Abd al-Qadir Maraghi
Abd al-Qadir Maraghiعبدالقادر مراغهای
|Birth name||عبدالقادر غیبی مراغی|
|Born||middle of 14th|
|Instrument(s)||Oud, Tar, Harp|
Abd al-Qadir al-Maraghi b. Ghaybi (Persian: عبدالقادر مراغی, born middle of 14th – died 1435 AD), was a Persian or Azerbaijani musician and artist. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, he "was the greatest of the Persian writers on music". According to Kubilay Kolukırık, Al-Maraghi is regarded as a "very important musician whose name is frequently mentioned in the development process of Turkic music history". His works also played an important role in Arabian music.
Abd al- Qadir b. GHaybi al-Hafiz al-Maraghi was born in Maragheh in about the middle of the 14th century. He had become one of the court minstrels of the Jalayirid Sultan al-Husayn around 1379. Under Sultan Ahmad Jalayirid, he was appointed the chief court minstrel. When Timur captured Baghdad in 1393, he was transported to Samarqand, which was the capital of the Timurid dynasty. In 1399, he was in Tabriz at the service of Timur's wayward son Miranshah. Abdl al-Qadir was blamed for the erratic conducts of Miranshah, and Timur acted swiftly in order to capture him. But Abd al-Qadir, was forewarned and escaped to the Jalayrid court of Sultan Ahmad in Baghdad. Timur again recaptured Baghdad in 1401 and took Abd al-Qadir back to Samarqand. Abd al-Qadir became one of the brilliant men at the court of Timur's son, Shahrukh . In 1421, he also wrote a musical treatise (see below) for the Ottoman Sultan Murad II. He died in Samarqand in 1435.
Works on music theory
Abd al-Qadir was proficient in music, poetry and painting. This made him to be a highly desired artisan amongst the courts of different dynasties. It was due to his musical talent that he was named by his contemporaries as the Glory of the past age.
Abd al-Qadir is known for his four works on music theory. All three surviving works were written in Persian. His most important treatise on music is the Jami al-Alhan (جامع الالحان) (Arabic for Encyclopedia of Music), autographs of which are preserved at the Bodleian Library and the Nuruosmaniye Mosque Library in Istanbul. The first manuscript of this work was written in 1405 for his Nur al-din Abd al-Rahman was revised by the author in 1413. The second manuscript was written in 1415, carries a dedication to Sultan Sharukh of the Timurid dynasty.
The second major work of Abd al-Qadir is the Persian book Maqasid al-Alhan (Arabic for: Purports of Music)(مقاصد الالحان). It was dedicated to the Ottoman Sultan Murad II.
A third treatise on music, the Kanz al-Tu.af (Treasury of Music) which contained the author's notated compositions, has not survived.
Hamdollah Mustawafi of the 13th century AD mentions the language of Maragheh as "Pahlavi Mughayr" (modified Pahlavi):
The 17th century AD Ottoman Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi who traveled to Safavid Iran also states:
“The majority of the women in Maragheh converse in Pahlavi”.
According to the Encyclopedia of Islam:"At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke “arabicized Pahlawi” (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."
Abd al-Qadir Maraghi not only recorded songs in Persian Language, but also in Arabic, Mongolian, Turkish (Khatai, Chagatay) as well as various regional Iranian dialects (Fahlaviyyat) of Hamadan, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Tabriz, and Rayy. Thus his work gives us a better view of the regional dialects of Iran.
Four quatrains titled fahlaviyyat from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani (d. 677/1278-79); born in Kojjan or Korjan, a village near Tabriz, recorded by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi. A sample of one of the four quatrains from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani
همه کیژی نَهَند خُشتی بَخُشتی
بَنا اج چو کَه دستِ گیژی وَنیژه
همه پیغمبران خُو بی و چو کِی
محمدمصطفی کیژی وَنیژه
رُورُم پَری بجولان
نو کُو بَمَن وُرارده
وی خَد شدیم بدامش
هیزا اَوُو وُرارده
- List of Persian poets and authors
- Persian literature
- Persian literature
- Persian traditional music
- Persian culture
- Persian Symphonic Music
- List of Iranian composers
- Biran 2016, p. 146 note (52).
