Abebe Bikila

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This article holds a patronymic name. This person is addressed by their name, Abebe, and not as Bikila.
Abebe Bikila
Abebe Bikila 1972.jpg
Abebe Bikila signing autographs
Personal information
Born (1932-08-07)August 7, 1932
Jato, Ethiopia
Died October 25, 1973(1973-10-25) (aged 41)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Height 1.77 m (5 ft 10 in)
Weight 57 kg (126 lb)
Sport
Sport Athletics
Event(s) Marathon
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s) Marathon: 2:12:11 (Tokyo 1964)

Abebe Bikila (Amharic: አበበ ቢቂላ; August 7, 1932 – October 25, 1973) was an Ethiopian double Olympic marathon champion. He is most famous for winning a marathon gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics while running barefoot. In doing so, he also set the new world marathon record. He was the first person in history to defend his Olympic marathon title in the 1964 Summer Olympics again setting a new world record.

A stadium in Addis Ababa is named in his honor.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Abebe Bikila was born on August 7, 1932, in the small community of Jato, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.[1] His birth coincided with the day of the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon. His father was a shepherd. Abebe decided to work for the Imperial Guard to support his family, and walked over 20 kilometers to Addis Ababa, where he began working as a private bodyguard for the members of the royal family.[citation needed]

In mid-1950s, Abebe would run 20 km (12 mi) from the hilly area of Sululta to Addis Ababa and back every day. A Swedish coach employed by the Ethiopian government to train the Imperial Bodyguards, Major Onni Niskanen, soon spotted him and began training him for the marathon.[1]

1960 Summer Olympics in Rome[edit]

Abebe sprints away from Rhadi Ben Abdesselam near the end of the marathon at the 1960 Rome Olympics

In July 1960, Abebe won his first ever marathons in Addis Ababa.[2] A month later, he won again in Addis Ababa with a time of 2:21:23.[3] Abebe was included in the Ethiopian Olympic team only at the last moment, as the plane to Rome was about to leave, as a replacement for Wami Biratu, who was seriously ill.[disputed ] Niskanen entered Abebe and Abebe Wakjira in the marathon.[1]

Adidas, the shoe sponsor at the 1960 Summer Olympics, had few shoes left when Abebe went to try out shoes and he ended up with a pair that didn’t fit comfortably, so he couldn't use them.[citation needed] A couple of hours before the race, Abebe decided to run barefoot, the way he'd trained for the race.[citation needed] Abebe was warned by Niskanen about his main rivals, one of whom was Rhadi Ben Abdesselam from Morocco, who was supposed to wear number 26. For unknown reasons, Rhadi did not acquire his black marathon bib before the race, and instead was wearing his regularly assigned track and field bib number 185.

Abebe Bikila triumphant 1960.jpg

The late afternoon race had its starting point at the foot of the great staircase of the Capitoline Hill.[4] The finish was at the Arch of Constantine, just outside the Colosseum.[5]

During the race Abebe passed numerous runners as he searched for Rhadi's number 26. By about 20 km, Abebe and Rhadi (actually wearing number 185) had created a gap from the rest of the pack.[citation needed] Abebe kept looking forward to find the runner with number 26, unaware that Rhadi was running right beside him.[citation needed] They stayed together until the last 500 m, when Abebe sprinted to the finish line.[citation needed] Abebe won in a world record time of 2:15:16.2 finishing 25 seconds ahead of Rhadi.[6][7] He becaming the first Sub-Saharan African to win an Olympic gold medal.[citation needed]

1960–64[edit]

On December 13, 1960, while Emperor Haile Selassie was on a state visit to Brazil, his Imperial Guard forces, led by General Mengistu Neway, staged an unsuccessful coup, briefly proclaiming Selassie's eldest son Asfa Wossen as Emperor.[citation needed] Fighting took place in the heart of Addis Ababa, shells detonated inside the Jubilee Palace, and many of those closest to the Emperor were killed.[1]

Abebe took no part in the uprising, but was briefly held in detention after the coup. Most of the surviving Guards were disbanded and dispersed. One newspaper remarked boldly: "Abebe owes his life to his gold medal."

