Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti

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Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti
TitleAbd al-Rahman al-Jabarti
Personal
Born1753,
Cairo, Egypt
Died1825,
Cairo, Egypt
ReligionIslam
EthnicitySomali and Arab
Eralate 18th century – 19th century
RegionHorn of Africa/North Africa
JurisprudenceShafi'i
Main interest(s)Islamic philosophy, Islamic Jurisprudence, Egyptian history
Alma materAl-Azhar University

Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (1753–1825) (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الجبرتي‎), full name: Abd al-Rahman bin Hasan bin Burhan al-Din al-Jabarti (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن حسن بن برهان الدين الجبرتي‎), often simply known as Al-Jabarti, was an Egyptian scholar who spent most of his life in Cairo.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

The book of "Sulayman al-Halaby Trial and killing of Sari Askar Klieber" by al-Jabarti

Little is known of al-Jabarti's life. According to Franz Steiner, he was born in the village of Tell al-Gabarti in the northern Delta province of Beheira, Egypt.[3] Abdulkader Saleh asserts that al-Jabarti was instead born in Cairo.[4]

Al-Jabarti was born into a prominent family of ulama[5] with ties to the Egyptian scholarly and political elite. Al-Jabarti's father was Hassan Al-Jabarti, a learned and highly venerated man in Cairo.[6] Al-Jabarti's paternal family was descended from the Banu Hashim.[1][7][8][9] According to his writings, his name comes from his "seventh-degree grandfather," Abd al-Rahman, who was the earliest member of his family known to him.[10] The older Abd al-Rahman visited the Riwaqs of the Jabarti communities in Mecca and Medina before making it to Egypt, where he became Sheikh of the Riwaq there. Al-Jabarti's father was a Hanafi religious scholar and served as the director of the al-Jabarti residence hall for students at al-Azhar University, a title al-Jabarti inherited following his father's death in 1744.[11] As a result, al-Jabarti was trained as a Sheikh at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo. Through his family ties, al-Jabarti gained access to prominent scholars al-Muradi and al-Murtada, both of whom influenced his decision to write about Egyptian history.[12] He began keeping a monthly chronicle of local events, from which he compiled his three most famous works. The last and lengthiest of these documents, in Arabic Aja'ib al-athar fi al-tarajim wal-akhbar (عجائب الاَثار في التراجم والاخبار), which is generally known in English simply as Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt, sometimes as The Marvelous Compositions of Biographies and Events, and, became a world-famous historical text by virtue of its eyewitness accounts of Napoleon's invasion and Muhammad Ali's seizure of power. The entries from his chronicle dealing with the French expedition and occupation have been excerpted and compiled in English as a separate volume entitled Napoleon in Egypt. He was one of the first Muslims to realize the significance of the wave of modernity that accompanied the French occupation, and the gulf that existed between Western and Islamic knowledge "shocked him profoundly".[13]

According to Marsot, at the end of his life, Al-Jabarti chose to be buried in Tell al-Gabarti, the town to which he traced his descent.[14]

Works[edit]

Al-Jabarti is known for three works: Tarikh muddat al-faransis bi-misr (The History of the Period of the French Occupation in Egypt), completed in late 1798, Mazhar al-taqdis bi-zawal dawlat al-faransis (Demonstration of Piety in the Demise of French Society), completed in December 1801, and ‘Aja’ib al-athar fi’l-tarajim wa’l-akhbar (The Marvelous Compositions of Biographies and Events), which was much longer than and comprised elements of his first two works.[15] The History of the French Occupation in Egypt chronicles the first seven months of the three-year occupation of Egypt by the French. In this work, in addition to chronicling factual events, al-Jabarti criticizes the social and moral depravity of the French, embarks on an extensive correction of the grammar in the French Proclamation, and expresses general feelings of anger towards this invasion. His second work, Demonstration of Piety in the Demise of French Society, is much less well known than his other two. The Marvelous Compositions of Biographies and Events is by far al-Jabarti's most famous work, as well as his longest. This work covers the history of Egypt from 1688 to 1821 but was banned in Egypt in 1870 due to its critical approach of Muhammad Ali Pasha's reforms, among other controversial criticisms.[11] Towards the end of the 1870s the ban on his book was lifted, and it was printed in part in 1878 by the press of Alexandria newspaper Misr, and in full in 1880 by the Bulak printing press.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1923). My diaries; Being a Personal Narrative of Events. p. 81.
  2. ^ Beattie, Andrew (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. p. 144. ISBN 9781902669779.
  3. ^ al-Jabarti, 'Abd al-Rahman. History of Egypt: 'Aja'ib al-Athar fi 'l-Tarajim wa'l-Akhbar. vol.1. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. 1994.
  4. ^ Abdulkader Saleh, "Ǧäbärti," in Uhlig, Siegbert, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, p. 597.
  5. ^ Guardians of Faith in Modern Times: ʻUlamaʼ in the Middle East. Hatina, Meir. Leiden: Brill. 2009. ISBN 9789047442936. OCLC 567763241.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ Huart, Clément (1903). "A History of Arabic Literature". p. 423.
  7. ^ Molefi K. Asante (2002). Culture and Customs of Egypt. p. 21. ISBN 9780313317408.
  8. ^ Stewart, Desmond (1981). Great Cairo, mother of the world. p. 173. ISBN 9780313317408.
  9. ^ Mohamed Haji Mukhtar (1987). "Arabic Sources on Somalia" (PDF). p. 149. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26.
  10. ^ David Ayalon, "The Historian al-Jabartī and His Background," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1960, p.238
  11. ^ a b c The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Gibb, H. A. R. (Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen), 1895–1971., Bearman, P. J. (Peri J.) (New ed.). Leiden: Brill. 1960–2009. ISBN 9789004161214. OCLC 399624.CS1 maint: others (link)
  12. ^ Ayalon, David (1960). "The Historian al-Jabartī and His Background". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 23 (2): 217–249. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00149912. JSTOR 609695.
  13. ^ Christopher de Bellaige, The Islamic Enlightenment. The Struggle between Faith and Reason: 1798 to Modern Time, (New York, Liveright, 2017), ISBN 9780871403735, 6 and 33.
  14. ^ Marsot, Afaf Lutfi el-Sayyed. "A Comparative Study of Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti. and Niqula al-Turk," Eighteenth Century Egypt: The Arabic Manuscript Sources. Los Angeles: Regina Books, 1990.
  15. ^ Dammen, McAuliffe, Jane. Islam. Miles, Jack. New York. ISBN 0393355020. OCLC 1004556269.

Further reading[edit]

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