Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway
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|Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway|
|Continues as||Cambrian Railways|
|Opened||1 July 1863|
|Closed||5 August 1866|
|Line length||86 miles (138 km)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
The Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway was a standard gauge railway company, built in Wales, United Kingdom.
The railway was intended to be built between Aberystwyth to Pwllheli and on to Porth Dinllaen, with branches to Dolgelly and Machynlleth. These branches joined the Bala and Dolgelly Railway and Newtown and Machynlleth Railway respectively. There were two major river bridges on the planned route: the Dovey Bridge, across the River Dovey, and the Barmouth Bridge, over the River Mawddach. The Dovey bridge proved to be impracticable so was not built; an altered route was built from Aberdovey to Dovey Junction, near Morben, making a Y-shaped network. The line from Pwllheli to Porth Dinllaen was also not built, although parliamentary powers to do so were obtained on multiple occasions. The routes were opened progressively between 1863 and 1869, all parts of the planned network being built apart from the Dovey Bridge, and Porth Dinllaen to Pwllheli line.
The company was absorbed into the Cambrian Railways in 1865. Shortage of money was a continuous problem and delayed completion of the network.
The Dolgelly branch was closed in 1966; the rest of the line was under threat of closure in the 1970s but the threat was lifted. In 1980 serious defects were found in Barmouth Bridge due to a marine worm boring into timber piles, and this too seemed to threaten part of the line. This was dealt with and the line continues in operation.
In 1859 the first main line railway[note 1] in central Wales was opened: it was the Llanidloes and Newtown Railway. At first it was not connected to any other railway, but it fostered interest in railway development, and soon through routes to Newtown both from Chester (opened 1861). and from Shrewsbury (opened 1862) were available.
Striking westward and crossing very difficult terrain, the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway was opened on 31 December 1862.[note 2] Although Machynlleth was an important market town, its promoters were considering an extension to Aberystwyth and the Cardigan Bay coast. Due to shortage of subscription money from general investors, the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway was in the hands of a successful partnership of railway contractors, David Davies and Thomas Savin, who put up most of the construction money and took paid up shares as the majority of their payment. These men shared the idea of continuing to the coast, but Savin had an ambitious vision of a huge investment in developing the coastal district, which Davies considered to be over-reaching, and the partnership was dissolved on 30 January 1861.
The Newtown and Machynlleth Railway had preliminary designs made for a coast line, to be called The Machynlleth, Aberystwyth and Towyn Railway. At about the same time, the Llanidloes and Newtown Railway and the Oswestry and Newtown Railway (the latter still under construction), working together, had a coast scheme prepared for a line from Aberystwyth to Pwllheli, with several branches. Davies supported the Towyn scheme, while Savin favoured the line to Pwllheli. Moreover there was now talk of the Pwllheli continuing to Porthdinllaen, on the north side of the Lleyn Peninsula. Porth Dinllaen was a natural harbour on the north side of the Lleyn Peninsula, that had been proposed as a packet station for the Irish mail service. At that time Holyhead had been selected in preference, but Porth Dinllaen still had supporters for development as a ferry port.
Authorisation of the A&WCR
Both schemes were to be presented to Parliament for the 1861 session, but in fact the Machynlleth, Abersytwyth and Towyn Railway scheme failed to deposit its documentation in time for the Parliamentary deadline, and was unable to proceed. The Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway Act (in earliest documentation spelt Aberystwith and Welch Coast Railway) alone continued the Parliamentary process and was given the Royal Assent on 22 July 1861; the authorised share capital was £400,000 (later increased). The railway was to extend from Aberystwyth to Portmadoc, an important harbour at the time. There was also to be a branch from Ynyslas to Machynlleth to connect to the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway. The main line would bridge the Dovey estuary with a viaduct from Ynyslas to Aberdovey. Seeing a connection to its own line as essential, the Newton and Machynlleth Railway succeeded in getting a clause in the A&WCR Act that, if the A&WCR failed to complete the Machynlleth connection by 1 August 1864, the N&MR might take the powers over.
