A Wrinkle in Time (2018 film)

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A Wrinkle in Time
Theatrical release poster
Directed byAva DuVernay
Produced by
  • Jim Whitaker
  • Catherine Hand
Screenplay by
Based onA Wrinkle in Time
by Madeleine L'Engle
Music byRamin Djawadi
CinematographyTobias A. Schliessler
Edited bySpencer Averick
Distributed byWalt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Release date
  • February 26, 2018 (2018-02-26) (El Capitan Theatre)
  • March 9, 2018 (2018-03-09) (United States)
Running time
109 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$100–130 million[2][3][4]
Box office$132.7 million[5]

A Wrinkle in Time is a 2018 American science fantasy adventure film directed by Ava DuVernay and written by Jennifer Lee and Jeff Stockwell, based on Madeleine L'Engle's 1962 novel of the same name. The film stars Oprah Winfrey, Reese Witherspoon, Mindy Kaling, Storm Reid, Gugu Mbatha-Raw, Michael Peña, Zach Galifianakis, and Chris Pine. Produced by Walt Disney Pictures and Whitaker Entertainment, the story follows a young girl who, with the help of three astral travelers, sets off on a quest to find her missing father.

It is Disney's second film adaptation of L'Engle's novel, following a 2003 television film. Development began in 2010, with DuVernay signing on to direct in February 2016. Principal photography began on November 2, 2016, in Los Angeles, California. Near the end of filming, production moved to New Zealand, where photography ended on February 25, 2017. With an estimated production budget of around $103 million, the film became the first live-action film with a nine-digit budget to be directed by a woman of color.[6] Additionally, Wrinkle in Time was notable in that Ava DuVernay was the first African-American woman to direct a film that earned at least $100 million domestically.[7][8]

A Wrinkle in Time premiered at the El Capitan Theatre on February 26, 2018, with a theatrical release on March 9, 2018, through the Disney Digital 3-D, Real D 3D, Dolby Cinema and IMAX formats.[9] The film received mixed reviews, with critics taking issue "with the film's heavy use of CGI and numerous plot holes" while some "celebrated its message of female empowerment and diversity".[10] With a total production and advertisement budget of around $250 million,[11] the film was a box office bomb, grossing $132 million worldwide and losing Disney at least $86 million.[12][13]


13-year-old middle school student Meg Murry struggles to adjust to both her school and home life ever since her father Alex, a renowned scientist, mysteriously disappeared while he was studying astrophysics when she was very young. Both Meg and her mother Kate believe he solved the question of humanity's existence and theorized that he was teleported to another world.

During the night, Meg's younger brother Charles Wallace welcomes Mrs. Whatsit, a red-haired stranger in an extravagant white dress, into the Murry family house. Mrs. Whatsit claims that the tesseract, a type of space-travel Alex was working on, is real, and leaves soon after. The next day, one of Meg's classmates, Calvin O'Keefe, joins them to go to the house of Mrs. Who, another strange woman who speaks only in quotations and seems to know Charles Wallace.

When Calvin joins Meg and Charles Wallace in their backyard, Mrs. Whatsit appears with Mrs. Who and another woman, Mrs. Which, who is the oldest and appears as a giant. The three reveal themselves as astral travelers, and lead Meg, Calvin, and Charles Wallace through a tesseract taking them to a distant planet named Uriel.

Mrs. Whatsit transforms into a beautiful green flying creature, and takes the children up into the atmosphere, where they see a dark shadow known as The IT. Mrs. Which tells Meg her father's experiments resulted in his being captured by The IT, a malevolent entity plotting to take over the universe. Gaining the women's trust, Meg and the others tesser to another planet where a seer known as the Happy Medium resides.

The Happy Medium shows them Meg's father is trapped on a planet called Camazotz, The IT's homeworld. Mrs. Which also explains that The IT represents all of the greed, anger, pride, selfishness, and low self-esteem in the world. He shows them examples of these characteristics, including a friend and neighbor of Charles Wallace's getting mugged at a bus stop, her school enemy Veronica Kiley's extreme self-consciousness about her weight and her resulting dieting habits, and that Calvin, despite being popular at school, is forced and abused to be a perfectionist by his father. The three Mrs. propose that they travel back to Earth to regroup, but Meg's strong will to find her father overrides the tesseract, and she accidentally redirects them to Camazotz instead.

Upon arriving on Camazotz, Mrs. Which, Mrs. Whatsit, and Mrs. Who find that they are unable to stay, because Camazotz's evil is stronger than their light. Before they depart, they bestow gifts upon Meg: Mrs. Who's glasses, the knowledge of Meg's faults, and the command to never separate.

