A Fistful of Dollars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Fistful of Dollars
Italian theatrical release poster
ItalianPer un pugno di dollari
Directed bySergio Leone
Based onYojimbo
by Akira Kurosawa
Ryūzō Kikushima
(both uncredited)
Produced byArrigo Colombo
Giorgio Papi[1]
CinematographyMassimo Dallamano[1]
Edited byRoberto Cinquini[1]
Music byEnnio Morricone
Distributed by
  • Unidis (Italy)
  • Constantin Film (West Germany)
  • Izaro Films (Spain)
Release dates
  • 12 September 1964 (1964-09-12) (Italy)
  • 5 March 1965 (1965-03-05) (West Germany)
  • 27 September 1965 (1965-09-27) (Spain)
Running time
99 minutes[1]
Box office$19.9 million

A Fistful of Dollars (Italian: Per un pugno di dollari) is a 1964 spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood in his first leading role, alongside Gian Maria Volonté, Marianne Koch, Wolfgang Lukschy, Sieghardt Rupp, José Calvo, Antonio Prieto and Joseph Egger.[4] The film, an international co-production between Italy, West Germany and Spain, was filmed on a low budget (reported to be $200,000), and Eastwood was paid $15,000 for his role.[5]

Released in Italy in 1964 and in the United States in 1967, the film initiated the popularity of the spaghetti Western genre. It was followed by For a Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, both also starring Eastwood. Collectively, the films are known as the Dollars Trilogy, or the Man with No Name Trilogy, after the United Artists publicity campaign referred to Eastwood's character in all three films as the "Man with No Name". All three films were released in sequence in the United States in 1967, catapulting Eastwood into stardom.[6]

The film has been identified as an unofficial remake of the Akira Kurosawa film, Yojimbo (1961), which resulted in a successful lawsuit by Toho, Yojimbo's production company.[7] Kurosawa wrote to Leone directly, saying, "Signor Leone, I have just had the chance to see your film. It is a very fine film, but it is my film. Since Japan is a signatory of the Berne Convention on the international copyright, you must pay me." He and Toho received 15% of the film's revenue, and it is believed that Kurosawa earned more money from the financial settlement than he had made on his own film, Yojimbo.[8]

Few spaghetti Westerns had been released in the United States at the time, so many of the European cast and crew adopted American-sounding stage names. These included Leone ("Bob Robertson"), Gian Maria Volonté ("Johnny Wels") and composer Ennio Morricone ("Dan Savio"). A Fistful of Dollars was shot in Spain, mostly near Hoyo de Manzanares[9] close to Madrid, but also (like its two sequels) in the Tabernas Desert and in the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, both in the province of Almería.


An unnamed stranger[N 1] arrives at the little town of San Miguel, on the Mexico–United States border. Silvanito, the town's innkeeper, tells the Stranger about a feud between two smuggler families vying to gain control of the town: the Rojo brothers (Don Miguel, Esteban & Ramón), and the family comprising the town sheriff, John Baxter, his matriarchal wife, Consuelo, and their son, Antonio. To make money, the Stranger decides to play these families against each other. He demonstrates his deadliness to both sides by shooting four men with ease, including the three who insulted him as he entered the town.

The Stranger witnesses the Rojos massacre a detachment of Mexican soldiers escorting a chest of gold (to exchange for rifles) and comes up with a plan. He takes two of the dead bodies to a nearby cemetery and props them up to make them appear alive. He sells information to both factions, claiming two Mexican soldiers survived the attack. Each faction races to the cemetery, the Baxters to get the supposed survivors to testify against the Rojos, and the Rojos to silence them. They engage in a gunfight, with Ramón "killing" the supposed survivors and Esteban capturing Antonio Baxter.

While the Rojos and the Baxters are fighting, the Stranger searches the Rojo hacienda for the gold, and accidentally knocks out a woman, Marisol. He takes her to the Baxters, who arrange to return her to the Rojos in exchange for Antonio. During the hostage exchange, Marisol's son and husband approach her. Ramón orders one of his men, Rubio, to kill Marisol's husband, Julio, but he is deterred by Silvanito and the Stranger. The Stranger orders Marisol to go back to Ramón, and her husband to take their son home. He learns from Silvanito that Ramón accused Julio of cheating during a card game and took Marisol as collateral.

That night, while the Rojos are celebrating, the Stranger kills the guards, frees Marisol, and wrecks the house where she was held to create the appearance of an attack by the Baxters. He gives money to Marisol and urges her family to leave town.