The A&WCR took stock and now made progress to secure the extension on from Portmadoc to Pwllheli and Porthdinllaen. Railway schemes supported by the Great Western Railway were being planned from Llangollen towards Barmouth, and possibly on from there to north Wales. The A&WCR wanted to head off the threat; to do so it proposed a branch line from near Barmouth to Dolgelly. The A&WCR obtained a second Act of 29 July 1862 which authorised these extensions.
Further north, the Carnarvonshire Railway was incorporated on 29 July 1862 with powers to build from Carnarvon to Portmadoc by way of Afon Wen. The Carnarvonshire Railway authorisation duplicated the A&WCR as between Afon Wen and Portmadoc. The duplication was ignored at first, but the position was finally resolved by an agreement of 13 December 1865 under which the Cambrian Railways (successor to the A&WCR) built the section.
Construction and early opening
The A&WCR concentrated its construction work on the Machynlleth "branch", as it was clear that this offered better hopes of an early income, compared with the main line crossing the Dovey estuary. In addition, the deadline set by the clause in the Act had to be achieved. The line was opened from Machynlleth as far as Borth on 1 July 1863; it was worked by Thomas Savin, the contractor who had built the line, for the time being. Opening of the rest of the Aberystwyth line, from Borth to Aberystwyth, was achieved for goods traffic on 23 June 1864; passenger operation had been refused by the Board of Trade inspecting officer, Captain Tyler, but rectification work was put in hand, and passengers were carried from 1 August 1864.
Part of the northern section of the network, from Aberdovey to Llwyngwril, was next opened, on 24 October 1863. The Aberdovey station was at the harbour, and for the time being connected with a ferry from Ynyslas. The line from Llwyngwril to Barmouth Junction, and from there to Penmaenpool, on the Dolgelly line, followed on 3 July 1865. There was an intermediate station called Barmouth Ferry, at the place where Fairbourne station was later built. Passengers for Barmouth alighted there and walked on across the sand-bar to catch a ferry over the Mawddach estuary to Barmouth harbour.
Authorisation of enhancements
The third Bill promoted by the Company was the Aberystwith and Welsh Coast Railway Act, passed on 13 July 1863. It authorised construction of an Aberystwyth Harbour branch, and alteration of the Dovey viaduct, and of the Mawddach bridge to add a vehicular road as well as the railway. The south-western extremity of the Corris Railway was duplicated by the A&WCR line and was no longer useful; the Corris Railway was authorised to abandon its line west of Machynlleth, by its Act of 25 July 1864. (The Aberystwyth Harbour branch was not constructed because the Cambrian Railways as successor to the A&WCR wished such traffic to go to Aberdovey.)
The A&WCR's engineer Benjamin Piercy was dismissed from the company's service early in 1864 as part of a power struggle between Thomas Savin and other factions on the board. He had been progressing the design of the Dovey bridge, but practical and financial difficulties with it had been emerging. In particular finding a good foundation stratum was proving extremely difficult. Piercy's expulsion gave an opportunity to revisit the plan to bridge the estuary, and in May 1864 the decision was taken to abandon the bridging plan. In October 1864 preparations were undertaken for a Parliamentary Bill to authorise the abandonment, and to substitute an extension from Aberdovey to a junction with the Aberystwyth line near Morben. The line became known as the "deviation line" and the junction location was later called Dovey Junction. The Bill was given the Royal Assent on 5 July 1865. The Act stipulated that the fares and goods rates for consignment between Aberdovey and Borth via Morben were to be the same as if the bridge were built and in operation. The GWR had planned to get direct access from Dolgelly to Abersytwyth by way of the bridge, and it got a clause inserted empowering it to build the bridge itself within ten years; it never attempted to do so.
The course of the connecting line at Aberdovey was difficult, and a proposed waters' edge route through the town proved unacceptable. An alternative path round the back of the town was developed, but it was operationally difficult, with steep gradients and sharp curves, and three tunnels. In addition, the Aberdovey Harbour station would be by-passed, and there was no space for a new station on the deviation line, and the new Aberdovey was inconveniently located some way west of the town.
