Abdul Hadi Awang
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Abdul Hadi Awang
|Special Envoy of Malaysia to the Middle East|
|Assumed office |
2 April 2020
|Prime Minister||Muhyiddin Yassin|
|Preceded by||Office Established|
|7th President of the Malaysian Islamic Party|
|Assumed office |
23 July 2002
|Deputy||Nasharudin Mat Isa (2005-2011) |
Mohamad Sabu (2011-2015)
Tuan Ibrahim (since 2015)
|Spiritual Leader||Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat|
|Preceded by||Fadzil Noor|
|8th Leader of the Opposition (Malaysia)|
23 July 2002 – 21 March 2004
|Prime Minister||Mahathir Mohamad|
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
|Preceded by||Fadzil Noor|
|Succeeded by||Lim Kit Siang|
|11th Menteri Besar of Terengganu|
2 December 1999 – 25 March 2004
|Monarch||Mizan Zainal Abidin|
|Preceded by||Wan Mokhtar Ahmad|
|Succeeded by||Idris Jusoh|
|Deputy President of the Malaysian Islamic Party|
1989 – 23 July 2002
|Spiritual Leader||Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat|
|Preceded by||Fadzil Noor|
|Succeeded by||Tuan Ibrahim|
|Member of the Malaysian Parliament|
|Assumed office |
8 March 2008
|Preceded by||Abdul Rahman Bakar|
1990 – 21 March 2004
|Preceded by||Abdul Rahman Bakar|
|Succeeded by||Abdul Rahman Bakar|
|Member of the Terengganu State Legislative Assembly|
for Ru Rendang
3 August 1986 – 9 May 2018
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Ahmad Samsuri Mokhtar|
|Member of the Terengganu State Legislative Assembly|
|Preceded by||Tengku Zahid Musa|
|Succeeded by||Constituency abolished|
Abdul Hadi bin Awang
20 October 1947
Marang, Terengganu, Malayan Union (now Malaysia)
|Political party||Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)|
Barisan Nasional (BN)
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU)
Barisan Alternatif (BA)
Pakatan Rakyat (PR)
Gagasan Sejahtera (GS)
Perikatan Nasional (PN)
Muafakat Nasional (MN)
|Spouse(s)||To' Puan Seri Hajah Zainab Awang Ngah|
Dr. Norzita Taat
|Relations||Zaharudin Muhammad (son in law)|
Mohd Akmal Kamaruddin (son in law)
|Children||14 (including Muhammad Khalil Abdul Hadi)|
|Parents||Awang Mohamad Abd Rahman|
|Alma mater||Islamic University of Madinah|
Abdul Hadi bin Awang (Jawi: عبدالهادي بن اوڠ; born 20 October 1947) is a Malaysian politician who has been 7th President of the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), an Islamic political party in Malaysia, since July 2002. He was the Menteri Besar of Terengganu from 1999 to 2004, and the state assemblyman for Ru Rendang. He is currently the Member of Parliament (MP) for Marang, both in Terengganu. At the international level, he has been appointed as Vice-President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.
Hadi received his education in neighbourhood schools before furthering his studies at the Islamic University of Madinah between 1969 and 1973, and later at Al-Azhar University. Upon his return to Malaysia, he joined Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) in 1977, where he quickly became its Terengganu state chief. A year later, Hadi joined the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and contested a parliamentary seat in the 1978 general election. He rose quickly through the ranks. He became PAS deputy president in 1989 when Fadzil Noor was elected to the party presidency. He remained deputy president until 2002, when Fadzil died of a heart attack, resulting in Hadi succeeding him as PAS President.
Hadi was born on 20 October 1947, in Kampung Rusila, Marang, Terengganu. He is the fifth child of nine siblings; four of them are deceased. His father's name was Haji Awang Mohamad bin Abd Rahman while his mother was Hajjah Aminah Yusuf. They are also deceased. His father who was Tok Guru in Kampung Rusila was also a political activist of Hizbul Muslimin Terengganu. Similarly, his bonds were the place of reference and the focus of society, especially in religious matters. Hizbul Muslimin was banned by the colonists, at the will of the ruling party. A few years after the ban, Haji Awang Mohammad emerged as one of the earliest to introduce the struggle of the Malay Se-Malaya (PAS) Society in Terengganu.
