Aber and Inver (placename elements)
Aber and Inver are common elements in place-names of Celtic origin. Both mean "confluence of waters" or "river mouth". Their distribution reflects the geographical influence of the Brittonic and Goidelic language groups, respectively.
Place names with aber are very common in Wales. They are also common on the east coast of Scotland, where they are assumed to be of Pictish origin. They are found to a lesser extent in Cornwall and other parts of England and Brittany. It may be that the relative dearth in Cornwall is simply a result of there being fewer rivers on a peninsula.
In Anglicised forms, aber is often contracted: Arbroath (formerly "Aberbrothick") for Aber Brothaig, Abriachan for Aber Briachan. In the case of Applecross (first attested as Aporcrosan), it has been transformed by a folk etymology. (Its Scottish Gaelic name, a' Chomraich, has lost the "Aber-" element altogether)
"Aber" is rendered into Scottish Gaelic as Oba(i)r, e.g. Obar Dheadhain "Aberdeen", Obar Pheallaidh "Aberfeldy", and Obar Phuill "Aberfoyle."
The Welsh names Abergwaun (Fishguard), Aberhonddu (Brecon), Aberteifi (Cardigan), Aberdaugleddau (Milford Haven), Aberpennar (Mountain Ash) and Abertawe (Swansea) all contain Aber- in their Welsh language equivalent.
Inver is the Goidelic or q-Celtic form, an Anglicised spelling of Scottish Gaelic inbhir (originally pronounced with /v/, though in modern Gaelic it has shifted to /j/), which occurs in Irish as innbhear or inbhear, going back to Old Irish indber, inbir, inber. This is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *bher-, 'carry' (English bear, Latin fero) with the prefix in-, 'into'. The word also occurs in Manx in the form Inver 
Place-names with inver are very common throughout Scotland, where they outnumber aber-names by about 3:1. They are most common throughout the Western Highlands and the Grampians, the largest town containing the element being Inverness. Place-names with inver are, however, oddly seldom in Ireland, given that the form is originally Irish; Ireland tends instead to have names with béal ('mouth') in such locations, as Béal Átha na Sluaighe (Ballinasloe, Co. Galway), Béal an Átha an Fheá (Ballina, Co. Mayo) or Béal Feirste (Belfast). The difference in usage may be explained by the fact that Gaelic names in Ireland are typically a thousand years older than those in Scotland, and hence the prevailing fashion could have been different.
In Anglicised forms, inver occasionally appears as inner, such as Innerleithen. Innerhaddon is variant of Inverhaddon.
Because Celtic languages place the generic element of a compound (what kind of thing it is) before the specific element (which one it is), the elements aber and inver normally appear at the beginning of a place name, the opposite of the English (Germanic) pattern. Contrast:
- Inver-ness (mouth of the river Ness)
- Eye-mouth (mouth of the river Eye)
This is consistent with the stress patterns of Celtic placenames, which are often stressed on the last element (Inverness, Aberfan), whereas English placenames seldom are. (In the Gaelic languages, most words are stressed on the first syllable, whereas in Welsh, wordstress normally falls on the penultimate syllable; but with compound nouns, the relationship between the generic and the specific elements interfers with this.)
A variation occurs when the confluence itself is made the specific element. The names Lochaber and Lochinver both mean 'lake of the confluence'. Here, exceptionally, the elements aber and inver answer the question "Which loch?", and so are placed second. Similarly, Cuan Inbhir on Clear Island, Co. Cork, means the "harbour of confluence". This is reflected in the stress patterns: Lochaber, Lochinver.
Use in British colonies
Place names from the British isles were frequently exported to the colonies which became the British Empire, often without any thought being given to etymology. Thus there are many examples in the United States and in Commonwealth countries of places with names in Aber- or Inver- which are not located at a confluence. In Gaelic-speaking Nova Scotia, however, the element Inbhir- seems to have been productive in its original sense.
Invercargill in the South Island of New Zealand is a special case. It was first named Inverkelly in honour of an early settler called Kelly, and was then renamed in honour of Captain William Cargill, who was at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was then a part. Since the city was indeed built at the mouth of the Waihopai River, the Inver- element was apparently chosen consciously.