Into the Cambrian Railways
The group of Newtown railways were now discussing amalgamation: the several small railways would be stronger if they joined forces. The A&WCR was included in the talks, but there was a standard condition imposed by Parliament in considering amalgamations, that the companies concerned must have spent at least half of their authorised capital, and that at least half of their authorised network must have been built. The A&WCR was not yet in that position, and had to be excluded from the amalgamation Bill put forward by the other companies. They were authorised to amalgamate, forming the Cambrian Railways, by Act of 25 July 1864. Henceforward the A&WCR was included in strategic discussions and plans with the Cambrian Railways.
A year later, the criterion for amalgamation was achieved, and the A&WCR was incorporated in the Cambrian Railways by the passing of the Cambrian and Coast Railways (Amalgamation) Act of 5 July 1865: the merger took effect on 5 August 1865.
The contractor Thomas Savin was undertaking all the remaining construction work for the A&WCR section of the Cambrian Railways, as well as working the traffic. He had accepted company shares as the major part of payment for his construction work, and he was directly financing company outlays from his own resources. On 5 February 1866 he found himself in serious financial difficulty, and was in effect bankrupt. This put the Cambrian company into difficulty as well. On 10 May 1866 the financial house of Overend, Gurney and Company failed, plunging money markets throughout the United Kingdom into turmoil and making railway investments a source of danger for the public. Many investors were unwilling or unable to respond to calls on shareholdings, and money became very difficult to borrow.
For some years the company was in serious financial difficulty, and at length mortgage holders sued in the Court of Chancery. The company's Deputy chairman, Captain R D Pryce was appointed Receiver, but they stayed their actions after two months, at the end of 1867. In fact the Cambrian Railways as a whole was in serious financial difficulty, with huge obligations and almost no profitable business activity. The Cambrian Railways Finance Act, 1868, was passed on 31 July 1868 and authorised a financial reconstruction, as well as preventing for a period the activation of claims against the company, but although this prevented immediate disaster, it did not abate the problem.
Barmouth viaduct was first tested in July 1866 by crossing a steam engine, but it was not until 3 June 1867 that a service started, and then only of a horse-drawn carriage. Steam trains did not use it regularly until the opening of the entire coast line four months later, when on 10 October 1867 the line was opened through to Pwllheli.<christiansen65 and 69><coast 2-5 and 2-6> Meanwhile on 14 August 1867 the "deviation" line from Dovey Junction to Aberdovey was opened.
Pwllheli and Porth Dinllaen
Porth Dinllaen had once been promoted as the mail packet terminal for Dublin, but lost out in favour of Holyhead. The A&WCR still yearned to develop it and got powers to do so in the 1862 Act. When the line reached Pwllheli the vision waned, and continuing across the Lleyn peninsula was not attempted. In 1876 the Cambrian Railways unsuccessfully sought to revive the powers. Undeterred, the Porthdinlleyn Railway Company was incorporated in 1884 for a line from Pwllheli, but abandoned it in 1892. In 1913 the company obtained powers for a rail extension to Porth Dinllaen, but World War I intervened and afterwards the idea lapsed.
The original Pwllheli station was on Abererch Road, stopping short of the inner harbour and the River Erch. In the mid-nineteenth century the harbour was busy with coal and agricultural products, but the railway dominated those traffics; reduced conservancy allowed silting of the inner harbour by material brought in by the River Erch. In 1903 improvement works were carried out to the Inner Harbour, and reclamation work was carried out; an embankment was constructed by Pwllheli Corporation. The location of the railway station was far from the centre of the town and the opportunity was taken to extend the line westwards to its present position at the Cob. This was authorised by a Cambrian Railways Act of 2 July 1901. On 19 July 1909 the extension to a new two-platform terminus was opened.
Strengthening of Barmouth viaduct
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Gasquoine mentions strengthening works:
In 1899, the ironwork portion of [Barmouth] viaduct had become too weak for the constantly increasing loads of developing traffic, [so] it was completely renewed with a modern steel structure of four spans, one of which was a swing span, revolving on the centre pier and giving two clear openings. The piers carrying the girders are formed of columns 8ft. in diameter sunk through the sand down to solid rock, which was reached at a depth of about 90 feet below high water mark... In 1906, and the following two or three years, the timber portion
of the viaduct was also completely renewed in the same material.
