شيبة ابن هاشم عبد المطّلب
Shaybah ibn Hashim
|Died||578 (aged 80–81)|
|Burial place||Jannat al-Mu'alla|
|Other names||Shaybat al-Ḥamd ("The white streak of praise")|
|Occupation||Chief of Quraish|
|Home town||Mecca |
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
Shaybah ibn Hashim (c. 497 – 578), better known as Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: عبد المطلب, romanized: ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib) since he was raised by his uncle Muttalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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His father was Hāshim ibn ʿAbd Manāf,:81 the progenitor of the distinguished Hāshim clan, a subgroup of the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. They claimed descent from Ismā'īl and Ibrāhīm. His mother was Salmah bint `Amr from the Banū Najjār, a clan of the Khazraj tribe in Yathrib (later called Madinah). Hashim died while doing business in Gaza, before ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib was born.:81
He was given the name "Shaybah" meaning 'the ancient one' or 'white-haired' because of the streak of white through his jet-black hair, and is sometimes also called Shaybat al-Ḥamd ("The white streak of praise").:81–82 After his father's death he was raised in Yathrib with his mother and her family until about the age of eight, when his uncle Muṭṭalib went to see him and asked his mother Salmah to entrust Shaybah to his care. Salmah was unwilling to let her son go and Shaybah refused to leave his mother without her consent. Muṭṭalib then pointed out that the possibilities Yathrib had to offer were incomparable to Mecca. Salmah was impressed with his arguments, so she agreed to let him go. Upon first arriving in Mecca, the people assumed the unknown child was Muttalib's slave, giving him the name ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (slave of Muṭṭalib).:85–86
Chieftain of Hashim clan
When Muṭṭalib died, Shaybah succeeded him as the chief of the Hāshim clan. Following his uncle Al-Muṭṭalib, he took over the duties of providing the pilgrims with food and water, and carried on the practices of his forefathers with his people. He attained such eminence as none of his forefathers enjoyed; his people loved him and his reputation was great among them.:61
‘Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb's grandfather Nufayl ibn Abdul Uzza arbitrated in a dispute between ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib and Ḥarb ibn Umayyah, Abu Sufyan’s father, over the custodianship of the Kaaba. Nufayl gave his verdict in favor of ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib. Addressing Ḥarb ibn Umayyah, he said:
Why do you pick a quarrel with a person who is taller than you in stature; more imposing than you in appearance; more refined than you in intellect; whose progeny outnumbers yours and whose generosity outshines yours in luster? Do not, however, construe this into any disparagement of your good qualities which I highly appreciate. You are as gentle as a lamb, you are renowned throughout Arabia for the stentorian tones of your voice, and you are an asset to your tribe.
Discovery of Zam Zam Well
‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib said that while sleeping in the sacred enclosure, he had dreamed he was ordered to dig at the slaughter-place of the Quraysh between the two idols Isāf and Nā’ila. There he would find the Zamzam Well, which the Jurhum tribe had filled in when they left Mecca. The Quraysh tried to stop him digging in that spot, but his son Al-Ḥārith stood guard until they gave up their protests. After three days of digging, ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib found traces of an old well and exclaimed, "Allahuakbar!" Some of the Quraysh disputed his claim to sole rights over water, but in the end they allowed him to keep it. Thereafter he supplied pilgrims to the Kaaba with Zamzam water, which soon eclipsed all the other wells in Mecca because it was considered sacred.:86–89:62–65
The Year of the Elephant
According to Muslim tradition, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abrahah al-Ashram, envied the Kaaba's reverence among the Arabs and, being a Christian, he built a cathedral in Sana'a and ordered pilgrimage be made there.:21 The order was ignored and someone desecrated (some saying in the form of defecation:696 note 35) the cathedral. Abrahah decided to avenge this act by demolishing the Kaaba and he advanced with an army towards Mecca.:22–23
There were thirteen elephants in Abrahah's army:99:26 and the year came to be known as 'Ām al-Fīl (the Year of the Elephant), beginning a trend for reckoning the years in Arabia which was used until 'Umar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb replaced it with the Islamic Calendar.
When news of the advance of Abrahah's army came, the Arab tribes of Quraysh, Kinānah, Khuzā'ah and Hudhayl united in defense of the Kaaba. A man from the Ḥimyar tribe was sent by Abrahah to advise them that he only wished to demolish the Kaaba and if they resisted, they would be crushed. `Abdul-Muṭṭalib told the Meccans to seek refuge in the nearest high hills while he, with some leading members of Quraysh, remained within the precincts of the Kaaba. Abrahah sent a dispatch inviting ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib to meet him and discuss matters. When ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib left the meeting he was heard saying, "The Owner of this House is its Defender, and I am sure He will save it from the attack of the adversaries and will not dishonor the servants of His House.":24–26
It is recorded that when Abrahah's forces neared the Kaaba, Allah commanded small birds (abābīl) to destroy Abrahah's army, raining down pebbles on it from their beaks. Abrahah was seriously wounded and retreated towards Yemen but died on the way.:26–27 This event is referred to in the following Qur'anic chapter:
Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the owners of the Elephant?
Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray?
And He sent against them birds in flocks, striking them with stones of baked clay, so He rendered them like straw eaten up.— Qur'an sura 105 (Al-Fil)
Most Islamic sources place the event around the year that Muhammad was born, 570 CE, though other scholars place it one or two decades earlier. A tradition attributed to Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri in the works of ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-San‘ani places it before the birth of Muhammad's father.
Sacrificing his son Abdullah
Al-Harith was ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib's only son at the time he dug the Zamzam Well.:64 When the Quraysh were trying to stop his digging, he vowed that if he were to have ten sons to protect him, he would sacrifice one of them to Allah at the Kaaba. Later, after nine more sons had been born to him, he told them he must keep the vow. The divination arrows fell upon his favorite son Abdullah. The Quraysh protested ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib's intention to sacrifice his son and demanded that he sacrifice something else instead. ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib agreed to consult a "sorceress with a familiar spirit". She told him to cast lots between Abdullah and ten camels. If Abdullah were chosen, he had to add ten more camels, and keep on doing the same until his Lord accepted the camels in Abdullah's place. When the number of camels reached 100, the lot fell on the camels. ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib confirmed this by repeating the test three times. Then the camels were sacrificed, and Abdullah was spared.:66–68
Abdul-Muttalib had six known wives.
- Sumra bint Jundab of the Hawazin tribe.
- Lubnā bint Hājar of the Khuza'a tribe.
- Fatimah bint Amr of the Makhzum clan of the Quraysh tribe.
- Halah bint Wuhayb of the Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe.
- Natīla bint Janab of the Khazraj tribe.
- Mumanna'a bint 'Amr of the Khuza'a tribe.
By Sumrah bint Jandab:
By Fatimah bint Amr:
- Al-Zubayr.:707 He was a poet and a chief; his father made a will in his favor.:99 He died before Islam, leaving two sons and daughters.:101:34–35
- Abu Talib, born as Abdmanaf, :99:707 father of the future Caliph Ali. He later became chief of the Hashim clan.
- Abdullah, the father of Muhammad.:99:707
- Umm Hakim al-Bayda,:100:707 the maternal grandmother of the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan.:32
- Barra,:100:707 the mother of Abu Salama.:33
- Atika,:100:707 a wife of Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira.:31
- Umama,:100:707 the mother of Zaynab bint Jahsh and Abdullah ibn Jahsh.:33
By Lubnā bint Hājar:
By Halah bint Wuhayb:
- Ḥamza,:707 who died at Uhud.:100
- Abdulkaaba, also known as al-Muqawwim.:100:707
- al-Mughira, also known as Hajl,:100 who had the byname al-Ghaydaq.:707
- al-'Abbas,:100:707 ancestor of the Abbasid caliphs.
- Ḍirār,:707 who died before Islam.:100
- Quthum.:100 He is not listed by Ibn Hisham.
By Mumanna'a bint 'Amr:
- Musab, who, according to Ibn Saad, was the one known as al-Ghaydāq.:100 He is not listed by Ibn Hisham.
The family tree and some of his important descendants
Abdul Muttalib's son ‘Abdullāh died four months before Muḥammad's birth, after which Abdul Muttalib took care of his daughter-in-law Āminah. Āminah died six years later, and Abdul Muttalib looked after Muhammad until his own death in 578 CE.
- The correct form of the name is with two T's (Ta's) and one L (Lam). Thus for instance in Ibn Mākūlā's work: Al-Ikmāl fī Raf' al-Irtiyāb 'an al-Mu'talif wa al-Mukhtalif fi al-Asmā' wa al-Kunā Wa al-Ansāb. vol. 7. pg. 200. Quote: "And as for Muṭallib it is with Ḑammah (u) of the Mīm, and Tashdīd (doubling) of the Ṭā' ; and there is a group of them (i.e people called by this name)."
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Haq, S. M. (1967). Ibn Sa'ad's Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir Volume I Parts I & II. Delhi: Kitab Bhavan.
- Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press.
- Abdulmalik ibn Hisham. Notes to Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Çakmak, Cenap. Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 170. ISBN 978-1610692168.
- Esposito, John L. (1995). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World: Libe-Sare. Oxford University Press. p. 154.
- ibn Rashid, Mamar. The Expeditions: An Early Biography of Muhammad. Translated by Sean W. Anthony. NYU Press. p. 3-5. ISBN 978-0814769638.
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr, p. 20. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1998). Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors. 39. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 24.