|Abdu'l-Qadir Gilani |
|Full Name||Muhiyuddin Abu Muhammad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni|
|Born||1 Ramadan 470 AH or Saturday March 17, 1078|
|Died||11th Rabi' al-thani 561 AH
≈ Monday, February 14, 1166 CE
|Place of burial||Baghdad, Iraq|
|Father||Abu Salih Musa al-Hasani|
|Son(s)||• Abdul-Razzaq Gilani
• Abu Bakr
• Abdul Wahhab Gilani
• Abu Naser Musa
|Other Titles||• Sheikh
• Abdul Qadir
("Servant of the All-Powerful")
("One Who Is from Gilan")
("Reviver of the Religion")
• Abu Muhammad
("Father of Muhammad")
• Al-Ghawth al-A'zam
• ("The Supreme Helper")
• Sultan al-Awliya
("The King of the Saints")
• al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni
("descendant of Hasan and Husayn ibn Ali)
Part of a series on Islam
Sufism and Tariqat
Abd al-Qadir Gilani (Persian: عبدالقادر گیلانی, Arabic: عبدالقادر الجيلاني, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî, Central Kurdish: عهبدوالقادری گهیلانی,), born 29 Shaban 470 AH in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan-e Gharb, Gilan, Iran and died Monday, February 14, 1166 (11 Rabi' al-thani 561 AH), in Baghdad, (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali Sunni jurist and sufi based in Baghdad. The Qadiriyya is the tariqa (Sufi order) founded by him and takes its name from him.
Al-Gilani was born around 1077 in Gilan of Persia. He was born in Gilan (Iran), a historic village near the towns 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical studies and academic Kilanyia adopted by a family in Baghdad.[nb 1] Al-Gilani's father, Abu Salih Musa al-Hasani, was a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali (Imam Hasan). Hasan was the eldest son of Ali and Fatimah. Ali was Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law and also cousin and Fatima was Prophet Muhammad's daughter. Al-Gilani's mother was the daughter of Abdullah Sawmai, a descendant of Husayn ibn Ali, the younger son of Ali and Fatima. Thus, Al-Gilani was both a Hasani and Hussaini Sayyid..
Gilani is granted the title Sayyid to indicate his descent from Muhammad. The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion". Gilan (Arabic al-Jilani) refers to his place of birth, Gilan. However, Gilani also carried the epithet Baghdadi. referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. He is also called al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni, which indicates a claim to lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, the sons of Ali and grandsons of Muhammad.
Gilani spent his early life in Gilan, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law  under Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi and ibn Aqil. He was given lessons on Hadith by Abu Muhammad Ja'far al-Sarraj. His Sufi spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.
Education in Baghdad
At the age of 18, Gilani went to Baghdad to study the Hanbali school of fiqh.
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Ibn Aqil|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Hasan Muhammad ibn Qazi Abu Yali|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Khatab Mahfuz Hanbali|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Muhammad ibn Al Husnayn|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi|
|Tasawwuf (Sufism)||Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi
Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas
Abu Zakariay ibn Yahya ibn Ali Al Tabrezi
|Hadith||Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Muhammad Ibn Al Hasan Baqalai Abu Sayeed
Muhammad ibn Abdul Kareem
|Hadith||Abu Al Ghanaem Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ali Ibn Maymoon Al Farsi|
|Hadith||Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Al Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Abu Jafer Ibn Ahmad Ibn Al Hussain Al Qari|
|Hadith||Abu Al Qasim Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Banaan Al Karkhi|
|Hadith||Abu Talib Abdul Qadri Ibn Muhammad Yusuf|
|Hadith||Abdul Rahman Ibn Ahmad Abu Al Barkat Hibtaallah Ibn Al Mubarak|
|Hadith||Abu Al Nasr Ibn Il Mukhtar|
|Hadith||Abu Nasr Muhammad|
|Hadith||Abu Ghalib Ahmad|
|Hadith||Abu Abdullah Aulad Ali Al Bana|
|Hadith||Abu Al Hasan Al Mubarak Ibn Al Teyvari|
|Hadith||Abu Mansur Abdurahman Al Taqrar|
In 1127, Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mazkhzoomi, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Quran. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of Sufism and strict nature of the Quran.