The Rojos eventually discover that it was the Stranger who freed Marisol. They capture and torture him, but he escapes. Believing that he is protected by the Baxters, the Rojos set fire to the Baxter home, massacring everyone, including the women and children, as they flee the burning building. With help from the local coffinmaker named Piripero, the Stranger escapes town by hiding in a coffin, and recuperates in an abandoned mine.

When Piripero tells him that Silvanito has been captured and tortured by the Rojos for the Stranger's whereabouts, he returns to town to confront them. With a steel chest plate hidden beneath his poncho, he taunts Ramón to "aim for the heart" as Ramón's shots deflect until Ramón exhausts his Winchester rifle's ammunition. The Stranger shoots the weapon from Ramón's hand and kills Don Miguel, Rubio and the other Rojo men standing nearby. He uses the last shot to free Silvanito, who is hanging from a rope by his hands.

After challenging Ramón to reload his rifle faster than he can reload his revolver, the Stranger shoots and kills him. Esteban Rojo aims for the Stranger's back from a nearby building, but is shot dead by Silvanito. The Stranger bids Silvanito and Piripero farewell, and rides away from town.


Additional cast members include Antonio Moreno as Juan De Dios, Nino del Arco as Jesus, Enrique Santiago as Fausto, Umberto Spadaro as Miguel, Fernando Sánchez Polack as Vicente, and José Riesgo as the Mexican cavalry captain. Members of the Baxter gang include Luis Barboo, Frank Braña, Antonio Molino Rojo, Lorenzo Robledo and William R. Thompkins. Members of the Rojo gang include José Canalejas, Álvaro de Luna, Nazzareno Natale and Antonio Pica.


A Fistful of Dollars was originally called Il Magnifico Straniero ("The Magnificent Stranger"), before the title was changed to A Fistful of Dollars.[10]

The production and development of A Fistful of Dollars, from anecdotes, was described by Italian film historian, Roberto Curti, as both contradictory and difficult to decipher.[11] Following the release of Akira Kurosawa's Yojimbo in 1963 in Italy, Sergio Corbucci claimed that he told Leone to make the film after viewing it with friends, and suggesting it to Enzo Barboni.[11] Tonino Valerii alternatively said that Barboni and Stelvio Massi met Leone outside a theater in Rome where they had seen Yojimbo, suggesting to Leone that it would make a good Western.[11] Actor and friend of Leone, Mimmo Palmara, told a similar story to Valerii, saying that Barboni had told him about Yojimbo, and he would see it the next day with Leone and his wife, Carla.[11][12] Following their screening, they discussed how it could be applied to a Western setting.[12]

Adriano Bolzoni stated in 1978 that he had the idea of making Yojimbo into a Western, and brought the idea to Franco Palaggi, who sent Bolzoni with Duccio Tessari to watch the film and take notes on it.[12] Bolzoni said that both he and Tessari wrote a first draft, which moved on to Leone, noting that Tessari wrote the majority of the script.[12]

Fernando di Leo also claimed authorship of the script, saying that both A Fistful of Dollars and For a Few Dollars More were written by him and Tessari, and not Luciano Vincenzoni.[12] Di Leo claimed that after Leone had the idea for the film, Tessari wrote the script and he gave him a hand.[12] Di Leo would repeat this story in an interview, saying that he was at the first meetings of Tessari and Leone discussing what kind of film to make from Yojimbo.[12] Di Leo noted that Leone did not like the first draft of the script, which led to him to drastically rewrite it with Tessari.[12] Production papers for the film credit Spanish and German writers, but these were added to play into coproduction standards during this period of filmmaking, to get more financing from the Spanish and West German companies.[12] Leone would suggest that he wrote the entire screenplay, based on Tessari's treatment.[12]

Originally, Sergio Leone intended Henry Fonda to play the "Man with No Name".[13] However, the production company could not afford to employ a major Hollywood star. Next, Leone offered the part to Charles Bronson. He, too, declined, arguing that the script was bad. Both Fonda and Bronson would eventually star in Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West. Other actors who turned down the role were Henry Silva, Rory Calhoun, Tony Russel,[14] Steve Reeves, Ty Hardin and James Coburn.[15][16][17][18] Leone turned his attention to Richard Harrison, an expatriate American actor who had recently starred in the Italian Western, Duello nel Texas. Harrison, however, had not been impressed with his experience in that film, and refused. The producers presented a list of available, lesser-known American actors and asked Harrison for advice. Harrison suggested Eastwood, who he knew could play a cowboy convincingly.[19] Harrison would state, "Maybe my greatest contribution to cinema was not doing A Fistful of Dollars and recommending Clint for the part."[20] Eastwood would speak about transitioning from a television Western to A Fistful of Dollars: "In Rawhide, I did get awfully tired of playing the conventional white hat... the hero who kisses old ladies and dogs and was kind to everybody. I decided it was time to be an antihero."[21]

