Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib

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Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib
عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب
Father of Muhammad, Abdullah Ibn Abd ul-Mutallib عبد الله بن عبد المطلب.png
Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib's name in Islamic calligraphy
Bornc. 548 CE
Diedc. 570 CE (age 22)
Medina, Hejaz
Resting placeJannat al-Baqi, Medina
OccupationMerchant and clay-worker
Spouse(s)Āminah bint Wahb
ChildrenSon: Muhammad
Parent(s)Father: Abd al-Muttalib
Mother: Fatimah bint Amr
Relatives
FamilyBanu Hashim from Quraysh

Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (/æbˈdʊlə/; Arabic: عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب, romanizedʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c. 548-570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the son of Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim and Fatimah bint Amr of the Makhzum Clan.[1]

He was married to Āminah bint Wahb.[2] Muhammad was their only offspring.

Name[edit]

ʿAbd Allāh means "servant of God" or "slave of God". His full name was ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim ('Amr) ibn Abd Manāf (al-Mughīra) ibn Qusayy (Zayd) ibn Kilāb ibn Murra ibn Ka`b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghālib ibn Fahr (Quraysh) ibn Mālik ibn an-Naḑr (Qays) ibn Kinānah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ('Āmir) ibn Ilyās ibn Muḍar ibn Nizār ibn Ma'ād ibn 'Adnān.[3]

Marriage[edit]

His father chose for him Āminah daughter of Wahb ibn 'Abd Munāf who was the grandson of Zuhrah ibn Kilab, the brother of his great-great-grandfather Qusayy ibn Kilāb. Wahb had been the chief of Banu Zuhrah as well as its eldest and noblest member but had died some time previously and Āminah became a ward of his brother Wuhaib, who had succeeded him as chief of the clan.

His father went with him to the quarter of Banū Zuhrah. There, he sought the residence of Wuhayb and went in to ask for the hand of Wahb's daughter for his son. 'Abdullāh's father fixed his marriage with Aminah.[4] It was said that a light shone out of his forehead and that this light was the promise of a Prophet as offspring. Many women approached 'Abdullāh, who is reported to have been a handsome man, so that they might gain the honor of producing his offspring. However it is believed that, as decided by God, the light was destined to be transferred to Āminah through 'Abdullāh after consummating the marriage.[5] 'Abdullāh's father was the custodian of the Kaaba in Mecca. 'Abdullāh lived with Āminah among her relatives the first three days of the marriage. Afterwards, they moved together to the quarter of 'Abdul-Muttalib.

Death[edit]

Al-Baqi Cemetery in Medina, where Abdullah and other relatives of his son Muhammad are believed to be buried. In the background is the tomb (marked by the Green Dome) and mosque of Muhammad.

Soon after their marriage 'Abdullāh was called to Palestine and Syria (in what is Al-Shām or the Levant) on a trading caravan trip. When he left, Āminah was pregnant. 'Abdullāh was absent for several months in Gaza. On his way back he stopped for a longer rest with the family of his paternal grandmother, Salma bint Amr, who belonged to the Najjar clan of the Khazraj tribe in Medina. He was preparing to join a caravan to Mecca when he felt ill.

The caravan went on without him to Mecca with news of his absence and disease. 'Abdul-Muttalib immediately sent his eldest son al-Harith to Medina. Upon his arrival, al-Harith learned that his brother had died and that he had been buried there a month after falling ill. Harith returned to Mecca to announce the death of `Abdullāh to his aged father and his bereaved wife Āminah.[6][7]

He was buried in Dar ul Nabeghah in Medina (today Saudi Arabia) and his mausoleum was demolished on 20th or 21st January 1978. Reportedly he was reburied in Al Baqee Graveyard next to Muhammad's son "Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad".