Grouping of the Railways
After World War I the Government decided to transfer most of the main line railways of Great Britain into one or other of four new large concerns, in a process referred to as the "grouping". The Cambrian Railways was to be a constituent of a new Great Western Railway, although the old GWR was to be the largest component of the new company, The transfer took effect on 1 January 1922, from which date the Cambrian Railways ceased to exist.[note 3]
The layout at Aberystwyth was improved in 1925 with longer platforms taking up the land formerly used by a turntable. A triangle for locomotive turning was installed, using one of the Manchester and Milford sidings, but it was not possible to carry out through running to Carmarthen over the triangle. A new station frontage and a big increase in the area roofed over were the improvements most appreciated by passengers.
Aberdovey station, opened when the "deviation" line connecting to Dovey Junction was opened, was a great distance west of the town, and over decades there were complaints about this. In 1933 Penhelig Halt was opened, at the east end of the town but considerably more convenient.
The last of a series of coast halts was opened at Llandecwyn in 1935. At Abererch, a conditional halt with double-arm platform signals for passengers to stop trains, became a full station. 
Penychain and Butlins
Penychain Halt was opened on 31 July 1933, at first just a simple short platform. On the seaward side here Butlins built a large holiday camp in 1939, but just as it was being finished, it was taken over by the Royal Navy as "HMS Glendower". After the War some further work needed doing, and the holiday camp did not open until the 1947 season. The halt station was enlarged and a second platform was built, with brick waiting rooms and a wooden platform; the old halt platform was refurbished, and the line was doubled to Afon Wen, (commissioned on 3 April 1947) since most of the Butlins traffic would be coming via Bangor and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (successor to the Carnarvonshire Railway). The layout at Afon Wen was enhanced at this time, as the holiday trains reversed there. The running lines at Penychain were reversible. By the 1970s the camp station had fallen into disuse as most holidaymakers came by road.
The railways of Great Britain were again reorganised by Government when in 1948 nationalisation of the system took place. The new owner was British Railways.
In the 1960s the former A&WCR network was under consideration for closure or significant reduction, as goods traffic declined steeply and passenger business too transferred to road transport. The threat of total closure was eventually averted, but the collapse of wagonload traffic in particular rendered most local goods facilities unnecessary. The national strike in the coalmining industry in 1983 also hastened a transfer away from traditional traffics.
The Dolgelly line did succumb to closure. Trains from Barmouth to Ruabon did not run from 13 to 17 December 1965 due to floods east of Dolgellau. The Barmouth to Dolgelly section reopened, but finally closed from 18 January 1966.
A proposal to close the entire Coast line in 1971 was fought successfully by a pressure group. The Radio Electronic Token Block signalling system was installed over the weekend of 1 and 2 October 1988.
Barmouth bridge and the shipworm
On 13 October 1980, Barmouth bridge was closed to rail traffic when it was discovered that about three-quarters of the 500 timber trestle piles had been damaged at river bed level by the shipworm, teredo navalis, a marine borer. Extensive repairs were undertaken in the mid 1980s, including replacing 48 of the piles with greenheart hardwood and strengthening 330 more piles with cementitious resin grout and glass-reinforced concrete jackets. Rail services resumed when the viaduct re-opened in April 1986.
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Gasquoine described the viaduct as being:
Eight hundred yards in length, the greater portion was constructed on timber piles, over 500 in number, in 113 spans, driven into the sand. The navigable channel, at the Barmouth end, was crossed by an iron-work construction, of seven fixed and one opening span. The latter was of the drawbridge type, and when lifted at one end by means of large screws was carried on wheels and could be drawn back over the adjoining span.
Morfa Mawddach triangle
There was a triangular layout at Morfa Mawddach where the Dolgelly line diverged from the main line to Pwllheli. The south curve was opened first, on 3 July 1865 as part of the direct route from Aberdovey to Dolgelly. The west and north curves were opened in 1867 as part of the main line to Barmouth, and at that time a station was then opened at the apex nearest Barmouth; it was named Barmouth Junction until 1960, when it was renamed Morfa Mawddach.