In 1961, Abebe won marathons in Athens,[8] Osaka[9] and Košice.[3][10] Abebe entered the 1963 Boston Marathon and finished in just 5th place—the only time in his career that he finished a marathon and did not win.[11] He returned to Ethiopia and did not compete in another marathon until the one in Addis Ababa in 1964.[citation needed] He won that race taking 2:23:14.8 to complete the course.[12]

Forty days prior to the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, during a training run near Addis Ababa, Abebe Bikila started to feel pain. Unaware of the cause of the pain, he attempted to overcome this pain but collapsed. He was taken to the hospital where he was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. He was operated on and shortly thereafter and even during his recovery period he started jogging in the hospital courtyard at night.

1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo[edit]

Abebe with child at the 1964 Olympics

Abebe Bikila traveled to Tokyo but was not expected to compete in the 1964 Summer Olympics.[citation needed] He did enter the marathon, this time wearing PUMA shoes.[13] He used the same strategy as in 1960: to stay with the leaders until the 20 kilometer point, then slowly increase his pace.[citation needed] After 15 km he only had company from Ron Clarke of Australia and Jim Hogan of Ireland.[citation needed] Shortly before 20 km only Hogan was in contention and by 30 km, Abebe was 40 seconds in front of Hogan and two minutes in front of Kokichi Tsuburaya of Japan in third place.[citation needed]

He entered the Olympic stadium alone to the cheers of 70,000 spectators.[citation needed] He finished the marathon in a new world record time of 2:12:11.2; 4 minutes, 8 seconds in front of the silver medalist Basil Heatley of Great Britain.[14] Kokichi Tsuburaya came in third a few second behind Heatley.[14] He was the first athlete in history to successfully defend the Olympic marathon title.[15] After finishing he astonished the crowd: not appearing exhausted, he started a routine of stretching exercises.[16] He later stated that he could have run another 10 km (6 mi).[citation needed]

For the second time, Abebe was awarded Ethiopia's only gold medal.[17] He returned to Ethiopia to a hero's welcome once again.[citation needed] He was again 1st lieutenant by the Emperor,[18] and he received his own truck, a white Volkswagen Beetle with some upgrades.[citation needed]

Abebe Bikila (1968)

1965-68[edit]

In May 1965, Abebe returned to Tokyo to win his second Mainichi Marathon.[19] In 1966, Abebe participated in two marathons in Zarautz and Seoul, winning both competitions.[20][21][22] In 1967, he again competed in the Zarautz International Marathon but this time did not finish.[21] He had injured his hamstring and would never recover from it.[23] The Inchon-Seoul Marathon would become the last marathon he completed.[24]

Seeking a third consecutive gold, Abebe entered the 1968 Summer Olympics marathon, this time along with Mamo Wolde and Gebru Merawi.[25] Symbolically, Abebe was issued bib number 1 for this race.[26] However, Abebe had to leave the race after approximately 17 km, due to an injury in his right knee.

1969–73[edit]

In 1969, during civil unrest in Addis, Abebe was driving his Volkswagen Beetle when he had to swerve to avoid a group of protesting students. He lost control of his car, which landed in a ditch, trapping him. He was freed from the car but the accident left him a quadriplegic. He was operated on at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England, after which his condition improved to paraplegic.

Niskanen convinced him to compete in archery competitions for athletes in wheelchairs and Abebe joked that he would win the next Olympic marathon in a wheelchair. In 1970, he competed in a 25 km cross-country sledge competition in Norway winning gold.[5]

Abebe was invited as a special guest to the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, where he witnessed his countryman Mamo Wolde fail to match Abebe's twin marathon victories; Wolde finished third behind American Frank Shorter and Belgium's Karel Lismont. After Shorter received his gold medal, he went to Abebe to shake his hand.

