Lithgow, William H. Macy, Kathleen Quinlan, and Tony Shalhoub, it tells the true story of a court case about environmental pollution that took place in Woburn, Massachusetts in the 1980s. The film and court case revolve around the issue of trichloroethylene, an industrial solvent, and its contamination of a local aquifer. A lawsuit was filed over industrial operations that appeared to have caused fatal cases of leukemia and cancer, as well as a wide variety of other health problems, among the citizens of the city. The case involved is Anne Anderson, et al., v. Cryovac, Inc., et al.. The first reported decision in the case is at 96 F.R.D. 431 (denial of defendants' motion to dismiss). Duvall was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance.
Environmental toxicants in the city of Woburn, Massachusetts contaminate the area's water supply and become linked to a number of deaths of local children. Cocky Boston attorney Jan Schlichtmann and his small firm of personal injury lawyers are asked by Woburn resident Anne Anderson to take legal action against those responsible. After originally rejecting a seemingly unprofitable case, Jan finds a major environmental issue involving groundwater contamination that has great legal potential and realizes the local tanneries could be responsible for several deadly cases of leukemia. Jan decides to go forward against two giant corporations which own the tanneries—Beatrice Foods and W. R. Grace and Company—thinking that the case could possibly earn him millions and boost his firm's reputation.
Bringing a class action lawsuit in federal court, Jan represents families who demand an apology and a clean-up of contaminated areas. However, the case develops a life of its own and takes over the lives of Jan and his firm. The lawyers for Beatrice and Grace are not easy to intimidate, a judge makes a key ruling against the plaintiffs, and soon Jan and his partners find themselves in a position where their professional and financial survival has been staked on the outcome of the case. Jan stubbornly declines settlement offers, gradually coming to believe that the case is about more than just money. He allows his pride to take over, making outrageous demands and deciding that he must win at all costs. Pressures take their toll, with Jan and his partners going deeply into debt.
After a lengthy trial, the case is dismissed in favor of Beatrice, after Jan turned down an offer of $20 million from Beatrice attorney Jerry Facher during jury deliberations. The plaintiffs are forced to accept a settlement with Grace that barely covers the expense involved in trying the case, leaving Jan and his partners broke. The families are deeply disappointed, and Jan's partners dissolve their partnership, effectively breaking up the firm. Jan ends up alone, living in a small apartment and running a small-time law practice. He manages to find the last key witness to the case, but lacks resources and courage to appeal the judgement. The files are archived while Jan later files for bankruptcy.
A postscript reveals that the EPA, building on Jan's work on the case, later brought its own enforcement action against Beatrice and Grace, forcing them to pay millions to clean up the land and the groundwater. It takes Jan several years to settle his debts, and he now practices environmental law in New Jersey.
- John Travolta as Jan Schlichtmann
- Robert Duvall as Jerry Facher
- William H. Macy as James Gordon
- Tony Shalhoub as Kevin Conway
- Kathleen Quinlan as Anne Anderson
- Željko Ivanek as Bill Crowley
- Bruce Norris as William Cheeseman
- Peter Jacobson as Neil Jacobs
- John Lithgow as Judge Walter J. Skinner
- Dan Hedaya as John Riley
- James Gandolfini as Al Love
- Stephen Fry as Dr. George F. Pinder
- Sydney Pollack as Al Eustis
- David Thornton as Richard Aufiero
- Daniel von Bargen as Mr. Granger
- Paul Ben-Victor as Bobby Pasqueriella
- Ned Eisenberg as Uncle Pete
- Mary Mara as Kathy Boyer
- Denise Dowse as Judge Constance Mullen
Kathy Bates appears in an uncredited cameo in the final scene as the judge overseeing Jan's bankruptcy hearing.
The movie was shot in Boston, Massachusetts; Dedham, Massachusetts; Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Waltham, Massachusetts; Northbridge, Massachusetts; Palmer, Massachusetts; Fenway Park; Boston Public Garden; and Beacon Hill, Boston.
Despite showing promise on its initial limited release, A Civil Action was a box office failure on wide release, earning a domestic gross of $56 million against its $75 million budget. The film was released in competition with a number of films that became hits, earning between $120 and $290 million each, including Shakespeare in Love, The Prince of Egypt, Star Trek: Insurrection, You've Got Mail, Stepmom and Patch Adams.
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On Rotten Tomatoes, A Civil Action has an approval rating of 62% based on reviews from 71 critics. The site's consensus called the film "Intelligent and unconventional." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 68 out of 100, based on reviews from 26 critics. Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film a grade B on scale of A to F.
- "A CIVIL ACTION (1998)". NewEnglandFilm.com. 15 May 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Welkos, Robert W. (1998-12-29). "'Patch Adams' Just What Holiday Ordered". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- "A Civil Action". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
- "A Civil Action". Metacritic.
- "Cinemascore". Archived from the original on 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
- Ebert, Roger (January 8, 1999). "A Civil Action movie review & film summary (1999)". Chicago Sun-Times.
- A Civil Action at IMDb
- A Civil Action at AllMovie
- A Civil Action at the TCM Movie Database
- A Civil Action at the American Film Institute Catalog
- A Civil Action at Box Office Mojo
- A Civil Action: Before the book and before the film (early newspaper articles by reporter Charles C. Ryan)
- Beyond A Civil Action hosted by W. R. Grace & Co.
- In Toxic Tort Litigation, Truth Lies at the Bottom of a Bottomless Pit by Eric Asimow, Picturing Justice: The On-Line Journal of Law & Popular Culture, February 1999
- Anderson v. Beatrice Foods Index and copies of every pleading filed in the Woburn suit, maintained by Florida State University College of Law