Tuan Guru Abdul Hadi Awang was given an early education by his father beginning in 1955. Later, he was educated formally at the Rusila National School before continuing his secondary education at Marang Religious School. He then pursued Sanawi's degree at the Sultan Zainal Abidin Religious Secondary School, Kuala Terengganu. In addition, he studied religion, Arabic and politics with his father.
He furthered his studies at the Islamic University of Madinah for a Shariah bachelor's degree funding by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with the support of the then-vice president of the Islamic University of Madinah Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah.
After about four years in the Arabian Peninsula (1969–1973), he earned his first degree in Islamic Shariah. He furthered his master's degree at Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, in Siyasah Syar'iyyah (Political Science) from 1974 to 1976.
Participation in society
Shortly after finishing his studies and returning to his homeland, in 1976, his father died. Hadi then decided to continue his father's duty of being a khatib and delivering khutbah (a sermon) every Friday morning.
He served as an officer for the Terengganu Islamic Foundation from 1977 to 1978, and at the same time as Terengganu Chief of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM).
In 1978, he began teaching at the Maahad Al-Ikhwan (Institute of Feed), a private school set up by a few young PAS youths in Mengadang Akar, Kuala Terengganu.
In 1982, when ABIM's president, Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim left the organization and joined the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Abdul Hadi joined PAS with Ustaz Fadzil Noor and Datuk Nakhaie Ahmad.
Along with these three, some of the ABIM leaders who joined PAS included: Tuan Haji Mohamad Sabu, Ustaz Abdul Ghani Shamsuddin, Datuk Paduka Husam Musa, Datuk Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man, Ustaz Abu Bakar Chik, Ustaz Muhammad Mustafa and Datuk Mohammad Daud Iraqi.
Hadi has been active in politics since 1964 when he was studying in high school. He has been entrusted as a branch secretary in the PAS village Rusila, Marang.
In 1976, he was appointed Terengganu PAS youth chief and the Central PAS Youth Council Exco. In 1977, he was elected to the Central PAS Working Committee. In 1978, he was appointed acting vice president of the Central Center and later confirmed to the post in 1980. In 1983, he and Datuk Nakhaei Ahmad were once again elected as PAS vice presidents. In 1989, he was elected PAS deputy president after Dato' Fadzil Noor was elected president of PAS.
Following the death of Ustaz Fadzil Noor, he was appointed acting president of PAS in 2003. He became PAS president after being ratified at the convention in 2005.
An the 61st PAS Muktamar, he was challenged for the first time for the post of PAS president by Ustaz Ahmad Awang. However, he managed to defeat his challenger with a majority of 695 votes.
He joined the election after returning home in 1978 where he was entrusted by PAS to contest the 1978 General Election in Dun Marang representing PAS. He lost by 64 votes to BN's Tengku Zahid Tengku Musa. In the 1982 General Election, he was nominated by PAS for the Marang State Legislative Assembly and won with a majority of 320 votes, but lost in the Dungun Parliament, which was also contested, to Haji Awang Jabar.
In the 1982 election, four other PAS leaders in Terengganu won their state seats—Haji Mustafa Ali, Haji Harun Taliib, Haji Abu Bakar Chik, and Haji Wan Abdul Mutalib Embong.
In 1986, he won again at DUN Ru Rendang (the new name for Dun Marang after redelineation) defeating Abdul Latif Muda and has retained it until now. However, for Marang's parliamentary seat that year, he lost to Datuk Abdul Rahman Bakar. He won it in 1990, 1995 and 1999.
After PAS's victory in Terengganu in November 1999, he was appointed Menteri Besar of Terengganu until March 2004, as well as being Marang member of parliament. He was also opposition leader from 2003 to 2004, replacing Almarhum Ustaz Fadzil Noor.
He lost to Abdul Rahman in 2004 but won again in 2008.
In Malaysia's 2013 General Election, he managed to maintain both the unbeatable seats. He won the Marang Parliament with a majority of 5124 votes, defeating Datuk Yahya Khatib Muhammad from BN. He also won the Ru Rendang state seat with a majority of 2819, defeating Nik Dir Nik Wan Ku from BN.