- Farmer, H.G. "Abd al- Qadir b. GHaybi al-Hafiz al-Maraghi." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-0091>. quote:", the greatest of the Persian writers on music. Born at Marāg̲h̲a, about the middle of the 8th/14th century, he had become one of the minstrels of al-Ḥusayn, the Ḏj̲alāʾirid Sultan of ʿIrāḳ, about 781/1379."
- Heinrich von Diez and his Eponymous Albums, David J. Roxburgh, Muqarnas, Vol.12, 1995, 127; "Ghaybi al-Hafiz al-Maraghi, the Persian musician and musical theorist who attended the court of Shahrukh after 1405..".
- Donzel, E. J. van (1 January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 8. ISBN 90-04-09738-4.
Abd al-Qadir b. Ghaybi: the greatest of the Persian writers on music, whose works are of great importance in the history of Persian, Arabian and Turkish music; d. 1435.
- TEKİN, G. (1979). "Timur Devrine ait iki Türkçe Şiir" [Two Turkish Poems of the Timur Period]. Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institut. 3/4: 850–867. JSTOR 41035878.
- Kolukırık, Kubilay (2010). "ABDÜLKADiR MERAGi'NiN HAYATI, KİŞİLİĞİ VE MUSİKİ YÖNÜ". Fırat Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (in Turkish). Fırat University. 15: 227.
- "حمدالله مستوفي هم كه در سدههاي هفتم و هشتم هجري ميزيست، ضمن اشاره به زبان مردم مراغه مينويسد: "زبانشان پهلوي مغير است مستوفي، حمدالله: "نزهةالقلوب"، به كوشش محمد دبيرسياقي، انتشارات طهوري، 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
- Source: Mohammad-Amin Riahi . “Molehaazi darbaareyeh Zabaan-I Kohan Azerbaijan”(Some comments on the ancient language of Azerbaijan), ‘Itilia’at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182. رياحي خويي، محمدامين، «ملاحظاتي دربارهي زبان كهن آذربايجان»: اطلاعات سياسي - اقتصادي، شمارهي 182-181 Also available at: 
- V.Minorsky, “Margha” in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online."At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke “arabicized Pahlawi” (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."
- Dr. A. A. Sadeqi, "Ash'ar-e mahalli-e Jame' al-alHaann," Majalla-ye zaban-shenasi 9, 1371./1992, pp. 54-64/ 
- Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Dr. Ahmad Taffazoli Archived 2008-03-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Biran, Michael (2016). "Ṣafī al-Dīn Urmawī and the Ilkhanid Circle of Musicians". In Nicola, Bruno; Melville, Charles (eds.). The Mongols' Middle East: Continuity and Transformation in Ilkhanid Iran. Brill. pp. 133–155. ISBN 978-9004311992.
- Blum, Stephen (2007). "Abd al-Qādir al-Marāghī". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_SIM_0241. ISBN 978-90-04-16164-1.
- Doğrusöz, Nilgün (12 July 2015). "From Anatolian Edvâr (Musical Theory Book) Writers to Abdülbâkî Nâsır Dede: An Evaluation of the History of Ottoman/Turkish Music Theory". Writing the History of "Ottoman Music". Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag. pp. 75–86. doi:10.5771/9783956507038-75. ISBN 978-3-95650-094-7.
- Feldman, Walter (Autumn 1990 – Winter 1991). "Cultural Authority and Authenticity in the Turkish Repertoire". Asian Music. 22 (1): 73–111. doi:10.2307/834291. JSTOR 834291.
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- Wright, Owen (1 January 1995). "'Abd al-Qādir al-Marāghī and 'Alī b. Muḥammad Binā'ī: Two Fifteenth-Century Examples of Notation Part 2: Commentary". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 58 (1): 17–39. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00011836. JSTOR 619996.
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