Estate[edit]

'Abdullāh left five camels, a herd of sheep and goats, and an Abyssinian slave nurse, called Umm Ayman, who was to take care of his son Muhammad.[8] This patrimony does not prove that 'Abdullāh was wealthy, but at the same time it does not prove that he was poor. Rather, it shows that Muhammad was his heir. Furthermore, 'Abdullāh was still a young man capable of working and of amassing a fortune. His father was still alive and none of his wealth had as yet been transferred to his sons.[9]

Fate in the afterlife[edit]

Islamic scholars have long been divided over the religious beliefs of Muhammad's mother and her fate in the afterlife.[10] One transmission by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah states that Allah (God) refused to forgive Aminah for her kufr (disbelief). Another transmission in Musnad al-Bazzar states that the Muhammad's mother was brought back to life and accepted Islam, then returned to the Barzakh.[11]: 11  Some Ash'ari and Shafi'i scholars argued that neither would be punished in the afterlife, as they were Ahl al-fatrah, or "People of the interval" between the prophetic messages of 'Isa (Jesus) and Muhammad.[12] The concept of Ahl al-fatrah is not universally accepted among Islamic scholars, and there is debate concerning the extent of salvation available for active practitioners of Shirk (Polytheism),[13] though the majority of scholars have come to agree with it, and disregard the ahadith (narrations) stating that Muhammad's parents were condemned to hell.[10]

While a work attributed to Abu Hanifah, an early Sunni scholar, stated that both Aminah and Abdullah died upon their innate nature (Mata 'ala al-fitrah),[14] some later authors of mawlid texts related a tradition in which Aminah and Abdullah were temporarily revived and embraced Islam. Scholars like Ibn Taymiyyah stated that this was a lie, though Al-Qurtubi stated that the concept did not disagree with Islamic theology.[12] According to Ali al-Qari, the preferred view is that both the parents of Muhammad were Muslims.[11]: 28  According to Al-Suyuti, Isma'il Haqqi, and other Islamic scholars, all of the narrations indicating that the parents of Muhammad were not forgiven were later abrogated when they were brought to life and accepted Islam.[11]: 24  Shia Muslims believe that all of Muhammad's ancestors, Aminah included, were monotheists, and therefore entitled to Paradise. A Shia tradition states that Allah forbade the fires of Hell from touching either of Muhammad's parents.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Sa'ad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1967). Ibn Sa'd's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir Volume I Parts I & II, pp. 99-100. Delhi: Kitab-Bhavan.
  2. ^ Al-A'zami, Muhammad Mustafa (2003). The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments. UK Islamic Academy. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-1-8725-3165-6.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-23. Retrieved 2006-01-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Cook, Michael. Muhammad. Oxford University Press: New York, 1983. ISBN 0-19-287605-8.
  5. ^ Ibn Kathīr The Life of the Prophet Muḥammad : Volume 1. Trans. Prof. Trevor Le Gassick. Garnet Publishing: Lebanon, 1998. ISBN 1-85964-142-3.
  6. ^ Ibn Sa'd/Haq pp. 107-108.
  7. ^ Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad : A Biography of the Prophet. HarperSanFrancisco: San Francisco, 1993. ISBN 0-06-250886-5
  8. ^ Ibn Sa'd/Haq p. 109.
  9. ^ Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Martin Lings, George Allen & Unwin, 1983, p24
  10. ^ a b Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2015). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 188-189.
  11. ^ a b c Mufti Muhammad Khan Qadri, The Parents of the Prophet Muhammad were Muslims, Suffah Foundation, pp. 11–28
  12. ^ a b Holmes Katz, Marion (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 126-128. ISBN 978-1-1359-8394-9.
  13. ^ Rida, Rashid. "2:62". Tafsir al-Manar. pp. 278–281. Archived from the original on 2018-11-05. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  14. ^ Dr. `Inayatullah Iblagh al-Afghanistani, Refuting the Claim that Imam Abu Hanifa was of the opinion that the Prophet’s Parents were Kafirs, Masud
  15. ^ Rubin, Uri (1975). "Pre-Existence and Light—Aspects of the Concept of Nur Muhammad". Israel Oriental Studies. 5: 75–88.