The trio treks through Camazotz's hazardous traps before reaching a crowded beach where they meet the IT's bodyguard form, Red. He offers the starving children food and tells them that Alex is safe and happy. He reveals to them there is nothing to worry about here, but Calvin and Meg realize something is wrong when Charles Wallace proclaims that all of the food tastes like sand. When Red starts repeating the times tables, Charles Wallace is hypnotized by the rhythm, allowing the IT to take full control of his mind.

When Meg and Calvin pursue Red and Charles Wallace, they find themselves in a seemingly empty room, the "CENTRAL Central Intelligence" (and after they arrived, Red has been shutdown). Using Mrs. Who's glasses, Meg finds an invisible staircase leading to the room where her father is being kept prisoner. After bringing him out of captivity, the IT's power allows Charles Wallace to forcefully drag them to finally meet his master. As Calvin and Meg fall under the IT's power, Alex opens another tesser and prepares to leave with the children, abandoning Charles Wallace. Meg refuses and projects out of the tesser herself, leaving her alone. When she confronts Charles Wallace, she realizes the IT uses deception and hatred for power. Using her love for her brother and the knowledge that she is imperfect, Meg frees Charles Wallace and the IT releases the control on Camazotz. The three Mrs. return and tell Meg that it is time for her to tesser for herself, Charles Wallace and the Mrs.

After returning home, Meg, Charles Wallace, and their dad all reunite and assure that they all love each other. Veronica begins acting nicer to Meg and the film ends with Meg thanking the Mrs. for their help and Calvin going home to confront his father.



In October 2010, it was announced that Walt Disney Pictures had retained the film rights for the 1962 novel A Wrinkle in Time, by Madeleine L'Engle, which had previously been made as a 2003 television film. Following the financial success of Tim Burton's Alice in Wonderland (2010), Disney announced that they had hired Jeff Stockwell to write the screenplay for Cary Granat and his new Bedrock Studios. Granat had previously worked with Disney on the Chronicles of Narnia and Bridge to Terabithia films.[15] The project's budget was slated to be $35 million, which the company compared to District 9 and Bridge to Terabithia, both of which were made for less than $30 million.[16] On August 5, 2014, Jennifer Lee was announced as the screenwriter, taking over from Stockwell, who wrote the first draft.[17][18] On February 8, 2016, it was reported that Ava DuVernay had been offered the job of directing the film, and she was confirmed to direct later that same month.[19][20] She became the first woman of color to direct a live-action film with a production budget over $100 million.[21]

A Wrinkle in Time was part of a new California Film Commission tax credit program, which offset production costs considerably.[22]


On July 26, 2016, Variety reported that Oprah Winfrey had begun final negotiations to join the film, to play Mrs. Which, the eldest of the three Mrs. Ws, celestial beings who help guide the children along their journey.[23] On September 7, 2016, Reese Witherspoon and Mindy Kaling were reported as being in talks to join the film, with Witherspoon to play Mrs. Whatsit, who presents as a chatty, grandmotherly sprite, and Kaling set for the quotation-reciting Mrs. Who.[24] On September 13, 2016, Storm Reid was cast in the lead role of Meg Murry, a young girl traumatized by the disappearance of her scientist father years before.[25] In October 2016, Gugu Mbatha-Raw and Chris Pine were cast as the parents of Meg, Dr. Kate Murry and Dr. Alex Murry, respectively.[26][27] On November 1, 2016, more cast were announced, including Zach Galifianakis as the Happy Medium, André Holland as Principal Jenkins, Levi Miller as Calvin, and Deric McCabe as Charles Wallace, along with Bellamy Young, Rowan Blanchard and Will McCormack.[28] Michael Peña later also joined the cast to play the character Red.[29] The producers on the film are James Whitaker and Catherine Hand.[28]


Principal photography on the film began on November 2, 2016, in Los Angeles, California.[28][30][31] Tobias A. Schliessler was the film's cinematographer, Naomi Shohan its production designer, Paco Delgado its costume designer, and Rich McBride its visual effects supervisor.[28][32] During production, DuVernay asked McBride to be as flexible as possible on visual effects sequences to allow her to make changes and incorporate new ideas during shooting.[33] The director decided to put "a certain Stephen King website" in, and a "colorful post-credits scene" in it.