Abdul Hadi Awang was elected the 11th Menteri Besar of Terengganu officially on Tuesday, 22 Syaaban 1420 corresponding to 30 November 1999, when he was 52 years old. The ceremony for the declaration of the appointment of the chief minister and 10 members of the State Executive Council were held at Istana Maziah, Kuala Terengganu, on 2 December 1999.
He was also the state commissioner for Terengganu when he was appointed Menteri Besar to replace Dato 'Seri Wan Mokhtar Ahmad after PAS won 28 of the 32 state seats in Terengganu in the 10th general election. The party also won seven out of eight temporary parliamentary seats; the other parliamentary seat was won by Parti Keadilan Rakyat.
Menteri Besar of Terengganu
The achievement of Tuan Guru Abdul Hadi Awang while serving as the Menteri Besar of Terengganu were encouraging despite being denied the petroleum royalty as provided under the Petroleum Development Act of 1974.
Among his achievements were in the education sector where he helped consolidate both formal and informal educational institutions in the country. He instituted a higher zakat (funds) collection from 2000–2004 with a total of RM122.4 million compared to 1990-1999 under the UMNO administration where the total was only RM85 million. In the case of land reform, he reduced the land charge premium from 20% to 10% and exceeded the target to settle an arrears of 50,000 land dispute cases each year.
He instituted transparency in logging activities increasing the premium of RM60.6 million to 15,000ha in 2003 compared to premium of RM17.9 million for the same amount of hectares during the UMNO administration in 1997. He helped to reduce the poverty rate from 17.3% to 14%;
He helped introduce Five Working Days policy in 1999, which was followed by the Federal Government in 2000. He introduced 90 days maternity leave and seven days leave for fathers. He assisted with the abolition of the pedicab permit and the fees for small traders, abolished toll collection at the Sultan Mahmud Bridge, and re-established the Islamic Law in the state constitution with the introduction of several laws based on the Al-Quran and As-Sunnah.
When becoming an overseas student
Hadi began to work internationally in Madinah when he became the Head of Malaysian Students of the Islamic University of Madinah. In addition, he is also responsible for the Confederation of Southeast Asian Students in Medina.
At Medina, two Ikhwan figures, Professor Dr. Muhammad Al-Wakeel and Sheikh Said Hawwa became his mentors for Siasah Syar'iyyah. He also learned from Dr. Abdul Satar Al Khudsi who was active in the Muslim Brotherhood at that time.
In Egypt, he became the secretary of the Syariah Section and the Law of the Federation of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Represents Malaysian Islamic movement
As PAS senior leader, Hadi not only led the Islamic movement in Malaysia, but was also actively involved on the international stage with other Islamic movements addressing the problems of the Ummah (Islamic community).
In 1990 he was a member of the Joint Coordinating Committee of Islamic Political Parties to address Palestinian issues, based in Amman, Jordan. He was a supporter of Harakah al-Muqawwamat al-Islamiyyah (HAMAS). Along with the leadership of HAMAS, as a member of the Muslim Brotherhood he supported the defense of the Palestinian issue. He urged the Government of Malaysia to recognize the victory of Hamas as a legitimate government. He led a delegation of PAS parliamentarians and Islamic NGOs in an attempt to enter Gaza City but was barred.
Hadi was involved with the Al-Majma 'al-Alami li al-Taqrib Baina al-Mazahib al-Islamiah (International Council for Approach of Islamic Schools), based in Tehran, Iran, and the International Committee of the International Secretariat for the Defense of Baitul Maqdis based in Amman, Jordan. He was a member of delegate MPs of Islamic parties led by Dr. Najmuddin Erbakan, a former Turkish prime minister, who met with UN Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and met the United States Senate; the delegates of Parti Islam MPs who visited Europe headed by Dr. Necmettin Erbakan; a delegate of Islamic party leaders from around the world who met the rulers and presidents of the countries of West Asia before the Gulf War; a delegate of the world leaders of Islamic movements who visited Baghdad at the invitation of Iraq's Prime Minister, Saddam Hussien during the Gulf War crisis; a member of the delegation of Islamic movement leaders across the globe headed by Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Mustafa Masyhur who visited Afghanistan, to help enforce the Islamic state and to avoid conflicts between Muslim pilgrims who were cracking after the Russian withdrawal from Afghanistan. In addition to Mr Abdul Hadi Awang, Dato 'Fadzil Noor, then President of PAS, also participated.
