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A Ghost Story for Christmas

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A Ghost Story for Christmas
The image is the title screen of the adaptation of "The Signalman". A lone traveller, wearing black Victorian travelling garments and silhouetted so that he cannot be identified, treads across green fields pockmarked by molehills. He is walking towards the camera. A slightly muggy, cloudy atmosphere pervades the image. The strand title "A Ghost Story" is superimposed over this in bold, white capital letters.
Title screen of The Signalman, the 1976 adaptation. Because this was the first non-James story, the strand's title appears on screen for the first time.
Created byLawrence Gordon Clark
Country of originUnited Kingdom
No. of episodes14 (8 in the original series and 6 in the revival series including upcoming 2019 episode).
Running time30–50 minutes
Original networkBBC
Picture formatcolour, 4:3 (original series)
colour, 16:9 (revival series)
Original release24 December 1971 –
25 December 1978
Related showsWhistle and I'll Come to You (1968)

A Ghost Story for Christmas is a strand of annual British short television films originally broadcast on BBC One between 1971 and 1978, and revived in 2005 on BBC Four.[1][2] With one exception, the original instalments were directed by Lawrence Gordon Clark and the films were all shot on 16 mm colour film.[3] The remit behind the series was to provide a television adaptation of a classic ghost story, in line with the oral tradition of telling supernatural tales at Christmas.[4]

Each instalment is a separate adaptation of a short story, ranges between 30 and 50 minutes in duration, and features well-known British actors such as Clive Swift, Robert Hardy, Peter Vaughan, Edward Petherbridge and Denholm Elliott. The first five are adaptations of ghost stories by M. R. James, the sixth is based on a short story by Charles Dickens, and the two final instalments are original screenplays by Clive Exton and John Bowen respectively.[5] The stories were titled A Ghost Story for Christmas in listings such as the Radio Times, although this did not appear on screen until ‘'The Signalman'’.[6]

An earlier black-and-white adaptation of M. R. James's Whistle and I'll Come to You, directed by Jonathan Miller and shown as part of the series Omnibus in 1968, is often cited as an influence upon the production of the films, and is sometimes included as part of the series.[1] The series was revived by the BBC in 2005 with a new set of ongoing adaptations, although the series has not been produced every year since.[7]



M. R. James in about 1900

The first five films are adaptations of stories from the four books by M. R. James published between 1904 and 1925.[8] The ghost stories of James, an English mediaeval scholar and Provost of Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, were originally narrated as Christmas entertainments to friends and selected students.[8][9]

The sixth film, The Signalman, is an adaptation of a story by Charles Dickens published in his magazine All the Year Round in 1866. In its original context it was one of eight stories set around the fictional Mugby Junction and its branch lines. It was inspired by the Staplehurst rail crash of June 1865, which Dickens himself survived, having attended to dying fellow passengers. He subsequently suffered panic disorders and flashbacks as a result.[10]

The final two stories were based on original screenplays, one by Clive Exton, who was an experienced television screenwriter, and the other by John Bowen, who was primarily known as a novelist and playwright,[11][12] but also had extensive television experience, including adapting The Treasure of Abbot Thomas earlier in the series.


In an interview in 1995 Lawrence Gordon Clark stated that the stories "focus on suggestion. The aim, they say, is to chill rather than shock. Partly because television is not best suited to carrying off big-screen pyrotechnics, but mainly because they want to keep faith with the notion of a ghost story in its literary rather than cinematic tradition."[13] Helen Wheatley notes that the best adaptations maintain the stories' "sense of decorum and restraint, ... withholding the full revelation of the supernatural until the very last moment, and centring on the suggestion of a ghostly presence rather than the horror of visceral excess and abjection."[14]

After the first two adaptations, both done by Clark, the tales were adapted by a number of playwrights and screenwriters. In most instances the adaptations alter the original source material. For example, A Warning to the Curious frequently deviates from its literary source. The screenplay avoids the convoluted plot structure of M. R. James's original, opting for a more linear construction and reducing the number of narrators. In addition the central character, Paxton, is changed from a young fair-haired innocent who stumbles across the treasure to a middle-aged character driven by poverty to seek the treasure and acting in full awareness of what he is doing.[9]