On October 25, 1973, Abebe Bikila died in Addis Ababa at the age of 41 due to a cerebral hemorrhage, a complication related to the accident of four years earlier. He left behind his wife and four children. His funeral in Addis Ababa was attended by 75,000 people. Emperor Haile Selassie proclaimed a national day of mourning for the country's national hero. Newspapers throughout Africa eulogized him as an inspiration to their own distance runners, some of whom won gold medals in future Olympics. Abebe was interred at Saint Joseph's Church Cemetery in Addis Ababa.

Legacy[edit]

Five years after his death, the New York Road Runners inaugurated an annual award in his honour – the Abebe Bikila Award, which is given to individuals for their contributions to long-distance running.[27]

Abebe Bikila Bridge in Ladispoli, Italy

A stadium in Addis Ababa is named in his honor. The American Community School of Addis Ababa dedicated its gymnasium to Abebe Bikila in the late 1960s. In August 2005, with the assistance of A Glimmer of Hope Foundation and its supporters Isabel and Dave Welland, an Oromo school named Yaya Abebe Bikila Primary Village School was erected in Abebe's honor by the local Mendida community. The school sits a few hundred meters from the remains of the village of Jato.

In 2010, the Rome Marathon celebrated 50 year anniversary of Abebe Bikila's Olympics Race. To honour him, Ethiopian runner Siraj Gena ran the last 300 meters of the race barefoot and won it (for this he was awarded 5000 euro bonus).[citation needed]

In 2010, Vibram introduced the "Bikila" model of its FiveFingers line of minimalist shoes, trademarking the name in the process.[27] In February 2015, a lawsuit was filed in US federal court in Takoma, WA claiming that Vibram violated federal law and the state's Personality Rights Act.[28] The case was dismissed in October 2016 on grounds that complainants were aware of Vibram's use of the name in 2011 but chose not to file a suit till 2015. The judge in the case, Ronald Leighton wrote that "this unreasonable delay prejudiced Vibram."[27]

In popular culture[edit]

Abebe's victory at the 1964 Olympics is featured in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad. Footage from that film was later recycled for the 1976 thriller film Marathon Man.

Abebe was featured in the Bud Greenspan film The Marathon. It chronicled his two Olympic victories and ended with a dedication ceremony for a gymnasium named for him shortly before his death.

Atletu (The Athlete) is a 2009 film directed by Davey Frankel and Rasselas Lakew which focuses on the final years of Abebe's life: his quest to regain Olympic glory, his accident (the circumstances of which are changed), his determination to compete again.[29] The film was shot in 35mm, from the Arctic Circle to the Equator.[citation needed]

In 2009, Robin Williams made reference to Abebe's barefoot running in his stand-up special "Weapons of Self Destruction", saying: "[Abebe] won the Rome Olympics running barefoot. He was then sponsored by Adidas. He ran the next Olympics; he carried the fucking shoes."[30]

Marathon Performances[edit]

