Aaron Beck

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Aaron Beck
Liber Brunensis 1942, Aaron T. Beck.jpg
Beck in 1942
Born
Aaron Temkin Beck

(1921-07-18)July 18, 1921
DiedNovember 1, 2021(2021-11-01) (aged 100)
Alma mater
Known forHis research on psychotherapy (especially cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy), psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics
Spouse(s)Phyllis W. Beck (1950-2021)
Children4, including Judith
AwardsSee Selected awards and honors
Scientific career
FieldsPsychiatry
Institutions
Influenced

Aaron Temkin Beck (July 18, 1921 – November 1, 2021) was an American psychiatrist who was a professor in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania.[1][2] He is regarded as the father of cognitive therapy[1][2][3] and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).[4] His pioneering methods are widely used in the treatment of clinical depression and various anxiety disorders. Beck also developed self-report measures for depression and anxiety, notably the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which became one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression.[5] In 1994 he and his daughter, psychologist Judith S. Beck, founded the nonprofit Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, which provides CBT treatment and training, as well as research.[6] Beck served as President Emeritus of the organization up until his death.

Beck was noted for his writings on psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics. He published more than 600 professional journal articles, and authored or co-authored 25 books.[7] He was named one of the "Americans in history who shaped the face of American psychiatry", and one of the "five most influential psychotherapists of all time"[8] by The American Psychologist in July 1989. His work at the University of Pennsylvania inspired Martin Seligman to refine his own cognitive techniques and later work on learned helplessness.[9]

Early life and career[edit]

Aaron Temkin Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island on July 18, 1921. He was the youngest of four children born to Elizabeth Temkin and Harry Beck, Jewish immigrants from Ukraine.[10][11] Harry worked as a printer and Elizabeth's family found financial success in tobacco wholesaling; the family belonged to the upwardly-mobile vanguard of Providence's Eastern European-Jewish immigrant community. At the time of Aaron's birth, the Temkin-Becks lived a “comfortable, lower-middle class lifestyle” and were in the process of putting down roots on Providence's East Side. In 1923, when Aaron was two years old, the family purchased a house at 43/41 Sessions Street in the city's Blackstone neighborhood.[12]

Beck's Hope High School yearbook photograph

Beck attended John Howland Grammar School, Nathan Bishop Junior High, and Hope Street High School, where he graduated as valedictorian in 1938. As an adolescent, Beck dreamed of becoming a journalist.[12] Beck matriculated at Brown University, where he graduated magna cum laude in 1942.[13] At Brown, he was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, was an associate editor of The Brown Daily Herald, and received the Francis Wayland Scholarship, William Gaston Prize for Excellence in Oratory, and Philo Sherman Bennett Essay Award.[14] Beck attended Yale Medical School, planning to become an internist and work in private practice in Providence. He graduated from Yale with a Doctor of Medicine in 1946.[15]

After receiving his M.D., Beck completed a six-month junior residency in pathology at Rhode Island Hospital and a three-year residency in neurology at Cushing Veterans Administration Hospital in Framingham, Massachusetts. During this time, Beck began to specialize in neurology, reportedly liking the precision of its procedures.[15] However, due to a shortage of psychiatry residents, he was instructed to do a six-month rotation in that field, and he became absorbed in psychoanalysis, despite initial wariness.[15]

After completing his medical internships and residencies from 1946 to 1950, Beck became a fellow in psychiatry at the Austen Riggs Center, a private mental hospital in the mountains of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, until 1952.[16] At that time, it was a center of ego psychology with an unusual degree of collaboration between psychiatrists and psychologists, including David Rapaport.[17]

Beck then completed military service as assistant chief of neuropsychiatry at Valley Forge Army Hospital in the United States Military.[18]

Penn psychiatry[edit]

Beck then joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1954.[19] The department chair was Kenneth Ellmaker Appel, a psychoanalyst who was president of the American Psychiatric Association, whose efforts to expand the presence and relatedness of psychiatry had a big influence on Beck's career.[20] At the same time, Beck began formal training in psychoanalysis at the Philadelphia Institute of the American Psychoanalytic Association.[20]