Eastwood said that he had a similar idea for adapting Yojimbo into a Western a few years earlier in Los Angeles, when a friend who was a fan of samurai cinema took him to watch Yojimbo at a Western Avenue theater that ran Japanese films. Eastwood recalled that he "remembered sitting there" and saying, "Boy, this would be a great western if only someone had nerve enough to do it, but they'd never have enough nerve." A few years later, after someone handed him the script for A Fistful of Dollars, "about five or 10 pages in" he "recognized it as an obvious rip-off" of Yojimbo, which he found ironic.[22]

A Fistful of Dollars was an Italian, German and Spanish coproduction, so there was a significant language barrier on set. Leone did not speak English,[23] and Eastwood communicated with the Italian cast and crew mostly through actor and stuntman, Benito Stefanelli, who also acted as an uncredited interpreter for the production, and would later appear in Leone's other pictures. Similar to other Italian films shot at the time, all footage was filmed silent, and the dialogue and sound effects were dubbed in post-production.[24] For the Italian version of the film, Eastwood was dubbed by stage and screen actor, Enrico Maria Salerno, whose sinister rendition of the Man with No Name's voice contrasted with Eastwood's cocksure and darkly humorous interpretation.[25]

Visual style[edit]

A Fistful of Dollars became the first film to exhibit Leone's distinctive style of visual direction. This was influenced by both John Ford's cinematic landscaping and the Japanese method of direction honed by Akira Kurosawa. Leone wanted an operatic feel to his Western, so there are many examples of extreme closeups of the faces of different characters, functioning like arias in a traditional opera. The rhythm, emotion and communication within scenes can be attributed to Leone's meticulous framing of his closeups.[26] Leone's closeups are akin to portraits, often lit with Renaissance-type lighting effects, and are considered by some as pieces of design in their own right.[27]

Eastwood was instrumental in creating the Man with No Name's distinctive visual style. He bought black jeans from a sports shop on Hollywood Boulevard; the hat came from a Santa Monica wardrobe firm; and the trademark cigars from a Beverly Hills store.[28] He also brought props from Rawhide, including a Cobra-handled Colt, a gunbelt and spurs.[29] The poncho was acquired in Spain.[30] It was Leone and costume designer, Carlo Simi, who decided on the Spanish poncho for the Man with No Name.[29] On the DVD commentary for The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, it is said that although Eastwood is a nonsmoker, he felt that the foul taste of the cigar in his mouth put him in the right frame of mind for his character. Leone reportedly took quickly to Eastwood's distinctive style, and commented, "More than an actor, I needed a mask, and Eastwood, at that time, only had two expressions: with hat and no hat."[31]

Title design[edit]

Iginio Lardani created the film's title design.[32]


The film's music was written by Ennio Morricone, credited as Dan Savio.

Leone requested Morricone to write a theme that would be similar to Dimitri Tiomkin's El Degüello (used in Rio Bravo). Although the two themes are similar, Morricone stated that he used a lullaby that he had composed previously, and developed the theme from that. He added that what makes the two themes similar is the execution, not the arrangement.[33]

In 1962, expatriate American folk singer, Peter Tevis, recorded a version of Woody Guthrie's "Pastures of Plenty" that was arranged by Morricone. During a conference with Morricone discussing the music in the film, a recording of Tevis's Pastures of Plenty was played. Sergio Leone said, "That's it",[34] with Tevis claiming that the tune and musical arrangements were copied for the music for the opening title, "Titoli".

"Some of the music was written before the film, which is unusual," said Morricone. "Leone's films were made like that because he wanted the music to be an important part of it, and he often kept the scenes longer simply because he didn't want the music to end. That's why the films are so slow — because of the music."[35]

Although not used in the completed film, Peter Tevis recorded lyrics to Morricone's main theme for the film. As a movie tie-in to the American release, United Artists Records released a different set of lyrics to Morricone's theme, called Restless One, and recorded by Little Anthony and the Imperials.