No platform was ever built on the south curve; it was singled around 1900 and then used as a siding. The station originally had three platforms, two on the main line and one on the branch, but about 1890 a down platform on the Dolgellau line was added. There was also a bay platform at the end of the up Dolgellau platform, used from 1934 for camping coaches. As the Barmouth turntable would not take all types of engines working through from Dolgellau (which was less restricted than the main line) the triangle was sometimes used for turning engines.
The A&WCR's Dolgelley branch had been authorised in 1862, and in the same session the Bala and Dolgelly Railway, in effect the Great Western Railway, was also approved. At the time no direction was given as to the lines connecting, but this was rectified in an Act of 21 July 1863, which mandated a joint station. The A&WCR had reached Penmaenpool, two miles short, on 3 July 1865, and no progress was made for some time. The GWR line opened on 4 August 1868.
On 11 June 1869, the Board of Trade Inspector passed the Cambrian extension from Penmaenpool to Dolgelly. Due to a delay in getting possession of land, the Cambrian Railways had to erect a temporary station at a point known as Frondirion (about half a mile west of the Great Western station), opening on 21 June 1869. The extension to Dolgelley GWR station was opened on 1 August 1869.
There were two separate stations here until 1872. Mitchell and Smith show a fragment of a 1911 Ordnance Survey map; Dolgellau station has the appearance of a single station on a double track section of line, but the legend shows "Station (Great Western)" for the buildings on the northern platform, and "Station (Cambrian)" for the southern. Plate 92 shows the station and the caption states, "The canopy styles reflect the earlier different ownerships".
Manchester and Milford Railway
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The cliff top line at Friog was the site of two almost identical accidents, in 1883 and 1933, in which the locomotive plunged to the foot of the cliff leaving the bulk of the train remaining on the track. The locomotive crews were killed in both instances. The topography at this point is demanding, as the existing coast road at a higher level had to be accommodated, as well as a working mine.
The ten-mile (16 km) section of the Dolgellau branch, alongside the southern shore of the Mawddach estuary, is now the Llwybr Mawddach (or "Mawddach Trail"), a cycle route and bridleway. This section of the line featured in the BBC's Railway Walks series with Julia Bradbury.
& Welsh Coast Railway
Stations in bold are still open.
- Aberystwith, spelt Aberystwyth in Bradshaw after 1867; opened 23 June 1864; still open; still open;
- Bow Street; opened 23 June 1864; closed 14 June 1965;
- Llanfihangel; opened 23 June 1864; renamed Llandre 1 August 1916; closed 14 June 1965;
- Borth; opened 1 July 1863; still open;
- Ynyslas; opened 1 July 1863; closed 14 June 1965;
- Ynyslas Wharf; used 1863 to 1867;
- Glandovey; opened 1 July 1863; renamed Glandyfi 1 July 1904; closed 14 June 1965;
- Glan Dovey Junction; opened 14 August 1867; renamed Dovey Junction 1 July 1904; still open;
- Machynlleth; Newtown and Machynlleth Railway station; still open.