Beck's closest colleague was Marvin Stein, a friend since their army hospital days to whom Beck looked up to for his scientific rigor in psychoneuroimmunology.[21] Beck's first research was with Leon J. Saul, a psychoanalyst known for unusual methods such as therapy by telephone or setting homework, who had developed inventory questionnaires to quantify ego processes in the manifest content of dreams (that which can be directly reported by the dreamer). Beck and a graduate student developed a new inventory they used to assess "masochistic" hostility in manifest dreams, published in 1959.[22] This study found themes of loss and rejection related to depression, rather than inverted hostility as predicted by psychoanalysis.[21] Developing the work with funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, Beck came up with what he would call the Beck Depression Inventory, which he published in 1961 and soon started to market, unsupported by Appel.[21] In another experiment, he found that depressed patients sought encouragement or improvement following disapproval, rather than seeking out suffering and failure as predicted by the Freudian anger-turned-inwards theory.[15]

Through the 1950s, Beck adhered to the department's psychoanalytic theories while pursuing experimentation and harboring private doubts.[21] In 1961, however, controversy over whom to appoint the new chair of psychiatry—specifically, fierce psychoanalytic opposition to the favored choice of biomedical researcher Eli Robins—brought matters to a head, an early skirmish in a power shift away from psychoanalysis nationally.[21] Beck tried to remain neutral and, with Albert J. Stunkard, opposed a petition to block Robins.[21] Stunkard, a behaviorist who specialized in obesity and who had dropped out of psychoanalytic training, was eventually appointed department head in the face of sustained opposition which again Beck would not engage in, putting him at bitter odds with his friend Stein.[21]

On top of this, despite having graduated from his Philadelphia training, the American Psychoanalytic Institute rejected (deferred) Beck's membership application in 1960, skeptical of his claims of success from relatively brief therapy and advising he conduct further supervised therapy on the more advanced or termination phases of a case, and again in 1961 when he had not done so but outlined his clinical and research work.[15] Such deferments were a tactic used by the institute to maintain the orthodoxy in teaching, but Beck did not know this at the time and has described the decision as stupid and dumb.[15][21]

Beck usually explained his increasing belief in his cognitive model by reference to a patient he had been listening to for a year at the Penn clinic.[15] When he suggested she was anxious due to her ego being confronted by her sexual impulses, and asked her whether she believed this when she did not seem convinced, she said she was actually worried that she was being boring, and that she thought this often and with everyone.[15][23]

Private practice[edit]

Beck requested a sabbatical and would go into private practice for five years.[21][when?]

In 1962, he was already making notes about patterns of thoughts in depression, emphasizing what can be observed and tested by anyone and treated in the present.[24] He was engaged by George Kelly's personal construct theory and Jean Piaget's schemas.[25] Beck's first articles on the cognitive theory of depression, in 1963 and 1964 in the Archives of General Psychiatry, maintained the psychiatric context of ego psychology but then turned to concepts of realistic and scientific thinking in the terms of the new cognitive psychology, extended to become a therapeutic need.[21]

Beck's notebooks were also filled with self-analysis, where at least twice a day for several years he wrote out his own "negative" (later "automatic") thoughts, rated with a percentile belief score, classified and restructured.[21]

The psychologist who would become most important for Beck was Albert Ellis, whose own faith in psychoanalysis had crumbled by the 1950s.[25] He had begun presenting his "rational therapy" by the mid-1950s.[26] Beck recalled that Ellis contacted him in the mid-1960s after his two articles in the Archives of General Psychiatry, and therefore he discovered Ellis had developed a rich theory and pragmatic therapy that he was able to use to some extent as a framework blended with his own, though he disliked Ellis's technique of telling patients what he thought was going on rather than helping the client to learn for themselves empirically.[27] Psychoanalyst Gerald E. Kochansky remarked in 1975 in a review of one of Beck's books that he could no longer tell if Beck was a psychoanalyst or a devotee of Ellis.[21] Beck highlighted the classical philosophical Socratic method as an inspiration, while Ellis highlighted disputation which he stated was not anti-empirical and taught people how to dispute internally.[28] Both Beck and Ellis cited aspects of the ancient philosophical system of Stoicism as a forerunner of their ideas, though Ellis wrote more about this; both mistakenly cited Cicero as a stoic.[29]