Death and burial
Gilani died in the evening of Monday, February 14, 1166 (11th Rabi' al-thani 561 AH) at the age of ninety one years according to the Islamic calendar. His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrasa in Babul-Sheikh, Resafa on the east bank of the Tigris in Baghdad, Iraq. During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed. However, in 1535, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had a turba (dome) built over the shrine, which exists to this day.
- Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen) – 78 discourses, fairly short and to the point but very powerful.
- Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation) – 62 discourses, definitely longer, given in the Ribaat and Madrasa in Baghdad AH 545–546.
- Jala' al-Khawatir (The Removal of Cares) – 45 discourses, also in the same locations, given in the year AH 546.
- Malfuzat (Utterances of Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir) – This is a collection of quotes from the Shaikh. Generally, it is found at the end of the hand-copied, Arabic manuscripts of Fath ar-Rabbani.
- Al-Ghunya li-Talibi Tariq al-Haqq (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth, also known in the Indian sub-continent as Al-Ghunya li-Talibin). These five volumes, written by the Shaikh at the request of one of his murids, is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of Islam, both the inward and the outward.
- Khamsata 'Ashara Maktuban (Fifteen Letters) – These are 15 letters originally written in Persian by Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir to one of his murids.
- Al-Fuyudat al-Rabbaniyya (Emanations of Lordly Grace)
- Bashair al-Khairat (Glad Tidings of Good Things) – A Salawat by Shaykh Abd al-Qadir by way of inspiration from Allah.
- Kitab Sirr al-Asrar wa Mazhar al-Anwar (The Book of the Secret of Secrets and the Manifestation of Light
- Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani Hamadaniyyaha and kubriyyah
- Moinuddin Chishti
- Ashraf Jahangir Semnani
- Ahmed Ullah Maizbhanderi
- Salekur Rahman Rahe Bhanderi
- Khalifa of Ahmed Ullah Maizbhanderi
- Syed Ibrahim
- Ahmed Raza Khan
- Sultan Bahu
- Jamaluddin Al-Jailani
- Sayings of Shaikh Abd al-Qadir al-Jīlānī Malfūzāt, Holland, Muhtar (translator). S. Abdul Majeed & Co, Kuala Lumpur (1994) ISBN 1-882216-03-2.
- Fifteen letters, khamsata ashara maktūban / Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī. Translated from Persian to Arabic by Alī usāmu ́D-Dīn Al-Muttaqī. Translated from Arabic into English by Muhtar Holland.
- Kamsata ašara maktūban. First edition. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, ʿAlī B., ʿAbd al-Malik al- Muttaqī al-Hindī (about 1480–1567) and Muhtar Holland (1935–). Al-Baz publications, Hollywood, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-16-4.
- Jalā Al-Khawātir: a collection of forty-five discourses of Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī, the removal of cares. Chapter 23, pg 308. Jalā al-Khawātir, Holland, Muhtar (1935–) (translator). Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-13-X.
- The sultan of the saints: mystical life and teachings of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani / Muhammad Riaz Qadiri Qadiri, Muhammad Riyaz. Gujranwala, Abbasi publications. (2000) ISBN 969-8510-16-8.
- The sublime revelation: al-Fath ar-Rabbānī, a collection of sixty-two discourses / Abd al-Qādir al- Jīlānī, Second edition. al-Rabbānī, al-Fath. Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1998). ISBN 1-882216-02-4.
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), Parts one and two in Arabic. Al-Qadir, Abd, Al-Gaylani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion.) in Arabic. Introduced by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Dar Al-Khair, Damascus, Bairut, (2005).
- Encyclopædia Iranica, Bibliotheca Persica PresS, ISBN 1-56859-050-4.
- There is uncertainty as to the year of his birth; some sources say 1077, others 1078.
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- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion) with introduction by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Al-Kilani, Majid , al-Tariqat, 'Ursan, and al-Qadiriyah, Nash'at
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- Revelations of the Unseen Translation of Futuh al-Ghaib, at archive.org.
- Sufficient Provision For Seekers Of The Path Of Truth Translation of parts of Al-Ghunya Li Talibi Tariq Al-Haqq, at archive.org.
- Openings from the Lord Translation of excerpts from Al-Fath Al-Rabbani, at archive.org.
- Utterances Translation of Malfuzat, at archive.org.