Glan Dovey Junction-Pwllheli
- Pwllheli; opened 20 September 1867; still open;
- Abererch; opened July 1884; still open;
- Penychain; opened 31 July 1933; still open;
- Afon Wen; opened 20 September 1867; closed 7 December 1964;
- Criccieth; opened 20 September 1867; still open;
- Black Rock Halt; opened 9 July 1923; closed 13 August 1976;
- Portmadoc; opened 20 September 1867; renamed Porthmadog 5 May 1975; still open;
- Minffordd; opened 1 August 1872; still open;
- Penrhyndeudraeth; opened 20 September 1867; still open;
- Llandecwyn; opened 18 November 1935; still open;
- Talsarnau; opened 10 October 1867; still open;
- Tygwyn; opened 11 July 1927; still open;
- Harlech; opened 10 October 1867; still open;
- Llandanwg; opened 18 November 1929; still open;
- Pensarn; opened 10 October 1867; renamed Llanbedr & Pensarn 1 April 1885; renamed Pensarn 8 May 1978; still open;
- Talwrn Bach; opened 9 July 1923; renamed Llanbedr 8 May 1978; still open;
- Dyffryn; opened 10 October 1867; renamed Dyffryn-on-Sea 1 July 1924; renamed Dyffryn Ardudwy 1 June 1948; still open;
- Talybont; opened July 1912; still open;
- Llanaber; opened 14 August 1911; still open;
- Barmouth; opened 5 June 1867; still open;
- Barmouth Junction; opened 5 June 1867; renamed Morfa Mawddach 13 June 1960; still open;
- Barmouth South Junction;
- Barmouth Ferry; opened 3 July 1865; closed 5 June 1867;
- Fairbourne; opened 1 July 1897; still open;
- Llwyngwril; opened 24 October 1863; still open;
- Llangelynin; opened 7 July 1930; closed 26 October 1991;
- Tonfanau; opened July 1896; closed September 1896; reopened July 1903; still open;
- Towyn; opened 24 October 1863; renamed Tywyn 5 May 1975; still open;
- Aberdovey; opened 14 August 1867; still open;
- Aberdovey; first station at Harbour opened 24 October 1863; closed 14 August 1867;
- Penhelig opened 8 May 1933; still open;
- Abertafol Halt; opened 18 March 1935; closed 14 May 1984;
- Gogarth; opened 9 July 1923; closed 14 May 1984;
- Glan Dovey Junction; above.
Dolgelly to Barmouth Junction
- Dolgelly; first station: temporary terminus on west side of Bridge Street bridge opened 21 June 1869; closed 1 August 1869 when the short gap to join the GWR line was ready 3 July 1865; GWR station used subsequently; closed 18 January 1965;
- Penmaenpool; opened 3 July 1865; closed 18 January 1965;
- Arthog; opened 28 March 1870; closed 18 January 1965;
- Barmouth Junction; above.
Several other railways made connection with the A&WCR network. These were:
- Newtown and Machynlleth Railway at Machynlleth; opened 31 December 1962 * 29 July 1862(pre-existent); amalgamated with Oswestry and Newtown Railway 31 August 1863 absorbed into Cambrian Railways 25 July 1864; now part of Cambrian Line route; still open;
- Corris Railway at Machynlleth; opened April 1859 (pre-existent); bought by the Great Western Railway late 1929; closed 20 August 1948; partly reopened to passenger traffic 2002; currently being restored;
- Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway at Llanfihangel; opened to goods 19 August 1897; opened to passengers 28 March 1898; closed 19 December 1899;
- Vale of Rheidol Railway at Aberystwith; opened to goods August 1902; opened to passengers 22 December 1902; still open
- Manchester and Milford Railway at Aberystwith; opened 1 January 1866; closed to passengers 22 February 1965}}; closed to goods September 1973;
Glan Dovey Junction-Pwllheli
- Talyllyn Railway at Towyn; opened December 1867; preserved by Talyllyn Railway Preservation Society 8 February 1951}}; still open;
- Fairbourne Railway at Fairbourne opened 1895; still open;
- Barmouth Junction and Arthog Tramway at Barmouth Junction; see below;
- Harlech Tramway at Harlech; opened 1878; closed 1886;
- Merionethshire Railway near Llandecwyn; proposed, never built;
- Festiniog Railway at Minffordd; opened to goods 20 April 1836 (pre-existant); opened to passengers 1850; closed to passengers 15 September 1939 closed to goods 1 August 1946 (apart from short section within Blaenau Ffestiniog); purchased by Alan Pegler in co-operation with the Ffestiniog Railway Society 24 June 1954 reopened 23 July 1955 to 25 May 1982 (in stages); still open;
- Croesor Tramway at Beddgelert Sidings, near Porthmadog; opened 1864; became part of the Welsh Highland Railway in 1923; closed 1936; re-opened 2011;
- Gorseddau Junction and Portmadoc Railway at Porthmadog; opened 1872; closed before 1897;
- Carnarvonshire Railway at Afon Wen; opened 29 July 1862; closed December 1964;
- Pwllheli and Llanbedrog Tramway (almost) at Pwllheli; opened 1894; mostly closed 28 October 1927 (apart from small section within Pwllheli); fully closed winter 1928
Dolgelly to Barmouth Junction
- Bala and Dolgelly Railway at Dolgelly; opened 4 August 1868 (pre-existant); closed to passengers 12 December 1964; reopened 17 December 1964; closed to passengers 18 January 1965; closed to goods 1964;
- Barmouth Junction and Arthog Tramway between Barmouth Junction and Arthog; opened to goods August 1899}}; opened to passengers June 1903; closed end of 1903;
- There were several private mineral lines.
