Abdul Qadir Gilani
ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī
|Born||17 March 1078 CE|
(1 Ramadan, 470 AH)
|Died||21 February 1166 CE|
(11 Rabi' al-Thani, 561 AH)
|Resting place||Baghdad, Iraq|
|Children||Abdul Razzaq Gilani|
|Era||Islamic Golden Age|
|Main interest(s)||Fiqh, Sufism, aqidah|
|Relatives||Shah Mustafa (descendant)|
ʿAbd al-Qādir Gīlānī, (Persian: عبدالقادر گیلانی, formally Muḥyī l-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sālih ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī al-Ḥasanī wa'l-Ḥusaynī (Arabic: عبدالقادر الجيلاني, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî, Sorani Kurdish: عهبدوالقادری گهیلانی), known as for short was a Hanbali Sunni Muslim preacher, orator, ascetic, mystic, sayyid, faqīh, and theologian who was known for being the eponymous founder of the Qadiriyya tariqa (Sufi order) of Sufism.
Born 29 Sha'ban 470 AH (around 1077) in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan-e Gharb, Gilan, Iran[nb 1] and died Monday, February 14, 1166 (11 Rabi' al-Thani 561 AH), in Baghdad, (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali Sunni jurist and sufi based in Baghdad. The Qadiriyya tariqa is named after him. And say that he was born in Gilan Iraq, a historic village near the cities (Al-Mada'in) of 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical studies academic and adopted by the Gilan Family in Baghdad.
The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion". Gilani (Arabic al-Jilani) refers to his place of birth, Gilan. However, Gilani also carried the epithet Baghdadi. referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. He is also called al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni, which indicates a claim to lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali.
Gilani spent his early life in Gilan, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law  under Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi and ibn Aqil. He was given lessons on Hadith by Abu Muhammad Ja'far al-Sarraj. His Sufi spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.
Education in Baghdad
In 1127, Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mazkhzoomi, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Quran. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of Sufism and strict nature of the Law.
Death and burial
Gilani died in the evening of Tuesday, February 21, 1166 (11th Rabi' al-thani 561 AH) at the age of ninety one years according to the Islamic calendar. His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrasa in Babul-Sheikh, Rusafa on the east bank of the Tigris in Baghdad, Iraq. During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed. However, in 1535, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had a turba (dome) built over the shrine, which exists to this day.
Birthday and death anniversary celebration
1 Ramadan is celebrated as the birthday of Abdul Qadir Gilani while the death anniversary is on 11 Rabi us Thani though some scholars and traditions say 29 Shaban and 17 Rabi us Sani as birth and death day respectively. His ’urs’, or death anniversay, is called in the subcontinent as Giyarwee Shareef or Honoured Day of 11th.
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