List of place-names with Aber and Inver
Aberaeron, Aberaman, Aberangell, Aberarth, Aberavon, Aberbanc, Aberbargoed, Aberbeeg, Abercanaid, Abercarn, Abercastle, Abercegir, Abercraf, Abercregan, Abercych, Abercynon, Aberdare, Aberdaron, Aberdaugleddau (Milford Haven), Aberdulais, Aberdyfi, Aberedw, Abereiddy, Abererch, Aberfan, Aberffraw, Aberffrwd, Ceredigion, Aberffrwd, Monmouthshire, Abergavenny, Abergele, Abergorlech, Abergwaun (Fishguard), Aberkenfig, Abergwesyn, Abergwili, Abergwynfi, Abergwyngregyn, Abergynolwyn, Aberhafesp, Aberhonddu (Brecon), Aberllefenni, Abermaw (Barmouth), Abermorddu, Abermule, Abernant, Carmarthenshire, Abernant, Powys, Abernant, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Aberpennar (Mountain Ash), Aberporth, Aberriw (Berriew), Abersoch, Abersychan, Abertawe (Swansea), Aberteifi (Cardigan - town), Abertillery, Aberthin, Abertillery, Abertridwr (Caerphilly), Abertridwr (Powys), Aberystwyth, Llanaber
Aberarder, Aberargie, Aberbothrie, Abercairney, Aberchalder, Aberchirder, Abercorn, Abercrombie, Aberdalgie, Aberdeen, Aberdour, Aberfeldy, Aberfoyle, Abergairn, Abergeldie, Aberlady, Aberlemno, Aberlour, Abermilk, Abernethy, Aberscross, Abersky, Abertarff, Abertay, Aberuchill, Aberuthven, Abriachan, Applecross, Arbirlot, Arboll, Arbuthnott, Arbroath (historically Aberbrothick - Obar Bhrothaig), Fochabers, Kinnaber, Lochaber, Obar Neithich (Nethybridge), Slongaber
Achininver, Inbhir Air (Ayr formerly "Inberair" etc.), Inbhir Bhrùra (Brora), Inbhir Chalain (Kalemouth), Inbhir Eireann (Findhorn), Inbhir Eighe (Eyemouth), Inbhir Ghrainnse (Grangemouth), Inbhir Nàrann (Nairn), Inbhir Pheofharain (Dingwall), Inbhir Theòrsa, Inbhir Ùige (Wick), Innerleithen, Innerleven, Innerwick (in Perth and Kinross), Inver, Inverarnan, Inverallan, Inveraldie, Inveralmond Inveramsay, Inveran, Inveraray, Inverbervie, Inverclyde, Inveresk, Inverfarigaig, Invergarry, Invergordon, Invergowrie, Inverhaddon (or Innerhaddon), Inverkeilor, Inverkeithing, Inverkeithney, Inverkip, Inverleith, Inverlochlarig, Inverlochy, Invermoriston, Inverness, Inveroran, Invershin, Inversnaid, Invertrossachs, Inverugie, Inveruglas, Inverurie, Kilninver, Lochinver, Rossinver
Notes - "Bail' Inbhir Fharrair",( is an uncommon name for Beauly, usually "A' Mhanachain"); Fort William was formerly known as Inverlochy, and a small district nearby is still referred to as such. Inbhir Ghrainnse and Inbhir Eighe may be of modern origin.
The Cornish names of Falmouth (Aberfal) and Plymouth (Aberplymm). Aberford in West Yorkshire has a different origin. Berwick may have had the aber- prefix originally. According to Llywarch Hên, an Aber Lleu near Lindisfarne was the site of Urien of Rheged's assassination.
Isle of Man
Inver Ayre (Ayre)
Italicised names denote usage in Canadian Gaelic. Baile Inbhir Nis (Inverness, NS), Siorramachd Inbhir Nis (Inverness County, NS), Inbhir-pheofharain (Dingwall, NS), Loch Abar (Lochaber, NS), Inverhuron, ON, Invermere, BC
- David Dorward, Scotland's Place Names, Mercat Press, Edinburgh, 2001.
- Reed, A.W. (2002) The Reed dictionary of New Zealand place names. Auckland: Reed Books. ISBN 0-790-00761-4.
- "Te Ara". Te Ara online. Te Ara. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- Fuller, John (1799). The History of Berwick Upon Tweed: Including a Short Account of the Villages of Tweedmouth and Spittal, &c. Berwick-upon-Tweed (England): Bell & Bradfute, 1799. p. 33.
- James, Alan G. "A Guide to the Place-Name Evidence - Guide to the Elements" (PDF). Scottish Place Name Society - The common Brittonic Language in the Old North. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- List of generic forms in place names in Ireland and the United Kingdom
- Welsh placenames
- Kirk as a placename element