To take another example, in his screenplay for The Signalman Andrew Davies adds scenes of the traveller's nightmare-plagued nights at an inn, and reinforces the ambiguity of the traveller-narrator by restructuring the ending and matching his facial features with those of the spectre.[10] The film also makes use of visual and aural devices. For example, the appearance of the spectre is stressed by the vibrations of a bell in the signalbox and a recurring red motif connects the signalman's memories of a train crash with the danger light attended by a ghostly figure.[10]


Lawrence Gordon Clark had made his name as a BBC documentary director during the 1960s. The Stalls of Barchester was the first dramatic production he directed.[15] Clark recalled in an interview for the BFI's DVD release in 2012 that "the BBC at that time gave you the space to fail, and generously so too. They backed you up with marvellous technicians, art departments, film departments and so forth."[16]

I was itching to move into drama and knew I had exactly the source material I wanted. I'd discovered M.R. James at boarding school and loved him. So I met with Paul Fox, who was at the time Controller of BBC1. I brought a copy of M.R. James's Ghost Stories with me, with a bookmark stuck in "The Stalls of Barchester Cathedral". The fact that period drama always has been very popular at the BBC probably helped.[17]

Clark recalls that "Paul Fox gave us a tiny budget ... and we set out to do a full-blooded drama on location. Budgets were really tiny, and we shot for ten days and brought the film in for about 8,000 pounds."[16] Unusually for a BBC television drama of the 1970s, each instalment was filmed entirely on location using 16 mm film.[15] As a result, the cameraman John McGlashan, who filmed the first five adaptations, was able to make use of night shoots and dark, shadowy interiors, which would not have been possible with the then-standard video-based studio interiors.[18]

The filming of the adaptations took place at a variety of locations, although East Anglia, where M. R. James set many of his stories, was the location for early instalments. The Stalls of Barchester was filmed at Norwich Cathedral and in the surrounding close.[19] A Warning to the Curious was filmed on the coast of North Norfolk, at Waxham, Happisburgh and Wells-next-the-Sea, although the original story was set in "Seaburgh" (a disguised version of Aldeburgh, Suffolk).[20][21] Later locations include the Severn Valley Railway for The Signalman and Wells Cathedral for The Treasure of Abbot Thomas.[22][23]

Episode list[edit]

With the exception of the final film, the tales were directed by Lawrence Gordon Clark and produced by Rosemary Hill. The final episode was directed by Derek Lister.[24]

Title Author UK broadcast date Description Main cast
The Stalls of Barchester M. R. James, adapted by Lawrence Gordon Clark 24 December 1971 An ambitious cleric murders an aged Archdeacon at Barchester Cathedral. However, he is soon stalked by a sinister black cat and by a hooded figure, both of whom seem to be embodiments of carvings on the cathedral's choir stalls.[5][25] Robert Hardy, Clive Swift, Thelma Barlow
A Warning to the Curious M. R. James, adapted by Lawrence Gordon Clark 24 December 1972 An amateur archaeologist travels to a remote seaside town in Norfolk to search for the lost crown of Anglia, but after unearthing it he is haunted by a mysterious figure.[9] Peter Vaughan, Clive Swift
Lost Hearts M. R. James, adapted by Robin Chapman 25 December 1973 An orphan moves into the house of his older cousin, but is disturbed by visions of a pair of ghostly children. Is their message a warning to be fearful of his cousin's obsession with immortality?[5][25] Simon Gipps-Kent, Joseph O'Conor
The Treasure of Abbot Thomas M. R. James, adapted by John Bowen 23 December 1974 A respected theologian and his protégé unearth clues to find the hidden treasure of a disgraced monk in an abbey library. Should he have heeded his own advice not to go treasure-hunting?[25] Michael Bryant, Paul Lavers
The Ash Tree M. R. James, adapted by David Rudkin 23 December 1975 An aristocrat inherits his family estate and is haunted by visions of his ancestor's role in a witchcraft trial.[26] Edward Petherbridge, Barbara Ewing, Preston Lockwood
The Signalman Charles Dickens, adapted by Andrew Davies 22 December 1976 A railway signalman tells a curious traveller how he is being troubled by a spectre that seems to predict calamity.[10] Denholm Elliott, Bernard Lloyd
Stigma Clive Exton 28 December 1977 After a young couple move into a remote country house in the middle of a stone circle workmen disturb an ancient menhir, unleashing a supernatural force.[5] Kate Binchy, Peter Bowles
The Ice House John Bowen 25 December 1978 Residents at a health spa begin to suspect that a strange flower growing in an old ice house in the grounds may be the cause of a series of misfortunes.[5] John Stride, Geoffrey Burridge, Elizabeth Romilly