Filming for A Wrinkle in Time took place in multiple locations including Eureka, California, in Humboldt County, starting on November 29, 2016.[34] Filming also took place at Eureka's Sequoia Park, located next to Sequoia Park Zoo. None of the film's major actors were present in Eureka.[35] In mid-December, Pine was spotted during filming in Los Angeles.[36]

After Los Angeles, production moved to New Zealand for two weeks.[28] During the last two weeks of February 2017, filming locations for A Wrinkle in Time were established to be in Central Otago, New Zealand.[37] Actors and crew involved were in New Zealand for the two weeks to shoot scenes in the Southern Alps, including at Hunter Valley Station near Lake Hāwea, with cast and crew treated to a traditional Māori powhiri and karakia.[38] Filming wrapped in New Zealand's South Island after two weeks, and DuVernay declared the cast and crew's love for New Zealand in an Instagram post.[39]


On September 28, 2017, Ramin Djawadi was announced as the composer for the film, replacing Jonny Greenwood, who was initially chosen to compose, and scored the film.[40] On February 20, 2018, it was announced that the soundtrack would feature appearances from Sade, Sia, Kehlani, Chloe x Halle, Freestyle Fellowship, DJ Khaled, and Demi Lovato.[41]


The film was released in the United States on March 9, 2018.[42] It was previously set for an April 6, 2018 release.[43]

Home media[edit]

A Wrinkle in Time was released on 4K UHD Blu-Ray, Blu-Ray, and DVD on June 5, 2018.[44]


Box office[edit]

A Wrinkle In Time grossed $100.5 million in the United States and Canada, and $32.2 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $132.7 million.[5] With a combined $250 million spent on production and advertisement, the film needed to gross at least $400 million worldwide to turn a profit.[45][12][13] Following Disney's Q2 earnings report in May 2018, Yahoo! Finance deduced the film would lose the studio anywhere from $86–186 million.[46]

In the United States and Canada, A Wrinkle in Time was released alongside The Hurricane Heist, Gringo and The Strangers: Prey at Night, and was projected to gross $30–38 million from 3,980 theaters in its opening weekend.[47] It made $10.2 million on its first day, including $1.3 million from Thursday night previews. It went on to debut to $33.3 million, finishing second behind Disney's own Black Panther ($41.1 million in its fourth weekend).[48] In its second weekend the film made $16.6 million, dropping 50% to 4th place.[49] On June 15, in its 15th week of playing, the film returned to a total of 285 theaters, often as part of a double-feature with Incredibles 2. It ended up making $1.7 million (an increase of over 1,600% from the previous weekend), pushing the total US gross to $100 million.[50]

Internationally the film opened in six countries alongside the United States and grossed $6.3 million in its opening weekend, Russia being the largest market with $4.1 million.[51]

Critical response[edit]

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 41% based on 266 reviews, and an average rating of 5.2/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "A Wrinkle in Time is visually gorgeous, big-hearted, and occasionally quite moving; unfortunately, it's also wildly ambitious to a fault, and often less than the sum of its classic parts."[52] On Metacritic, which assigns normalized rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 53 out of 100, based on 50 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[53] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B" on an A+ to F scale, while PostTrak reported filmgoers gave it a 75% overall positive score; audience members under the age of 18 gave it an average grade of "A–" and a positive score of 89%.[48]

Alonso Duralde of TheWrap praised the film's visuals and performances, writing, "Awash in bold colors, bright patterns and ebullient kids, director Ava DuVernay's new take on A Wrinkle in Time dazzles its way across time and space even if it doesn't quite stick the landing."[54] David Ehrlich of IndieWire gave the film a "C+" and praised what he described as its ambition, saying: "It almost doesn't matter that the movie is too emotionally prescriptive to have any real power, or too high on imagination to leave any room for wonder; DuVernay evinces such faith in who she is and what she's doing that A Wrinkle in Time remains true to itself even when everything on screen reads false."[55]