Hadi was a member of the International Islamic Movement Secretariat Committee headquartered in Istanbul, Turkey in 1994. He was often invited to attend the Ijtima 'Am organized by Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, and some Indonesian Islamic movements such as the Prosperous Justice Party and the Star Moon Party.
He was a speaker at the International Seminar on Islamic Unity in the face of Bosnia-Herzegovina problems and represented PAS at the 5th World Islamic Organization's Muktamar in Istanbul in 1996. He gave a speech titled "Islamic Awakening: His Lack of Wisdom" at the International Islamic Revival Conference in Tehran on 24 September 2011. The conference, attended by 700 delegates from all Muslim countries, discussed the latest conflicts in West Asia such as Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Syria and Palestine.
He represented Malaysia's Islamic movement (PAS) to the 22nd International Muslim Community Congress in Istanbul, Turkey in May 2013. It was also attended by the leader of Tunisia's An-Nahdah, Rashid al-Ghannushi; from Palestinian HAMAS, Ismail Haniyeh and Khaled Meshal; from Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, Muhammad Badie; from Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Syed Munawar Hassan; and from the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, Riyadh al-Sakfa. The congress also heard a keynote address by two Islamic State leaders, Dr. Mohamed Morsi (Egypt) and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran).
He delivered the prime lectures at S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies(RSIS), Nanyang Technological University in Singapore on 28 April 2015.
Tuan Guru Abdul Hadi Awang established a household with 'Puan Seri Hajah Zainab binti Awang Ngah in 1976. His second marriage was in 1991 to Dr. Norzita Taat. The result of his marriage with his two wives was 14 children, 11 from his first wife; three from his second wife.
His eldest son, Ustaz Muhammad Khalil Abdul Hadi, is an alumnus of Al-Eman University, Yemen and currently holds the post of PAS Dewan Pemuda's chief and chairman of the International Lajnah, the PAS Dewan Pemuda.
Amanat Hadi refers to the dark period in the 1980s, when Hadi Awang was a PAS firebrand. It was the beginning of the era of "kafir mengkafir" (calling fellow Muslims infidels due to different political beliefs) which Hadi had popularized throughout the villages of Malaysia.
Hadi delivered this infamous Amanat Hadi sermon at Kampung Banggol, Peradong, Kuala Terengganu on 7 April 1981, and thereafter his image appeared on posters on the walls of PAS offices across the nation at the same time.
Hadi claimed that UMNO perpetuated the unIslamic rule of colonialism, and therefore the struggle of PAS and its supporters against UMNO is jihad and that those who died in the struggle are al-shahid (martyrs).
Later in 1983, an Amanat Hadi poster was used in the Selising by-election in Kelantan and thereafter became a flagship battle clarion call for PAS in other elections.
In one bold stroke, Hadi drew a line that separates PAS and UMNO.
Families were separated, husbands and wives were separated through an acrimonious divorce, and children left in limbo that eventually led to a large scale division of the Muslim ummah.
Seditious remarks against Christians
Abdul Hadi Awang has alleged that Christian missionaries have brought their work to Malaysia only after experiencing failure in the West. "Christianity is no longer saleable in countries where the education level is high," he said. Hadi alleged that preachers would often back down from challenges to debate with their Muslim counterparts because "they know they would lose". "This is transgression in the name of religion. It is a danger that must be fought," Hadi said in an article in one of the edition of Harakah released on 18 January 2016.