In 1967, becoming active again at University of Pennsylvania, Beck still described himself and his new therapy (as he always would quietly) as neo-Freudian in the ego psychology school, albeit focused on interactions with the environment rather than internal drives.[21][30] He offered cognitive therapy work as a relatively "neutral" space and a bridge to psychology.[21] With a monograph on depression that Beck published in 1967, according to historian Rachael Rosner: "Cognitive Therapy entered the marketplace as a corrective experimentalist psychological framework both for himself and his patients and for his fellow psychiatrists."[21]

Cognitive therapy[edit]

Working with depressed patients, Beck found that they experienced streams of negative thoughts that seemed to arise spontaneously.[31] He termed these cognitions "automatic thoughts", and discovered that their content fell into three categories: negative ideas about oneself, the world, and the future. He stated that such cognitions were interrelated as the cognitive triad.[31] Limited time spent reflecting on automatic thoughts would lead patients to treat them as valid.[32]

Beck began helping patients identify and evaluate these thoughts and found that by doing so, patients were able to think more realistically, which led them to feel better emotionally and behave more functionally.[32] He developed key ideas in CBT, explaining that different disorders were associated with different types of distorted thinking.[32] Distorted thinking has a negative effect on a person's behaviour no matter what type of disorder they had, he found.[32] Beck explained that successful interventions will educate a person to understand and become aware of their distorted thinking, and how to challenge its effects.[32] He discovered that frequent negative automatic thoughts reveal a person's core beliefs. He explained that core beliefs are formed over lifelong experiences; we "feel" these beliefs to be true.[32]

Since that time, Beck and his colleagues worldwide have researched the efficacy of this form of psychotherapy in treating a wide variety of disorders including depression, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and many other medical conditions with psychological components.[32] Cognitive therapy has also been applied with success to individuals with anxiety disorders and schizophrenia.[33] He also focused on cognitive therapy for schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and for patients who have had recurrent suicide attempts.[34]

Beck's recent research on the treatment of schizophrenia has suggested that patients once believed to be non-responsive to treatment are amenable to positive change.[35] Even the most severe presentations of the illness, such as those involving long periods of hospitalization, bizarre behavior, poor personal hygiene, self-injury, and aggressiveness, can respond positively to a modified version of cognitive behavioural treatment.[36][37]

However, some mental health professionals have opposed Beck's cognitive models and resulting therapies as very mechanistic or too limited in which parts of mental activity they will consider.[38] Beck's work was presented as a far more scientific and experimentally-based development than psychoanalysis (while being less reductive than behaviourism), Beck's key principles were not necessarily based on the general findings and models of cognitive psychology or neuroscience developing at that time but were derived from personal clinical observations and interpretations in his therapy office.[24] And although there have been many cognitive models developed for different mental disorders and hundreds of outcome studies on the effectiveness of CBT—relatively easy because of the narrow, time-limited and manual-based nature of the treatment—there has been much less focus on experimentally proving the supposedly active mechanisms; in some cases the predicted causal relationships have not been found, such as between dysfunctional attitudes and outcomes.[39]

Organizations[edit]

Beck was involved in research studies at the University of Pennsylvania, and conducted biweekly Case Conferences at Beck Institute for area psychiatric residents, graduate students, and mental health professionals.[40] He met every two weeks with conference participants and generally did two to three role plays. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007.[41]

Beck was the founder and President Emeritus of the non-profit Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy, and the director of the Psychopathology Research Center (PRC), which is the parent organization of the Center for the Treatment and Prevention of Suicide.[7] In 1986, he was a visiting scientist at Oxford University.[1]

He was a professor emeritus at Penn since 1992,[7] and an adjunct professor at both Temple University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Beck was married in 1950 to Phyllis W. Beck, and they had four children together: Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice.[14] Phyllis was the first woman judge on the appellate court of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[42] Her youngest daughter, Alice Beck Dubow, is a judge on the same court,[43] while the older daughter Judith is a prominent CBT educator and clinician, who wrote the basic text in the field[44] and is a co-founder of the non-profit Beck Institute.[44] He turned 100 on July 18, 2021, and died later in the year on November 1 in his sleep at his home in Philadelphia.[45][46][47][48][49]

Questionnaires[edit]