Year Competition Venue Position Notes
Representing  Ethiopia
1960 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1st 2:39:50[3]
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1st 2:21:23[3][2]
Olympic Games Rome, Italy 1st 2:15:16.2[6]
1961 Olympic Day Marathon Athens, Greece 1st 2:23:44.6[3] [8]
Mainichi Marathon Osaka, Japan 1st 2:29:27[3][9]
Košice Marathon Košice, Czechoslovakia 1st 2:20:12.0[3][10]
1963 Boston Marathon Boston, USA 5th 2:24:43a[3]
1964 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1st 2:23:14.8[12]
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1st 2:16:18.8[12]
Olympic Games Tokyo, Japan 1st 2:12:11.2[14]
1965 Mainichi Marathon Tokyo, Japan 1st 2:22:55.8[19]
1966 Zarautz, Spain 1st 2:20:28.8[20]
Seoul, South Korea 1st 2:17:04a[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Judah, Tim (July 25, 2008). "The glory trail". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Wilson, Alex; Milroy, Andy; Gynn, Roger; Carmelli, Jacques (February 23, 2013). "World Marathon Rankings for 1960". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Heyworth, Malcolm; Nakamura, Ken; Hauman, Riel; Gasparovic, Juraj (December 18, 2011). "Marathon Win Streaks". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  4. ^ Olympic (April 22, 2015). "Rome 1960 Olympic Marathon | Marathon Week". Youtube.com. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Martin, Simon (April 25, 2012). "50 stunning Olympic moments No24: Abebe Bikila runs barefoot into history". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Rome 1960 marathon men - Olympic Athletics". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  7. ^ "Hall of Fame Profile - Abebe Bikila (Ethiopia)". IAAF.org. March 8, 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Associated Press (May 8, 1961). "Ethiopian Runs Barefooted, Set Marathon Mark". St. Joseph Gazette. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Milroy, Andy; Heyworth, Malcolm; Nakamura, Ken; vanHemert, Wim (March 6, 2016). "Biwa-ko Mainichi Marathon". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Heyworth, Malcolm; Dziekonski, Tadeusz; vanHemert, Wim; Milroy, Andy (October 4, 2015). "Kosice International Peace Marathon". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  11. ^ Martin, David E.; Gynn, Roger W. H. (2000). The Olympic Marathon. Human Kinetics. p. 245. ISBN 9780880119696. OCLC 42823784. 
  12. ^ a b c Wilson, Alex; Milroy, Andy; Gynn, Roger; Carmelli, Jacques (January 21, 2013). "World Marathon Rankings for 1964". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  13. ^ "PUMA - History". PUMA.com. PUMA SE. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c "Tokyo 1964 marathon men - Olympic Athletics". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  15. ^ Associated Press (October 22, 1964). "Fastest Marathon Ever and Abebe Did Not Tire". Calgary Herald. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  16. ^ Olympic (April 22, 2015). "Tokyo 1964 Olympic Marathon | Marathon Week". Youtube.com. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  17. ^ Richman, Milton (October 27, 1964). "Skinny Ethiopian Toast of the Olympics". The Deseret News. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  18. ^ Underwood, John (April 12, 1965). "The Number Two Lion in the Land o Sheba". SI.com. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Wilson, Alex; Milroy, Andy; Gynn, Roger; Carmelli, Jacques (February 28, 2014). "World Marathon Rankings for 1965". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c Wilson, Alex; Milroy, Andy; Gynn, Roger; Carmelli, Jacques (July 30, 2011). "World Marathon Rankings for 1966". ARRS.net. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  21. ^ a b "Race: Zarauz International". ARRS. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017. 
  22. ^ "Race: Inchon-Seoul". ARRS. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017. 
  23. ^ Martin & Gynn, p. 255.
  24. ^ "Runner: Abebe Bikila". ARRS. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017. 
  25. ^ Associated Press (October 2, 1968). "Bikila Seeks Third Marathon". The Montreal Gazzette. Retrieved January 19, 2017. 
  26. ^ Olympic (April 22, 2015). "Mexico 1968 Olympic Marathon | Marathon Week". Youtube.com. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c Associated Press (November 1, 2016). "Lawsuit over use of barefoot marathoner's name is dismissed". Mail Online. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  28. ^ Associated Press (February 10, 2015). "Barefoot marathon runner's family sues Vibram". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017. 
  29. ^ Frankel, Davey; Lakew, Rasselas (2009), The Athlete (Film), PFA Films 
  30. ^ Callner, Marty (Director) (2009-12-06), Robin Williams: Weapons of Self Destruction 

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
Soviet Union Sergei Popov
Men's Marathon World Record Holder
September 10, 1960 – February 17, 1963
Succeeded by
Japan Toru Terasawa
Preceded by
United Kingdom Basil Heatley
Men's Marathon World Record Holder
October 21, 1964 – June 12, 1965
Succeeded by
Japan Morio Shigematsu