On December 2020, two Sabahans have filed a lawsuit against Abdul Hadi Awang as a public interest matter. Maklin Masiau and Lawrence Jomiji Kinsil @ Maximilhian ask the court to find Hadi guilty of violating Section 3 of the Sedition Act. Hadi was appointed the Prime Minister's special envoy to the Middle East on April 2. The position carries a status equivalent to a minister. It is said to involve advising the Prime Minister on enhancing Malaysia's interests in the region. The duo claims that Hadi had made a seditious statement in PAS newspaper Harakah against Christians and Christian missionaries on January 18, 2016. They said they initiated the lawsuit because the public prosecutor had not charged Hadi for those remarks after four years. They also included various news reports in January 2016 and August 2020 as part of their court filing to support their case. The lawsuit was filed on December 9 in the High Court in Kuala Lumpur. The court papers had been delivered to the PAS headquarters yesterday. The Christian Federation of Malaysia — an umbrella body which represents churches nationwide — questioned the sincerity of PAS' Pasir Puteh MP Nik Muhammad Zawawi Salleh's so-called "apology."
Abdul Hadi Awang has applied to quash two Sabahans' originating summons over the PAS president's alleged seditious remark against Christians published in a newspaper, five years ago.
Remarks against Joe Biden
On 30 January 2021, former deputy foreign affairs minister Marzuki Yahya has criticised Abdul Hadi Awang over his comments on the new administration in the United States. Hadi had said having a new president in the White House was meaningless for Muslim countries as President Joe Biden will continue with Zionist-influenced policies. He had also said the only difference between Biden and his predecessor Donald Trump was Biden's softer and more diplomatic approach. Marzuki said Hadi's remarks could be seen as an attempt to disrupt bilateral ties between Malaysia and the US. He added that Malaysia always held to the principle of non-intervention in another country's domestic affairs. A principle of Malaysia's foreign policy was to resolve any disputes through negotiations.
|1982||P36 Dungun, Terengganu||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||10,172||42.46%||Awang Abdul Jabar (UMNO)||13,447||56.13%||24,789||3,275||79.79%|
|Abdul Hamid Embong (PSRM)||337||1.41%|
|1986||P34 Marang, Terengganu||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||13,015||48.80%||Abdul Rahman Bakar (UMNO)||13,654||51.20%||27,433||639||82.61%|
|1990||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||17,736||49.98%||Abdul Rahman Bakar (UMNO)||17,575||49.53%||36,172||161||84.70%|
|Wan Deraman Wan Nik (IND)||176||0.50%|
|1995||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||21,945||51.03%||Abdul Rahman Bakar (UMNO)||21,063||48.97%||44,212||882||81.69%|
|1999||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||30,183||63.18%||Muda Mamat (UMNO)||17,483||36.60%||48,611||12,700||83.05%|
|2004||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||27,913||49.56%||Abdul Rahman Bakar (UMNO)||28,076||49.85%||57,186||163||88.84%|
|2008||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||33,435||52.08%||Ahmad Ramzi Mohamad Zubir (UMNO)||30,688||47.80%||65,008||2,747||86.89%|
|2013||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||42,984||53.04%||Yahya Khatib Mohamad (UMNO)||37,860||46.72%||81,836||5,124||90.13%|
|2018||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||53,749||59.27%||Mohamad Nor Endut (UMNO)||31,795||35.06%||92,046||21,954||87.75%|
|Zarawi Sulong (AMANAH)||5,138||5.67%|
|1978||Marang||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||2,618||Tengku Zahid Musa (UMNO)||2,686||7,142||68|
|1982||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||3,606||Tengku Zahid Musa (UMNO)||3,473||7,251||133||85.33%|
|1986||N19 Ru Rendang||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||3,470||54.14%||Abdul Latif Muda (UMNO)||2,939||45.86%||6,567||531||82.68%|
|1990||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||4,750||54.93%||Abdul Latif Muda (UMNO)||3,897||45.07%||8,799||853||83.54%|
|1995||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||6,285||56.24%||Abu Bakar Othman (UMNO)||4,891||43.76%||11,348||1,394||80.73%|
|1999||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||7,881||66.02%||Tengku Zainuddin Tengku Zahid (UMNO)||4,038||33.83%||12,125||3,843||81.37%|
|2004||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||7,736||54.06%||Tengku Zainuddin Tengku Zahid (UMNO)||6,301||44.04%||14,446||1,435||89.38%|
|2008||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||9,379||58.36%||Razali Idris (UMNO)||6,693||41.64%||16,209||2,686||86.23%|
|2013||Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)||11,468||56.83%||Nik Dir Nik Wan Ku (UMNO)||8,649||42.86%||20,347||2,819||89.78%|
This article needs attention from an expert in Malaysia. The specific problem is: To determine which of Hadi's writings are noteworthy from this list (see edit mode) of 98 texts.November 2019)(
One of the most influential Muslims in the world
Abdul Hadi Awang has been listed as one of the world's 500 most influential Muslims by The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre based in Amman, Jordan. He was given this recognition in the category of Preachers & Spiritual Guides The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims 2016 edition.