Along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck developed the Beck Hopelessness Scale,[50] Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Youth Inventories,[51] Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (CBOCI),[52] and BDI–Fast Screen for Medical Patients.[53]

Beck collaborated with psychologist Maria Kovacs in the development of the Children's Depression Inventory, which used the BDI as a template.[54][55]

Selected awards and honors[edit]

Beck received honorary degrees from Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, Brown University, Assumption College, and Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine.[14][58][59]

In 2017, Medscape named Beck the fourth most influential physician in the past century.[60]

Works[edit]

Selected books[edit]

  • Beck, A.T. (1967). The diagnosis and management of depression. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-7674-9
  • Beck, A.T. (1972). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-7652-7
  • Beck, A.T. (1975). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8236-0990-1
  • Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-0-89862-000-9
  • Beck, A.T. (1989). Love is never enough: How couples can overcome misunderstandings, resolve conflicts, and solve relationship problems through cognitive therapy. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-06-091604-6
  • Scott, J., Williams, J.M., & Beck, A.T. (1989). Cognitive therapy in clinical practice: An illustrative casebook. New York, NY & London, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-00518-0
  • Beck, A.T., Wright, F.D., Newman, C.F., & Liese, B.S. (1993). "Cognitive therapy of substance abuse." New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-659-2
  • Alford, B.A., & Beck, A.T. (1998). The integrative power of cognitive therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-396-6
  • Beck, A.T. (1999). Prisoners of hate: The cognitive basis of anger, hostility, and violence. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-019377-5
  • Clark, D.A., & Beck, A.T. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-18970-1
  • Newman, C., Leahy, R. L., Beck, A. T., Reilly-Harringon, N. A., Gyulai, L. (2002). Bipolar disorder: A cognitive therapy approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 978-1-55798-789-1
  • Beck, A.T., Freeman, A., & Davis, D.D. (2003). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-856-5
  • Wright, J.H., Thase, M.E., Beck, A.T., & Ludgate, J.W. (2003). Cognitive therapy with inpatients: Developing a cognitive milieu. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-0-89862-890-6
  • Winterowd, C., Beck, A.T., & Gruener, D. (2003). Cognitive therapy with chronic pain patients. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8261-4595-6
  • Beck, A.T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R.L. (2005). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00587-1
  • Beck, A.T., Rector, N.A., Stolar, N., & Grant, P. (2008). Schizophrenia: Cognitive theory, research, and therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-018-3
  • Wenzel, A., Brown, G. K., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Cognitive therapy for suicidal patients: Scientific and clinical applications. Washington, D.C.: APA Books. ISBN 978-1-4338-0407-6
  • Beck, A. T. & Alford, B. A. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatments (2nd ed). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1964-7
  • Clark, D.A., & Beck, A.T. (2010). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: Science and practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-434-1
  • Creed, T.A., Reisweber, J., & Beck, A.T. (2011). Cognitive therapy for adolescents in school settings. New York: Guildford Press. ISBN 978-1-60918-133-8
  • Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2012).The anxiety and worry workbook: The cognitive behavioral solution. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-918-6
  • Wenzel, A., Liese, B.S., Beck, A.T., Friedman-Wheeler, D. (2012). Group cognitive therapy of addictions. New York: Guildord Press. ISBN 978-1-4625-0566-1

Selected articles[edit]

  • Beck, A.T., & Haigh, E. A.-P. (2014). "Advances in Cognitive Theory and Therapy: The Generic Cognitive Model". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 1–24. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153734
  • Beck, A. T., & Bredemeier, K. (2016). "A Unified Model of Depression Integrating Clinical, Cognitive, Biological, and Evolutionary Perspectives". Clinical Psychological Science, 4(4), 596–619. doi:10.1177/2167702616628523
  • Beck, A. T. (2019). "A 60-Year Evolution of Cognitive Theory and Therapy". Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(1), 16–20. doi:10.1177/1745691618804187

