Abhay and Rani Bang

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Abhay and Rani Bang
Dr. Abhay and Rani Bang 3.jpg
Abhay and Rani Bang
Born Wardha and Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India
Residence SEARCH, Gadchiroli, Maharashtra, India
Nationality Indian
Alma mater Nagpur University (MBBS, MD)
Johns Hopkins University, USA (M.P.H.)
Occupation Social Activists
Known for Social Work, Community Health, Research with the people, De-Addiction, Home Based Newborn Care
Children 2
Awards

Dr. Abhay Bang and Dr. Rani Bang are Indian social activists, researchers working in the field of community health in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra, India. They have revolutionized healthcare for the poorest people in India and have overseen a programme that has substantially reduced infant mortality rates in one of the most poverty-stricken areas in the world. The WHO (World Health Organisation) and UNICEF have endorsed their approach to treating newborn babies and the programme is currently being rolled out across India and in parts of Africa.[1] The Bangs founded SEARCH[2] (Society For Education, Action and Research in Community Health) – a non-profit organisation, which is involved in rural health service and research. The Bang couple is the winner of the prestigious Maharashtra Bhushan Award. They have many published articles in The Lancet, one of the world's most prestigious medical journals.[3] Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow has conferred honorary doctorate to Abhay and Rani Bang.[4] SNDT Women's University, Mumbai has also awarded Honoris Causa to Rani Bang.[5] The Lancet has honoured the doctor couple as 'the pioneers of health care in rural India'.[6] Abhay and Rani Bang are the first recipients of the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. They are also inducted into the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars. The Bangs are honored for their pioneering leadership in community-based health care that is now helping to save the lives of millions of the most vulnerable newborns and children. During their careers, the Bangs have helped foster a renaissance in community-based primary health care.[7] In 2016, Johns Hopkins University conferred the Distinguished Alumni Award upon them. [8] The doctor couple conducted original research studies of highest quality on main health problems of rural communities in India and their solutions by empowering people. Dr Abhay Bang calls it Arogya-Swaraj. Bangs are the only Indian medical researchers to have conducted and published three original research papers on three different health problems each of which was a global first.[6]

Personal life and background[edit]

Abhay Bang was born at Wardha, Maharashtra, India in 1950 to Thakurdas Bang and Suman Bang who were followers of the Sarvodaya movement inspired by Gandhian thoughts. His father, Thakurdas Bang, a young economist, went to Mahatma Gandhi to seek his blessings while he was about to go to US to do his doctoral studies. Gandhiji looked at him for few seconds and said – "Young man, if you want to study economics, go to the villages of India"[9] Mr. Thakurdas cancelled his plans to go to US and remained in India to study Economics of Indian villages.

Abhay spent his childhood in Gandhi's Sevagram Ashram at Wardha with Mahatma Gandhi's foremost disciple Acharya Vinoba Bhave. Until standard ninth he studied in a school which followed the tenets of Nai Taleem (a method of practical hands-on Education) as propagated by Gandhiji.[10]

When Abhay was 13-year-old, he and his elder brother Ashok who was 16 years old would have discussions on what they should do with their lives. His elder brother Mr. Ashok Bang decided to work for issues related to farming and Abhay decided to work for health of villagers.[1][11][12]

Rani Bang (formerly Rani Chari) was born in Chandrapur. She belonged to a family with strong commitment both to medical service and, in her grandparents' generation, to public service.[13] Abhay and Rani completed their graduation and post graduation in medical studies from Nagpur University. When he Abhay was studying for final year exam of MBBS at Nagpur, he read an incident about Gandhi where Gandhi was very careful regarding use of natural resources. After reading the incident Abhay decided to use resources carefully. He switched off the fan in his room. He though that he should be able to live without fan. He did not use the fan for next five years during his education even in the heat of Nagpur.[11] Abhay and Rani married in 1977. Both of them have secured MPH (Masters in Public Health) from Johns Hopkins University. Anand Bang is their elder son and Mr. Amrut Bang is their younger son.

Abhay and Rani Bang, along with their younger son Amrut

Education[edit]

Abhay and Rani Bang completed their MBBS from Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra in 1972. Abhay Bang was first in the University in MBBS and had three gold medals. Abhay Bang did his MD in Medicine (with a first position in the University) while Rani Bang did her MD in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (with a first position in the University and gold medal). They helped organize and lead a national group of medical professionals concerned with health-care quality and delivery.[14] After their medical studies, the couple moved to Wardha and co-founded Chetna Vikas – a non-profit organization. While working in villages of Wardha district, Abhay Bang published a study challenging the minimum wages fixed for agriculture labor in Maharashtra, forcing the government to raise the minimum wages.[15] This strengthened their belief in the power of research as a way of solving social problems. They realized the need for further studies in public health to address larger health-care issues. Both of them completed Masters in Public Health from Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, America in 1984. The couple had decided to follow Gandhian principles and to work with the poor and thus immediately returned to India after finishing their masters.[16]

Scientific Publications[edit]

Dr. Abhay and Dr. Rani Bang have several research publications in various prestigious medical journals including The Lancet, Journal of Perinatology, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, PLOS One, PLOS Medicine, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Indian Pediatrics, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Bulletin of WHO, Stroke, World Journal of Surgery, International Journal of Epidemiology. Few of them are as follows.