BBC Four revisited the series at Christmas 2004, and in 2005 began to produce new adaptations of stories by M. R. James, broadcast along with repeats of episodes from the original series.[25]

BBC Two premiered a new adaptation by Neil Cross of M. R. James's Oh, Whistle and I'll come to You, My Lad on Christmas Eve 2010.[27]

Mark Gatiss's adaptation of The Tractate Middoth, yet another story by M. R. James, was broadcast on BBC Two on Christmas Day 2013. This was followed by a documentary, M. R. James: Ghost Writer.[28]

An original tale written and directed by Mark Gatiss entitled The Dead Room was broadcast on BBC Four on Christmas Eve 2018.[29]

Title Author UK broadcast date Description Main cast
A View from a Hill M. R. James, adapted by Peter Harness 23 December 2005 An archaeologist has a disturbing experience after borrowing a pair of binoculars belonging to an outcast local historian and venturing up a notorious landmark.[7][25] Mark Letheren, Pip Torrens, David Burke
Number 13 M. R. James, adapted by Justin Hopper 22 December 2006 An academic researcher repudiates local superstitions surrounding a devilish house in a cathedral city. However, repeated visions and noises during the night suggest he may be proved wrong.[25] Greg Wise, Paul Freeman, David Burke
Whistle and I'll Come to You M. R. James, adapted by Neil Cross 24 December 2010 Leaving his ill and ageing wife in a care home, a retired astronomer revisits one of their old coastal haunts, but after discovering a ring on the beach is soon haunted himself.[27] John Hurt, Gemma Jones, Leslie Sharp
The Tractate Middoth M. R. James, adapted by Mark Gatiss 25 December 2013 A young librarian receives a request for an obscure Hebrew book from a sinister gentleman, unaware of its contents.[30] Sacha Dhawan, John Castle, Louise Jameson, David Ryall, Una Stubbs
The Dead Room Mark Gatiss 24 December 2018 Aubrey Judd, veteran radio presenter of The Dead Room, soon realises that elements of his own past are not as dead and buried as he perhaps hoped.[29][31] Simon Callow, Anjli Mohindra, Susan Penhaligon, Joshua Oakes-Rogers
Martin's Close M. R. James, adapted by Mark Gatiss 24 December 2019 A young squire, John Martin, is on trial for murder in a court presided over by hanging judge George Jeffreys, but the girl he is accused of murdering has been seen after her death.[32] Peter Capaldi, Wilf Scolding, Elliot Levey[33]

Critical reception[edit]

The critical reception of the films has been varied, but several are regarded as classic television ghost stories.[34] Sarah Dempster, writing in The Guardian in 2005, noted that "Perhaps the most surprising aspect ... is how little its adaptations ... have dated. They may boast the odd signifier of cheap 1970s telly – outlandish regional vowels, inappropriate eyeliner, a surfeit of depressed oboes – but lurking within their hushed cloisters and glum expanses of deserted coastline is a timelessness at odds with virtually everything written, or broadcast, before or since."[35]

The production values have received particular praise. Helen Wheatley writes that "the series was shot on film on location, with much attention paid to the minutiae of period detail; ... it might be seen to visually prefigure the filmic stylishness and traditions of later literary adaptations such as Brideshead Revisited and The Jewel in the Crown." However, she notes that, unlike those adaptations, the sinister tone of the period pieces could lend itself the label of a "feel bad" heritage television drama.[36]

"Denholm (Elliot) was so wonderful in that role, like a tightly coiled spring. There was such tension in the character: he was always only a step away from insanity."