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e 2004 - Aaron Beck Archived June 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Grawemeyer Awards, Louisville, KY: University of Louisville/Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 2009, Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Aaron Beck bio, The Heinz Awards Undated, Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  3. ^ Beck, Judith S.; Fleming, Sarah (June 18, 2021). "A Brief History of Aaron T. Beck, MD, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy". Clinical Psychology in Europe. 3 (2): 1–7. doi:10.32872/cpe.6701. ISSN 2625-3410. S2CID 237383023.
  4. ^ Folsom, Timothy D., et al. "Profiles in history of neuroscience and psychiatry." The Medical Basis of Psychiatry. Springer, New York, NY, 2016. 925-1007.
  5. ^ Beck, A.T.; Ward, C.H.; Mendelson, M.; Mock, J.; Erbaugh, J. (June 1961). "An inventory for measuring depression". Archives of General Psychiatry. 4 (6): 561–571. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.934.7580. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004. PMID 13688369.
  6. ^ About Beck Institute: Leadership Archived December 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Bala Cynwyd, PA: Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2014, Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  7. ^ a b c "Department of Psychiatry : Aaron T. Beck, M.D." September 14, 2017. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  8. ^ Talbott, J.A. (2002). "Dix Personalité Qui Ont Changé le Visage de la Psychiatric Américaine". L'Information Psychiatrique. 78 (7): 667–675.
  9. ^ Hirtz, R. (1999). Martin Seligman's journey: From learned helplessness to learned happiness, The Pennsylvania Gazette, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, January/February 1999, Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  10. ^ "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Expert Aaron Beck Going Strong at 96". Jewish Exponent.
  11. ^ Fall, Kevin A.; Holden, Janice Miner; Marquis, Andre (January 19, 2011). Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy. ISBN 978-1-135-84639-8.
  12. ^ a b Rosner, Rachael I. (November 2016). "Aaron T. Beck, the "Golden Ghetto" of Providence, and Cognitive Therapy" (PDF). Rhode Island Jewish Historical Association. 17 #2.
  13. ^ Aaron T(emkin) Beck. Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit, Michigan: Gale. 2004.
  14. ^ a b c Aaron T. Beck, M.D., Aaron T. Beck Psychopathology Research Center, Philadelphia, PA: Aaron T. Beck Psychopathology Research Center, 2014, Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Smith, Daniel B. (Autumn 2009). "The doctor is in". The American Scholar. Phi Beta Kappa Society. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  16. ^ Beck, Aaron T. (2019). "A 60-Year Evolution of Cognitive Theory and Therapy". Perspectives on Psychological Science. Sage Journals. 14 (1): 16–20. doi:10.1177/1745691618804187. PMID 30799751. S2CID 73467073. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  17. ^ Rosner, Rachael I. (2014). "The "Splendid Isolation" of Aaron T. Beck". Isis. JSTOR. 105 (4): 734–758. doi:10.1086/679421. JSTOR 10.1086/679421. PMID 25665381. S2CID 19112063. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 6, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Aaron T. Beck". Med.Upenn.edu. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Aaron T. Beck". Guilford. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rosner, RI (2014). "The "Splendid Isolation" of Aaron T. Beck". Isis. 105 (4): 734–58. doi:10.1086/679421. JSTOR 10.1086/679421. PMID 25665381. S2CID 19112063.
  22. ^ "Aaron T. Beck's Dream Theory in Context: An Introduction to His 1971 Article on Cognitive Patterns in Dreams and Daydreams". Psycnet. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  23. ^ Scientist At Work: Aaron T. Beck, Erica Goode, The New York Times, January 11, 2000
  24. ^ a b "Aaron T. Beck, MD". Pearsonassessments.com. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  25. ^ a b "Personality Theory". Oercommons. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  26. ^ Ruggiero, G. M.; Spada, M. M.; Caselli, G.; Sassaroli, S. (2018). "A Historical and Theoretical Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies: From Structural Self-Knowledge to Functional Processes". Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy : Ret. NCBI. 36 (4): 378–403. doi:10.1007/s10942-018-0292-8. PMC 6208646. PMID 30416258.
  27. ^ Who Influenced Dr. Aaron Beck's Work? (Students Ask Dr. Beck - Part Two Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, CBT Workshop on Depression and Anxiety for students and post-doctoral fellows, August 15–17, 2011
  28. ^ Rational-emotive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy: Similarities and differences Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Albert Ellis, Cogn Ther Res (1980) 4: 325. doi:10.1007/BF01178210
  29. ^ Robertson, D (2010). The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Stoicism as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy. London: Karnac. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85575-756-1.
