Abbreviated Injury Scale
The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an anatomical-based coding system created by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine to classify and describe the severity of injuries. It represents the threat to life associated with the injury rather than the comprehensive assessment of the severity of the injury. AIS is one of the most common anatomic scales for traumatic injuries. The first version of the scale was published in 1969 with major updates in 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1998, 2005, 2008 and 2015.
The score describes three aspects of the injury using seven numbers written as 12(34)(56).7
Each number signifies
- 1- body region
- 2- type of anatomical structure
- 3,4- specific anatomical structure
- 5,6- level
- 7- Severity of score
|4||Organs (inc. muscles/ligaments)|
|5||Skeletal (inc. joints)|
|6||Loss of Consciousness (head only)|
|50||Injury - NFS|
|Head - Loss of Consciousness (LOC)|
|02||Length of loss of consciousness|
|04-08||Level of consciousness|
|Vessels, Nerves, Organs, Bones, Joints|
|Specific Injuries are assigned consecutive two-digit numbers beginning with 02
Fractures, rupture, laceration, etc.
Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal (currently untreatable). An AIS-Code of 6 is not the arbitrary code for a deceased patient or fatal injury, but the code for injuries specifically assigned an AIS 6 severity. An AIS-Code of 9 is used to describe injuries for which not enough information is available for more detailed coding, e.g. crush injury to the head.
The AIS scale is a measurement tool for single injuries. A universally accepted injury aggregation function has not yet been proposed, though the injury severity score and its derivatives are better aggregators for use in clinical settings. In other settings such as automotive design and occupant protection, MAIS is a useful tool for the comparison of specific injuries and their relative severity and the changes in those frequencies that may result from evolving motor vehicle design.
|AIS-Code||Injury||Example||AIS % prob. of death|
|2||Moderate||fractured sternum||1 – 2|
|3||Serious||open fracture of humerus||8 – 10|
|4||Severe||perforated trachea||5 – 50|
|5||Critical||ruptured liver with tissue loss||5 – 50|
|6||Maximum||total severance of aorta||100|
|9||Not further specified (NFS)|
- Thomas A. Gennarelli, Elaine Wodzin (Hrsg.): The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005. Update 2008. American Association for Automotive Medicine (AAAM), Des Plaines, IL 2008.
- Lesko MM, Woodford M, White L, O'Brien SJ, Childs C, Lecky FE (2010). "Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System". BMC Med Res Methodol. 10: 72. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-72. PMC 2927606. PMID 20691038.
- "Abbreviated Injury Scale". trauma.org. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-23. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Abbreviated injury scale. University of Chicago: American Association for Automotive Medicine. 1985. p. 80.
- Andrew B. Peitzman; Michael Rhodes; C. William Schwab; Donald M. Yealy; Timothy C. Fabian (2002). The Trauma Manual. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-7817-2641-7.
- John D. States: The Abbreviated and the Comprehensive Research Injury Scales. In: STAPP Car Crash Journal. 13, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., New York 1969, ISSN 1532-8546, S. 282–294, LCCN 67-22372.
- "AAAM's Abbreviated Injury Scale". Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2014-03-27. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "AIS 2015 Released". Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Retrieved 2016-11-30.