Lawrence Gordon Clark[34]

The Signalman is perhaps the most critically acclaimed. Simon Farquhar suggests that the film is the first evidence of Andrew Davies's gift as an adaptor of literary fiction: "despite an extremely arduous shoot, Davies and Clarke's fog-wreathed, flame-crackling masterpiece manages something the production team could never have imagined: it's better than the book."[34] Dave Rolinson notes that, while "the adaptation inevitably misses Dickens's nuanced and often unsettling prose, ... it achieves comparably skilful effects through visual language and sound, heightening theme and supernatural mood. ... The production heightens the story's crucial features of repetition and foreshadowing."[10]

Sergio Angelini writes about A Warning to the Curious: "Of Clark's many adaptations of James's stories, this is perhaps the most varied in its use of landscape and the most visually arresting in its attempt to create an otherworldly atmosphere. ... Using long lenses to flatten the scenery and make the ghost indistinct in the background, John McGlashan's fine cinematography brilliantly conveys the ageless, ritualistic determinism of Ager's pursuit and signposts the inevitability of Paxton's demise."[9] Angelini is less appreciative of The Ash Tree, noting that the literal adaptation of the story's ending loses the atmosphere of earlier instalments: "While the creatures are certainly grotesque and threatening, compared with some of the other adaptations of the series, The Ash Tree does lose some power through this lack of ambiguity. The result overall remains satisfyingly unsettling, however, thanks also to Petherbridge's restrained, psychologically acute performance."[26]

The adaptations have had an influence on the work of the writer Mark Gatiss. Interviewed in 2008, Gatiss said that Lost Hearts is his favourite adaptation because it is the one that frightened him as a child[37] and that "I absolutely love The Treasure of Abbot Thomas. The moment when Michael Bryant has found the treasure and ... is obviously losing his wits. He just says, rationally, 'It is a thing of slime, I think. Darkness and slime ...' There's also the fantastic scene where he thinks he's got away with it by putting the treasure back. The doctor is heading up the drive and he can't quite see him in the sunlight. Then it pauses to that amazing crane shot. ... Very spooky.[37]

The reception of the two later instalments, Stigma and The Ice House, was decidedly critical. Most reviewers concluded that switching to original stories instead of adaptations was "misjudged". David Kerekes writes that The Ice House is almost "totally forgotten".[38] Wheatley has commented that they heralded a divergence from the stage-inspired horror of the 1940s and 1950s to a more modern Gothic horror based in the present day, losing in the process the "aesthetic of restraint" evident in the original adaptations.[14]

The BBC Four revival beginning in 2005 with A View from a Hill was greeted warmly by Sarah Dempster, who stated that the programme was, "in every respect, a vintage Ghost Story for Christmas production. There are the powdery academics hamstrung by extreme social awkwardness. There is the bumbling protagonist bemused by a particular aspect of modern life. There are stunning, panoramic shots of a specific area of the British landscape (here, a heavily autumnal Suffolk). There is the determined lack of celebrity pizzazz. There is tweed. And there is, crucially, a single moment of heart-stopping, corner-of-the-eye horror that suggests life, for one powdery academic at least, will never be the same again."[35]

Related works[edit]

Before Clark's films came under the remit of the BBC Drama Department it commissioned a Christmas play from Nigel Kneale, an original ghost story called The Stone Tape, broadcast on Christmas Day 1972. With its modern setting, this is not generally included under the heading of A Ghost Story for Christmas[39] and was originally intended as an episode of the anthology Dead of Night.