  30. ^ On Therapy-- A Dialogue with Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis reported by Michael Fenichel, American Psychological Association, 110th Convention Chicago, August 22–25, 2002
  31. ^ a b "Automatic Thoughts in CBT (Part 2)". Beck Institute. June 8, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Beck, Aaron (1996). "The Past and the future of Cognitive Therapy" (PDF). Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 6 (4): 276–284. PMC 3330473. PMID 9292441. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  33. ^ "Cognitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia". NYU Langone Health. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  34. ^ "Validation for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder". Back Institute. June 8, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  35. ^ Beck, Aaron T. (January 2019). "A 60-Year Evolution of Cognitive Theory and Therapy". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 14 (1): 16–20. doi:10.1177/1745691618804187. ISSN 1745-6916. PMID 30799751.
  36. ^ Grant, Paul M.; Bredemeier, Keith; Beck, Aaron T. (October 2017). "Six-Month Follow-Up of Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy for Low-Functioning Individuals With Schizophrenia". Psychiatric Services. 68 (10): 997–1002. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201600413. ISSN 1075-2730. PMID 28566022.
  37. ^ Grant, Paul M. (February 1, 2012). "Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Therapy for Low-Functioning Patients With Schizophrenia". Archives of General Psychiatry. 69 (2): 121–7. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.129. ISSN 0003-990X. PMID 21969420.
  38. ^ Wenzel, A.; Chapman, J. E.; Newman, C. F.; Beck, A. T.; Brown, G. K. (2006). "Hypothesized mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for borderline personality disorder". Journal of Clinical Psychology. Pubmed. 62 (4): 503–516. doi:10.1002/jclp.20244. PMID 16470716. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  39. ^ Gaudiano, BA (2008). "Cognitive-behavioural therapies: achievements and challenges". Evid Based Ment Health. 11 (1): 5–7. doi:10.1136/ebmh.11.1.5. PMC 3673298. PMID 18223042.
  40. ^ "World-Class Facilities | Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy". January 29, 2012. Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  41. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
  42. ^ "Faculty Details". September 29, 2015. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  43. ^ "Judge Alice Beck Dubow | Superior Court Judges | Superior Court | Courts | Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania".
  44. ^ a b "Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy". Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania: Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  45. ^ "100 anni di Beck: un acrobata tra cognitivismo e psicoanalisi – Monografia" (in Italian). State of Mind. July 17, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  46. ^ "In Memory of Aaron Temkin Beck, MD". Beck Institute. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
  47. ^ Carey, Benedict (November 1, 2021). "Dr. Aaron T. Beck, Developer of Cognitive Therapy, Dies at 100". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  48. ^ Obituaries, Telegraph (November 1, 2021). "Aaron Beck, psychiatrist whose development of cognitive behavioural therapy transformed millions of lives around the world – obituary". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  49. ^ "How did Dr. Aaron Beck die and what was his cause of death? Developer of Cognitive Therapy, Dies at 100". Getindianews.com. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
  50. ^ Beck A.T. (1988). Beck Hopelessness Scale. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
  51. ^ "Beck Scales for Adults and Children" Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
  52. ^ "Clark-Beck Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory". Pearsonassessments.com. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  53. ^ "BDI - FastScreen for Medical Patients". Pearsonassessments.com. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  54. ^ Kovacs, M. (1992). Children's Depression Inventory. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
  55. ^ Kovacs, M., & Beck, A.T. (1977). "An empirical-clinical approach toward a definition of childhood depression." In Schulterbrandt, J.G., & Raskin, A. (Eds.). Depression in children: Diagnosis, treatment, and concept models. New York, NY: Raven.
  56. ^ "Aaron T. Beck". Lasker Foundation. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  57. ^ a b c d e "Awards and Honors" (PDF). Penn Psychiatry Perspective (11): 9–10. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
  58. ^ "Yale awards nine honorary degrees at 2012 graduation". New Haven, CT: Yale University. May 21, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  59. ^ "Beck Research: Biography". July 8, 2017. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  60. ^ Rourke, Steven (September 25, 2017). "The 25 Most Influential Physicians in the Past Century". medscape.com. Retrieved December 30, 2019.

External links[edit]