- Terengganu :
- On 15 April 2011, he was awarded the 'Alim Rabbani' award by Yala Islamic University, Pattani, and Thailand in conjunction with the Multaqa Muslimat Yala Islamic University. He is the first overseas Thai to receive the recognition.
- On 26 September 2014, he was selected as the Terengganu Tani Icon 2014 in the Terengganu Farmers, Raiders and Fishermen Carnivals 2014 at Itqanul Muluk Square, Kuala Berang, Terengganu.
- On 16 May 2015, he was awarded the "Murabbi Ummah Tokoh" Award in conjunction with the Malaysian Islamic Educators Association 3.0 organized by the National Educator Awakening Association Movement at the Kedah State PAS Complex.
- On 1 September 2019, he was awarded the 'Tokoh Maal Hijrah Terengganu' award by the Sultan of Terengganu in conjunction with the new year of 1441 according to Islamic Calendar.
Recognition through writing
- Jamhuri Badiuzzaman, Haji Abdul Hadi Awang : Hamba Allah Pemimpin Ummah, Pustaka Bunda, 1984.
- Mohd Nasir Awang, Masa Untuk Tok Guru Buktikan - PAS Mampu Pimpin Malaysia. Penerbitan Pemuda, 2000
- Mohd Nasir Awang, Terengganu Lepasi Pantang - Kuasa Yang Menjerat?, Rangkaian Minda Publishing, Julai 2001
- Riduan Mohamad Nor, Abdul Hadi Awang : Murabbi, Ideolouge, Pemimpin. Jundi Resources, 2011
- Mohamed Jusoh, Prinsip Haji Hadi BYG Publishers & Distribuors. 2016
- Hooker, Othman, Clive (2003), pp. 232–3
- Haddad, Voll, Esposito (1991), pg 50
- Biodata Timbalan Presiden
- Reporters, F. M. T. (18 January 2016). "Christianity rejected by the educated, says Hadi". Free Malaysia Today (FMT). Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- Lim, Ida. "Two Christian Sabahans sue Hadi, want court to declare him unfit for minister-level post over alleged seditious remark | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- Friday, 29 Jan 2021 08:45 PM MYT. "Hadi Awang applies to strike out suit over alleged seditious remark against Christians | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- Bakar, Adam Abu (30 January 2021). "Hadi under fire after unfriendly remarks about Joe Biden". Free Malaysia Today (FMT). Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims (2016 Edition)" (PDF).
- "SEMAKAN PENERIMA DARJAH KEBESARAN, BINTANG DAN PINGAT". Prime Minister's Department (Malaysia). Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Farish Ahmad Noor, Islam Embedded: The Historical Development of the Democratic Action Party DAP, 1951–2003, Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, 2004, ISBN 983-99866-8-6
- Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Voll, John Obert, Esposito, John L., The Contemporary Islamic Revival: A Critical Survey and Bibliography, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1991, ISBN 0-313-24719-6
- Hooker, Virginia Matheson, Othman, Norani, Kessler, Clive S., Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003, ISBN 981-230-161-5
- Saw, Swee-Hock, K. Kesavapany, Malaysia: Recent Trends and Challenges, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006, ISBN 981-230-339-1
| Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia
2002 – 2004
Lim Kit Siang
Wan Mokhtar Ahmad
| Menteri Besar of Terengganu
1999 – 2004
|Party political offices|
| President of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
2002 – present
| Deputy President of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
1989 – 23 July 2002
|Parliament of Malaysia|
Abdul Rahman Bakar
| Member of Parliament for Marang
2008 – present
| Member of Terengganu State Legislative Assembly for Ru Rendang
1986 – 2018
Ahmad Samsuri Mokhtar
Tengku Zahid Musa
| Member of Terengganu State Legislative Assembly for Marang
1982 – 1986