Clark directed another story by M. R. James, Casting The Runes for the series Playhouse, produced by Yorkshire Television and first broadcast on ITV on 24 April 1979. Adapted by Clive Exton, it reimagined the events of James's story taking place in a contemporary television studio.[40]

For Christmas 1979 the BBC produced a 70-minute-long adaptation of Sheridan Le Fanu's gothic tale Schalcken the Painter, directed and adapted by Leslie Megahey.[41] Like the earlier Whistle and I'll Come to You, the production was listed as part of the long-running BBC arts series Omnibus.[42]

Repeats of the original series on BBC Four at Christmas 2007 included The Haunted Airman, a new adaptation of Dennis Wheatley's novel The Haunting of Toby Jugg by Chris Durlacher, although this film was originally screened on 31 October 2006.[43]

For Christmas 2008 an original three-part ghost story by Mark Gatiss, Crooked House, was produced instead, though Gatiss has cited the original adaptations as a key influence.[37]

The Turn of the Screw (1898), a novella by Henry James (no relation to M. R. James), was adapted as a feature-length drama by Sandy Welch and broadcast on BBC One on 30 December 2009.[44]

Title Author UK broadcast date Description Main cast
Whistle and I'll Come to You M. R. James, adapted by Jonathan Miller 7 May 1968 An eccentric professor finds a whistle carved from bone in a graveyard while on holiday in Norfolk. After blowing the whistle, he is troubled by terrible visions.[45] Michael Hordern
The Stone Tape Nigel Kneale 25 December 1972 An electronics company looking for a new recording medium discover that ghosts in their research building could inspire the new format they were after.[39] Michael Bryant, Jane Asher, Ian Cuthbertson.
Casting the Runes M. R. James, adapted by Clive Exton 24 April 1979 (on ITV) After a television series lampoons a famous demonologist, its producer and cast soon find themselves threatened by mysterious, malevolent forces.[40] Jan Francis, Bernard Gallagher, Joanna Dunham
Schalcken the Painter J. Sheridan Le Fanu, adapted by Leslie Megahey 23 December 1979 Schalcken the painter sees his one true love, Rose, wedded by contract for a sum of money to a man who may or may not be a ghost. When she escapes and returns home, she is pursued by her ghostly lover.[41][42] Jeremy Clyde, Maurice Denham, Cheryl Kennedy
The Haunted Airman Dennis Wheatley, adapted by Chris Durlacher 15 December 2007 (originally premiered 31 October 2006) An injured RAF Flight Lieutenant suffers from repeated horrific nightmares while recuperating at a remote mansion in Wales. However, he begins to suspect his psychiatrist or aunt may be responsible.[43] Robert Pattinson, Julian Sands, Rachael Stirling
Crooked House Mark Gatiss 22 December 2008 – 24 December 2008 Three linked episodes tell the story of the ghostly secrets of Geap Manor, a recently demolished Tudor mansion in both the past and present.[37] Lee Ingleby, Mark Gatiss, Philip Jackson
The Turn of the Screw Henry James, adapted by Sandy Welch 30 December 2009 A governess, incarcerated in a mental asylum, tells a doctor of the possession of her two pupils by a former governess and her lover.[44] Michelle Dockery, Sue Johnston, Dan Stevens


The BFI released the complete set of Ghost Story for Christmas films plus related works such as both versions of Whistle and I'll Come to You on Region 2 DVD in 2012, in five volumes as well as a box set, in celebration of the 150th anniversary of M. R. James's birth.[46] The following year, an expanded boxset featuring Robert Powell and Michael Bryant narrating M. R. James in the series Classic Ghost Stories (1986) and Spine Chillers (1980) respectively.[47]