Tracks (2006 GDM version)[36]

2."Quasi morto"1:40
3."Musica sospesa"1:02
4."Square dance"1:36
6."Consuelo Baxter"1:18
7."Doppi giochi"1:41
8."Per un pugno di dollari (1)"1:26
9."Scambio di prigionieri"0:55
13."Alla ricerca dell'evaso"1:22
14."Senza pietà"2:08
15."La reazione"2:36
16."Per un pugno di dollari (2)"1:49
17."Per un pugno di dollari (finale)"1:09
Total length:38:10

Certifications and sales[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/sales
France (SNEP)[37] Gold 100,000*
Worldwide 3,000,000[38]

* Sales figures based on certification alone.

Release and reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

Promoting A Fistful of Dollars was difficult, because no major distributor wanted to take a chance on a faux-Western and an unknown director. The film ended up being released in Italy 12 September 1964,[1] which was typically the worst month for sales.

Despite the initial negative reviews from Italian critics, the film's popularity spread at a grassroots level, and, over the film's theatrical release, it grossed 2.7 billion lire ($4,375,000) in Italy, more than any other Italian film to that point.[39][40] It sold admissions of 14,797,275 ticket sales in Italy.[41][42] The film also sold 4,383,331 tickets in France and 3,281,990 tickets in Spain,[43] earning a total of more than US$1 million grossed in international territories outside Italy and North America,[44] and 22,462,596 tickets sold in Europe.

The release of the film was delayed in the United States, because distributors feared being sued by Kurosawa. As a result, it was not shown in American cinemas until 18 January 1967.[45] The film grossed $4.5 million for the year.[39] In 1969, it was rereleased, earning $1.2 million in theatrical rentals.[46] It eventually grossed $14.5 million in the United States and Canada,[47] totaling more than $19.9 million grossed worldwide.

Critical response[edit]

The film was initially shunned by Italian critics, who gave it extremely negative reviews. Some American critics felt differently from their Italian counterparts, with Variety praising it as having "a James Bondian vigor and tongue-in-cheek approach that was sure to capture both sophisticates and average cinema patrons".[45]

On the film's American release in 1967, both Philip French and Bosley Crowther were unimpressed with the film itself. Critic Philip French of The Observer stated:

The calculated sadism of the film would be offensive were it not for the neutralizing laughter aroused by the ludicrousness of the whole exercise. If one didn't know the actual provenance of the film, one would guess that it was a private movie made by a group of rich European Western fans at a dude ranch... A Fistful of Dollars looks awful, has a flat dead soundtrack, and is totally devoid of human feeling.[48]

Bosley Crowther of The New York Times treated the film not as pastiche, but as camp-parody, stating that nearly every Western cliché could be found in this "egregiously synthetic but engrossingly morbid, violent film". He went on to patronize Eastwood's performance, stating: "He is simply another fabrication of a personality, half cowboy and half gangster, going through the ritualistic postures and exercises of each... He is a morbid, amusing, campy fraud."[49]

When the film was televised on the ABC network 23 February 1975,[50] a four-and-a-half-minute prologue was added to the film to contextualize the character and justify the violence. Written and directed by Monte Hellman, it featured an unidentified official (Harry Dean Stanton) offering the Man With No Name a chance at a pardon in exchange for cleaning up the mess in San Miguel. Closeups of Eastwood's face from archival footage are inserted into the scene alongside Stanton's performance.[51][52] This prologue opened television presentations for a few years before disappearing; it reappeared on the Special Edition DVD and the more recent Blu-ray, along with an interview with Monte Hellman about its production.[53][54]

The retrospective reception of A Fistful of Dollars has been much more positive, noting it as a hugely influential film in regard to the rejuvenation of the Western genre. Film historian, Howard Hughes, in his 2012 book, Once Upon a Time in the Italian West, reflected by stating, "American and British critics largely chose to ignore Fistful's release, few recognizing its satirical humor or groundbreaking style, preferring to trash the shoddy production values...."[55]

A Fistful of Dollars has achieved a 98% approval rating from 48 critical reviews on Rotten Tomatoes, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "With Akira Kurosawa's Yojimbo as his template, Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars helped define a new era for the Western and usher in its most iconic star, Clint Eastwood." It has also placed at number 8 on the site's "Top 100 Westerns".[56]

The 67th Cannes Film Festival, held in 2014, celebrated the "50th anniversary of the birth of the spaghetti Western... by showing A Fistful of Dollars".[57] Quentin Tarantino, in a press release prior to hosting the event, described the film as "the greatest achievement in the history of cinema".[57]