Alex Hudson of Exclaim! gave the film a 5 out of 10, saying that it felt "like a missed opportunity. Rather than a family classic, all we get is a perfectly fine kids movie."[56] Vince Mancini of Uproxx gave the film a negative review, saying, "...if anything, the trouble with Wrinkle is that you never really get a sense of DuVernay's personal touch. In fact, it feels a lot like Brad Bird's big budget, equally smarmy 2015 Disney film, Tomorrowland. Both attempt to be so broad and universal that they feel disconnected from anything human. But universality doesn't work that way, no matter how much you tell everyone to think like a kid."[57]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "A WRINKLE IN TIME (PG-13)". British Board of Film Classification. February 23, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  2. ^ Frost, John (January 12, 2018). "Director Ava DuVernay discusses working on 'A Wrinkle in Time'". The Disney Blog. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  3. ^ McDonald, Soraya Nadia (March 8, 2018). "'A Wrinkle in Time' has Ava DuVernay, Oprah and a $100 million budget. But it still needs a better villain". The Undefeated. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  4. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (11 March 2018). "'Black Panther' Rules 4th Frame With $41M+; 'A Wrinkle In Time' At $33M+: A Diversity & Disney Dominant Weekend". Deadline Hollywood.
  5. ^ a b "A Wrinkle in Time (2018)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  6. ^ Cruz, Lenika (4 August 2016). "The First Woman of Color to Make a $100 Million Movie". The Atlantic.
  7. ^ "Ava DuVernay becomes first black woman to direct a $100 million movie". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2018-06-24.
  8. ^ Keegan, Rebecca (August 3, 2016). "With 'A Wrinkle In Time,' Ava DuVernay will pass a milestone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Lieberman, David (February 22, 2017). "Disney Films To Show On Imax Through 2019 With New Distribution Deal". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  10. ^ Chuba, Kirsten (March 7, 2018). "'A Wrinkle in Time' Reviews: What the Critics Are Saying". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  11. ^ Barnes, Brooks (11 March 2018). "'Black Panther' Dominates 'Wrinkle in Time' at Box Office". The New York Times.
  12. ^ a b Shamsian, Jacob (March 12, 2018). "5 reasons why Disney's fantasy epic 'A Wrinkle in Time' failed at the box office". Insider. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  13. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela. "'A Wrinkle in Time': Why It Has Underperformed at the Box Office". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "A Wrinkle in Time Press Kit" (PDF). Walt Disney Studios. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  15. ^ Fernandez, Jay (October 14, 2010). "Bedrock taps Jeff Stockwell to adapt 'Wrinkle'". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  16. ^ Pond, Steve (March 17, 2010). "Granat Launches Family-Oriented Bedrock Studios (Updated)". TheWrap. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  17. ^ McNary, Dave (August 5, 2014). "'Frozen' Director Jennifer Lee to Adapt 'A Wrinkle in Time' for Disney". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  18. ^ Han, Angie (August 5, 2014). "'Frozen' Director Jennifer Lee to Adapt 'A Wrinkle in Time'". /Film. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  19. ^ Kit, Borys (February 8, 2016). "Lupita Nyong'o in Talks to Star in Sci-Fi Thriller With Ava DuVernay Eyed to Direct (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  20. ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (February 23, 2016). "Ava DuVernay Set To Direct Disney's 'A Wrinkle In Time'; Script By 'Frozen's Jennifer Lee". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  21. ^ Keegan, Rebecca (August 3, 2016). "With 'A Wrinkle In Time,' Ava DuVernay will pass a milestone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  22. ^ Deutsch, Erik (2 August 2016). "California's Film & TV Tax Credit Program 2.0 Gains First $100 Million-Plus Feature. Disney's 'Wrinkle in Time' Selected Via Program's Expanded Eligibility for Big-Budget Films; Latest $109 Million in Credits Allocated to 28 Projects" (Press release). California Film Commission.
  23. ^ Kroll, Justin (July 26, 2016). "Oprah Winfrey Joins Ava Duvernay's 'A Wrinkle in Time' Adaptation". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  24. ^ Kit, Borys (September 7, 2016). "Reese Witherspoon, Mindy Kaling in Talks to Join Ava DuVernay's 'A Wrinkle in Time' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  25. ^ Kit, Borys (September 13, 2016). "Rising Actress Storm Reid Nabs Starring Role in Ava DuVernay's 'A Wrinkle in Time' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  26. ^ Patten, Dominic (October 21, 2016). "Chris Pine Joins Ava DuVernay's 'A Wrinkle In Time'". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
  27. ^ Lincoln, Ross A. (October 20, 2016). "Gugu Mbatha-Raw Signs On For Ava DuVernay's 'Wrinkle In Time'". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