A Warning to the Curious, The Signalman and Miller's Whistle and I'll Come to You were released as individual VHS cassettes and Region 2 DVDs by the British Film Institute in 2002 and 2003.[45][48] A number of the adaptations were made available in Region 4 format in Australia in 2011 and The Signalman is included as an extra on the Region 1 American DVD release of the 1995 BBC production of Hard Times. For Christmas 2011, the BFI featured the complete 1970s films in their Mediatheque centres.[49]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Angelini, Sergio, Ghost Stories at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  2. ^ Cooke, 126.
  3. ^ Knott, J.A. (2004). "Review: A Warning to the Curious". Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  4. ^ Wheatley, 47.
  5. ^ a b c d e Brockhurst, Colin. "A Ghost Story for Christmas". Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  6. ^ Wigley, Samuel (3 April 2014). "Ghost Stories at Christmases past". BFI features. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  7. ^ a b A View from the Hill at BBC Online. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  8. ^ a b Pfaff, Richard W., "Montague Rhodes James", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online Edition). Oxford University Press. September 2004. [1]. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  9. ^ a b c d Angelini, Sergio, A Warning to the Curious at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  10. ^ a b c d e Rolinson, Dave, The Signalman at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  11. ^ "Obituary: Clive Exton". The Times. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
  12. ^ "John Bowen". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  13. ^ Wheatley, 51.
  14. ^ a b Wheatley, 55.
  15. ^ a b Rigby, Jonathan, "Traces of Uneasiness: Lawrence Gordon Clark and The Stalls of Barchester" in The M. R. James Collection, BFI 2012 (BFIVD965)
  16. ^ a b Gordon Clark, Lawrence, interview for The M. R. James Collection. London: BFI Publishing. 2012.
  17. ^ Farquhar, Simon (30 June 2015). "Ghosts of Christmas past: M.R. James, Lawrence Gordon Clark and A Ghost Story for Christmas". Sight & Sound. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  18. ^ Kerekes, 15.
  19. ^ "The Stalls of Barchester". British Film Institute Database. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  20. ^ Burton, Nigel (22 August 2007). "A Warning to the Curious in Aldeburgh, Suffolk: East Anglia's Ghost Trail". Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  21. ^ Fisher, Mark (15 April 2007). "Bleak and Solemn ..." Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  22. ^ "Great Western (SVR) Association". Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  23. ^ "Filmed in Shropshire". Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  24. ^ Wheatley, 54–55.
  25. ^ a b c d e f BBC (December 2007). "Ghost Stories for 2007". BBC Online. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  26. ^ a b Angelini, Sergio, The Ash Tree at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  27. ^ a b Whistle and I'll come to You at BBC Online. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  28. ^ Stewart, Helen (23 December 2013). "M. R. James and the tradition of Christmas ghost stories". BBC Arts and Culture. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  29. ^ a b "BBC - The Dead Room - Media Centre". Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  30. ^ Cast announced for Mark Gatiss’s directorial debut, The Tractate Middoth, on BBC Two, BBC Media Centre press release 20 November 2013
  31. ^ "BBC Four - The Dead Room". Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  32. ^ "BBC Four Christmas highlights". BBC Media Centre. 26 November 2019.
  33. ^ "Peter Capaldi to star in new BBC4 Christmas ghost story". Radio Times. 29 August 2019.
  34. ^ a b c Farquhar, Simon (2009). "Review: The Signalman". BBC Online. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  35. ^ a b Dempster, Sarah "Ghosts in the Machine" The Guardian, 17 December 2005
  36. ^ Wheatley, 49.
  37. ^ a b c d Hussey, Bill (18 December 2008). "Interview with Mark Gatiss: Part One". Horror Reanimated. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  38. ^ Kerekes, 10.
  39. ^ a b Angelini, Sergio, The Stone Tape at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
  40. ^ a b Casting the Runes at the British Film Institute Database. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  41. ^ a b Schalcken The Painter at the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  42. ^ a b Angelini, Sergio Schalcken The Painter at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-8.
  43. ^ a b The Haunted Airman at BBC Online. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  44. ^ a b The Turn of the Screw at BBC Online. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  45. ^ a b Duguid, Mark, Whistle and I'll Come to You at the BFI's Screenonline. Retrieved 2010-7-7.
  46. ^ BFI press release Archived 11 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 2012-5-18
  47. ^ BFI releases, retrieved 2014-1-21
  48. ^ McCusker, Eamonn, "A Warning to the Curious - DVD review Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine". May 2003. Retrieved 2010-08-23
  49. ^ A Ghost Story for Christmas Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2012-5-18

External links[edit]