Legal dispute[edit]

The film was effectively an unofficial and unlicensed remake of Akira Kurosawa's 1961 film, Yojimbo (written by Kurosawa and Ryūzō Kikushima); Kurosawa insisted that Leone had made "a fine movie, but it was my movie".[58] This led to a lawsuit from Toho, Yojimbo's production company. Leone ignored the resulting lawsuit, but eventually settled out of court, reportedly for 15% of the worldwide receipts of A Fistful of Dollars and over $100,000.[59][60]

British critic, Sir Christopher Frayling, identifies three principal sources for A Fistful of Dollars: "Partly derived from Kurosawa's samurai film Yojimbo, partly from Dashiell Hammett's novel Red Harvest (1929), but most of all from Carlo Goldoni's eighteenth-century play Servant of Two Masters."[61] Leone cited those alternate sources in his defense. He claimed a thematic debt, for both Fistful and Yojimbo, to Carlo Goldoni's Servant of Two Masters — the basic premise of the protagonist playing two camps against each other. Leone asserted that this rooted the origination of Fistful/Yojimbo in European, and specifically, Italian, culture. The Servant of Two Masters's plot can also be seen in Hammett's detective novel, Red Harvest. The Continental Op hero of the novel is, significantly, a man without a name. Leone believed that Red Harvest had influenced Yojimbo: "Kurosawa's Yojimbo was inspired by an American novel of the series-noire so I was really taking the story back home again."[62]

Leone also referenced numerous American Westerns in the film, most notably Shane[63] and My Darling Clementine, both of which differ from Yojimbo.

Digital restoration[edit]

In 2014, the film was digitally restored by Cineteca di Bologna and Unidis Jolly Film for its Blu-ray debut and 50th anniversary. Frame-by-frame digital restoration by Prasad Corporation removed dirt, tears, scratches and other defects.[64][65] The directorial credit for Leone, which replaced the "Bob Robertson" card years ago, has been retained, but otherwise, the original credits (with pseudonyms, including "Dan Savio" for Morricone) remain the same.