- There was a "Grand Opening" afterwards, on 3 January 1863.
- Except for the winding up of financial affairs.
- Rex Christiansen and R W Miller, The Cambrian Railways: volume I: 1852-1888, David & Charles, Newton Abbot, 1971, ISBN 0 7153 5236 9, page 23
- Christiansen and Miller, page 31
- Malcolm Reed, The London and North Western Railway: A History, Atlantic Transport Publishers, Penryn, 1996, ISBN 0 906899 66 4, page 110
- Gwyn Briwnant-Jones, Railway through Talerddig: The Story of the Newtown & Machynlleth and Associated Railways in the Dyfi Valley, Gomer Press, Llandysul, 1990, ISBN 0 86383 813 8, page 48
- C C Green, The Coast Lines of the Cambrian Railways: volume one, Wild Swan Publications, Didcot, 1993, ISBN 1 874103 07 0, pages 1 to 3
- Peter E Baughan, A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain: volume 11: North and Mid Wales, David St John Thomas, Nairn, 1980, ISBN 0 946537 59 3, pages 155 to 161
- Donald J Grant, Directory of the Railway Companies of Great Britain, Matador Publishers, Kibworth Beauchamp, 2017, ISBN 978 1785893 537, page 6
- Christiansen and Miller, pages 59 to 61
- Baughan, page 137
- Green, pages 3 to 9
- Grant, page 25
- W G Rear, LMS Branch Lines in North Wales, volume 1, Wild Swan Publications Ltd, 1986, ISBN 0 906 86737 1, page 2
- Green, page 9
- Christiansen and Miller, pages 61 to 64
- Christiansen and Miller, page 64
- C C Green, The Coast Line of the Cambrian Railways: volume two, Wild Swan Publications Ltd, Didcot, 1996, ISBN 1 87 4103 29 1, page 1
- Green, volume 1, page 7
- R W Kidner, The Cambrian Railways, Oakwood Press, Headington, 1992, ISBN 0 85361 439 3, page 118
- Green, volume 1, pages 8 and 9
- Christiansen and Miller, page 66
- Green, volume 1, pages 11 and 12
- Green, volume 1, page 9
- Green, volume 2, pages 3 to 7
- Green, volume 2, pages 6 to 8
- Christiansen and Miller, page 69
- Baughan, page 162
- Pwllheli Harbour, at History Points, https://historypoints.org/index.php?page=pwllheli-harbour
- C P Gasquoine, The Story of the Cambrian: A Biography of a Railway, Christopher Davies Publishers, Llandyibie, 1922, reprinted 1973, pages 85 to 87
- Green, volume 2, page 19
- Christiansen, volume 2, page 144
- Kidner, page 115
- Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith, Machynlleth to Barmouth, Middleton Press, Midhurst, 2009, ISBN 978 1 906008 54 3, caption to plate V
- Kidner, page 133
- Kidner, page 178
- Barmouth Viaduct at Engineering Timelines http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?id=1340
- Kidner, page 125
- Christiansen and Miller, page 79
- Baughan, pages 142 and 143
- Green, volume 2, page 8
- Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith, Ruabon to Barmouth, Middleton Press, Midhurst, 2010, ISBN 978 1 906008 84 0, Historical Background
- Mitchell and Smith, map XXI
- Mitchell and Smith, plate 92
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)