  28. ^ a b c d e Coming Soon (November 1, 2016). "Wrinkle in Time Cast Announced as Filming Begins". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline Media. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  29. ^ Coming Soon (November 2, 2016). "Michael Pena Joins Disney's A Wrinkle in Time Movie". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline Media. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  30. ^ DuVernay, Ava (October 30, 2016). "Happy Sunday. Posted this two years ago today. Was just four days from locking picture on SELMA. Didn't know how it would be received. Was nervous and eager and uncomfortable and grateful. Two years later. Today. I'm four days from shooting a new film: #WRINKLEINTIME..." Facebook. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  31. ^ Chitwood, Adam (November 1, 2016). "Ava DuVernay's 'A Wrinkle in Time' Finalizes Cast as Filming Begins This Week". Collider. Complex Media. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  32. ^ DuVernay, Ava [@AVAETC] (October 30, 2016). "Fun with my friend + #WRINKLEINTIME DP Tobias Schliessler (Dreamgirls, Lone Survivor) at @LACMA's #ArtandFilm gala honoring Kathryn Bigelow" (Tweet). Retrieved November 2, 2016 – via Twitter.
  33. ^ Hogg, Trevor (April 3, 2018). "A WRINKLE IN TIME: 'The Emotional Visual Effects Show'". VFX Voice. Visual Effects Society. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  34. ^ Schneider, Ruth (December 19, 2016). "'Postcard of Humboldt County': 'Wrinkle in Time' brings local beauty to big screen". Redwood Times. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  35. ^ Houston, Will (November 28, 2016). "Film production in town: 'A Wrinkle in Time' director's Instagram indicates filming in Eureka". Eureka Times-Standard. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  36. ^ Nattrass, JJ (December 15, 2016). "Chris Pine looks sports bushy beard on A Wrinkle In Time set". The Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  37. ^ Croot, James (February 13, 2017). "A Wrinkle in Time: What you need to know about the latest movie to shoot in NZ". Stuff.co.nz. Stuff Limited. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  38. ^ "Oprah: 'It's a gorgeous day NZ' star shares chopper ride in NZ with millions". New Zealand Herald. NZME Publishing. February 18, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  39. ^ Newshub staff (February 26, 2017). "A Wrinkle in Time cast declare their love for New Zealand after filming wraps". Newshub. Mediaworks TV. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  40. ^ Rivera, Brittany (September 28, 2017). "A Wrinkle in Time Recruits Game of Thrones Composer". Screen Rant. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  41. ^ Snetiker, Marc (February 20, 2018). "A Wrinkle in Time soundtrack taps Sade, Sia, Game of Thrones composer". Entertainment Weekly. Time. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  42. ^ Lesnick, Silas (April 25, 2017). "Disney Movie Release Schedule Gets a Major Update". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline Media. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
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  44. ^ "A Wrinkle in Time – 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray". High-Def Digest. Internet Brands. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  45. ^ Hughes, Mark (March 8, 2018). "Review: 'A Wrinkle In Time' Delivers Weird, Fun, And Heartfelt Family Entertainment". Forbes. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  46. ^ Roberts, Daniel (May 8, 2018). "The lone loser in Disney's big quarter: 'A Wrinkle in Time'". Yahoo! Finance. Yahoo!. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  47. ^ Rubin, Rebecca; McNary, Dave (March 6, 2018). "Box Office Preview: 'A Wrinkle in Time' Looks to Lure Kids as 'Black Panther' Stays Muscular". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  48. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 11, 2018). "'Black Panther' Rules 4th Frame With $41M+; 'A Wrinkle In Time' At $33M+: A Diversity & Disney Dominant Weekend". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  49. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 18, 2018). "'Black Panther' Keeps B.O. Treasure From 'Tomb Raider'; How 'I Can Only Imagine' Hit A $17M High Note". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  50. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (June 17, 2018). "'Incredibles 2' Even Stronger As Pixar Pic Soars To Amazing $181M – Early Sunday Update". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  51. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (March 11, 2018). "'Black Panther' Tops $500M Overseas, $1B WW With $67M China Bow; 'Tomb Raider' Kicks Off – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
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  54. ^ Durande, Alonso (March 7, 2018). "'A Wrinkle in Time' Film Review: Oprah Hitchhikes the Galaxy in Trippy Kiddie Treat". TheWrap. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  55. ^ Ehrlich, David (March 7, 2018). "'A Wrinkle in Time' Review: Ava DuVernay's Eye-Popping Spectacle Proves that a Little Imagination Can Go a Long Way". IndieWire. Penske Business Media. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  56. ^ Hudson, Alex (March 7, 2018). "A Wrinkle In Time". Exclaim!. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  57. ^ Mancini, Vince (March 7, 2018). "'A Wrinkle In Time' Is A Series Of Affirmations In Search Of A Story". Uproxx. Retrieved March 7, 2018.

External links[edit]