  1. ^ The character, notably publicized as "the Man with No Name", is listed in the credits as "Joe" and is so called, in multiple instances, by the character Piripero; nevertheless, that may not be his real name.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Curti, Roberto (2016). Tonino Valerii: The Films. McFarland. p. 192. ISBN 978-1476626185.
  2. ^ a b c "Per un pugno di dollari". Lumiere. European Audiovisual Observatory. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  3. ^ Sources that refer to the budget of Fistful of Dollars include:
  4. ^ Variety film review; 18 November 1964, page 22.
  5. ^ "Ennio Morricone" by Jerry McCulley, essay in the 1995 CD "The Ennio Morricone Anthology", Rhino DRC2-1237
  6. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (2015). Clint: The Life and Legend (updated and revised). New York: OR Books. ISBN 978-1-939293-96-1.
  7. ^ Norman, Dalton (26 February 2023). "Every Movie Based On Akira Kurosawa's Yojimbo". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on 29 August 2023. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  8. ^ "Film Club: Yojimbo (1961)".
  9. ^ Caldito, Angel (3 September 2008). "Los primeros decorados del Oeste en España, en Hoyo de Manzanares" (in Spanish). Historias Matritenses. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  10. ^ Ciardiello, Joe (28 June 2014). "A 'Fistful' of cinematic history". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Curti, Roberto (2016). Tonino Valerii: The Films. McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 978-1476626185.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Curti, Roberto (2016). Tonino Valerii: The Films. McFarland. p. 26. ISBN 978-1476626185.
  13. ^ Frayling 2006, p. 141.
  14. ^ Barnum, Michael The Wild Wild Interview: Tony Russell Our Man On Gamma 1 Video Watchdog No. 128 Dec/Feb 2007
  15. ^ Hughes, p.3
  16. ^ "Steve Reeves Interview Pt 2". drkrm. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  17. ^ Carrerowbonanza, Jack (11 June 2004). "Relive the thrilling days of the Old West in film". Tahoe Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  18. ^ Williams, Tony (October 2003). "A Fistful of Dollars". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  19. ^ "Richard Harrison sur Nanarland TV" (in French). Nanarland TV. 18 September 2012. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  20. ^ "Entretien avec Richard Harrison (English version)". Nanarland. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  21. ^ Hughes, p.4
  22. ^ Turan, Kenneth (3 August 1992). "Eastwood says 'Unforgiven' could be his last western". The Paducah Sun. p. 58. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  23. ^ "More Than A Fistful of Interview: Christopher Frayling on Sergio Leone". Fistful of Leone. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  24. ^ Munn, p. 48
  25. ^ Christopher Frayling, For a Few Dollars More audio commentary. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  26. ^ Frayling 2006. p. 100
  27. ^ Sir Christopher Frayling, A Fistful of Dollars audio commentary (Blu-ray version). Retrieved on 15 September 2014.
  28. ^ Munn, p. 46
  29. ^ a b Hughes, p.5
  30. ^ Munn, p. 47
  31. ^ Mininni, Francesco. "Intervista: Sergio Leone". Cinema Del Silenzio (in Italian). Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  32. ^ "A Fistful of Dollars title sequence". Watch the Titles. Submarine Channel. 26 May 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  33. ^ Viva Leone!. BBC (Documentary). 1989.
  34. ^ Cumbow, Robert C. The Films of Sergio Leone Scarecrow Press, 15 February 2008
  35. ^ "Q&A - Ennio Morricone". The Observer. Guardian News and Media. 18 March 2007. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  36. ^ "GDM Music S.r.l." www.gdmmusic.com. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  37. ^ "French album certifications – Ennio Morricone – Pour Une Poignée De Dollars (B.O.F.)" (in French). InfoDisc. Retrieved 27 October 2021. Select ENNIO MORRICONE and click OK. 
  38. ^ "Ennio Morricone, music story". Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  39. ^ a b Hughes, p.7
  40. ^ "Top Italian Film Grossers". Variety. 11 October 1967. p. 33.
  41. ^ "La classifica dei film più visti di sempre al cinema in Italia". movieplayer.it. 25 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  42. ^ Monaco, Eitel (11 October 1967). "Italian Films Succeed Alone And With U.S.A.". Variety. p. 29.
  43. ^ "Per un pugno di dollari (A Fistful of Dollars) (1964)". JP's Box-Office (in French). Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  44. ^ Tashman, George (5 May 1978). "Piedmont's Claim to Fame". Berkeley Gazette. p. 11. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ a b McGillagan (1999), p.144
  46. ^ "Big Rental Films of 1969". Variety. 7 January 1970.
  47. ^ "A Fistful of Dollars (1967)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  48. ^ French, Philip (11 June 1967). "Under Western disguise". The Observer. Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  49. ^ Crowther, Bosley (2 February 1967). "Screen: 'A Fistful of Dollars' Opens; Western Film Cliches All Used in Movie Cowboy Star From TV Featured as Killer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
  50. ^ Merrick, Amy (24 August 2014). "A Fistful of Dollars Ad". The TV Guide Historian. Blogspot. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  51. ^ Stevens, Brad (2003). Monte Hellman: His Life and Films. McFarland. p. 200.
  52. ^ Chasman (5 July 1998). "A Fistful of Dollars Prologue". Fistful of Leone. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  53. ^ Sutton, Mike (10 April 2005). "A Fistful Of Dollars (Special Edition)". The Digital Fix. Poisonous Monkey. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  54. ^ Rich, Jamie S. (29 August 2011). "A Fistful of Dollars (Blu-ray)". DVD Talk. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  55. ^ Hughes, Howard (2006). Once Upon A Time in the Italian West: The Filmgoers' Guide to Spaghetti Westerns. I.B. Tauris & Co. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-85773-045-9.
  56. ^ "A Fistful of Dollars (Per un Pugno di Dollari) (1964)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  57. ^ a b Chilton, Martin. "A Fistful of Dollars to be shown at Cannes Film Festival". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  58. ^ Galbraith IV, Stuart (2001). The Emperor and the Wolf. New York: Faber and Faber. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  59. ^ Gelten, Simon. "FISTFUL - The Whole Story, part 2 - The Spaghetti Western Database". Spaghetti Western Database. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  60. ^ "A Fistful of Dollars and Yojimbo". Side B Magazine. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  61. ^ The BFI Companion to the Western, 1988.
  62. ^ Frayling 2006, p. 151.
  63. ^ Fridlund, Bert (2005). "Classical American Western and Spaghetti Western: A Comparison of Shane and A Fistful of Dollars". 2003 Film & History CD-ROM Annual. Cleveland: Film & History.
  64. ^ "Services: Digital Film Restoration". Prasad Group. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  65. ^ Kemp, Stuart (13 May 2014). "Cannes: Quentin Tarantino to Host Screening of 'A Fistful of Dollars'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]