  1. Effect of home-based neonatal care and management of sepsis on neonatal mortality: field trial in rural India – The Lancet
  2. Reduction in pneumonia mortality and total childhood mortality by means of community-based intervention trial in Gadchiroli, India – The Lancet
  3. High prevalence of gynaecological diseases in rural Indian women. - The Lancet
  4. Breath counter for diagnosis of childhood pneumonia - The Lancet
  5. WCH RATHER THAN MCH - The Lancet
  6. Diagnosis of causes of childhood deaths in developing countries by verbal autopsy: suggested criteria. The SEARCH Team. - Bulletin of WHO
  7. Management of childhood pneumonia by traditional birth attendants. The SEARCH Team. - Bulletin of WHO
  8. Burden of Morbidities and the Unmet Need for Health Care in Rural Neonates – A Prospective Observational Study in Gadchiroli, India - Indian Pediatrics
  9. Stroke Is the Leading Cause of Death in Rural Gadchiroli, India: A Prospective Community-Based Study. - Stroke
  10. High Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Gadchiroli, India: A Community-Based Study - Neuroepidemiology
  11. Simple clinical criteria to identify sepsis or pneumonia in neonates in the community needing treatment or referral. - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  12. Barriers to Malaria Control among Marginalized Tribal Communities: A Qualitative Study - PLOS ONE
  13. Setting Implementation Research Priorities to Reduce Preterm Births and Stillbirths at the Community Level - PLOS Medicine
  14. Background of the Field Trial of Home-Based Neonatal Care in Gadchiroli, India - Journal of Perinatology
  15. Methods and the Baseline Situation in the Field Trial of Home-Based Neonatal Care in Gadchiroli, India - Journal of Perinatology
  16. Why Do Neonates Die in Rural Gadchiroli, India? (Part I): Primary Causes of Death Assigned by Neonatologist Based on Prospectively Observed Records - Journal of Perinatology
  17. Why Do Neonates Die in Rural Gadchiroli, India? (Part II): Estimating Population Attributable Risks and Contribution of Multiple Morbidities for Identifying a Strategy to Prevent Deaths - Journal of Perinatology
  18. How to Identify Neonates at Risk of Death in Rural India: Clinical Criteria for the Risk Approach - Journal of Perinatology
  19. Reduced Incidence of Neonatal Morbidities: Effect of Home-Based Neonatal Care in Rural Gadchiroli, India - Journal of Perinatology
  20. Home-Based Neonatal Care: Summary and Applications of the Field Trial in Rural Gadchiroli, India (1993 to 2003) - Journal of Perinatology
  21. Breath Counter: a new device for household diagnosis of childhood pneumonia. - Indian Journal of Pediatrics
  22. Pneumonia in neonates: can it be managed in the community? - Archives of disease in childhood
  23. Simplified antibiotic regimens for neonatal sepsis—AFRINEST - The Lancet
  24. Maternal morbidity during labour and the puerperium in rural homes and the need for medical attention: A prospective observational study in Gadchiroli, India. - BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  25. Healthcare seeking behavior for back and Joint pain in rural Gadchiroli, India: A population-based cross-sectional study - Indian Journal of Community Medicine
  26. Comparing modelled predictions of neonatal mortality impacts using LiST with observed results of community-based intervention trials in South Asia - International Journal of Epidemiology
  27. Neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings: What, who, and how to overcome challenges to scale up? - International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
  28. Universal Access to Effective Antibiotics is Essential for Tackling Antibiotic Resistance. - J Law Med Ethics

Other Publications[edit]

Here is a list of some other publications by Abhay and Rani Bang.

  1. Community Participation in Research and Action Against Alcoholism - World Health Forum
  2. Health Insurance, Assurance and Empowerment in India - The Lancet
  3. Tobacco vs Development Private Spending on Tobacco in Gadchiroli District - Economic and Political Weekly
  4. Child Mortality in Maharashtra - Economic and Political Weekly
  5. Minimum Wages for Agricultural Labour: A Critique of Page Committee Recommendations - Economic and Political Weekly
  6. Vitamin A and Childhood Mortality-The New Magic Pill - Economic and Political Weekly
  7. Community Participation in FP Programme: A Report - Economic and Political Weekly
  8. Why Women Hide Them - Manushi
  9. Was the Gadchiroli trial ethical? Response from the principal investigator - Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
  10. Against Liquor – Gadchiroli and Gorbachev - Medico Friend Circle Bulletin
  11. People’s Participation and Economic Self Reliance in Community Health - Medico Friend Circle Bulletin
  12. Food Requirements as a Basis for Minimum Wages - Medico Friend Circle Bulletin
  13. Other Side of Health Education - Medico Friend Circle Bulletin

Positions Held[edit]

Apart from being the founder directors of SEARCH, Abhay and Rani Bang have served on various national and state level committees. Some of them are as follows.

  • Chairman, Expert Group to Plan Health Care for Tribal Populations in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India [17][18]
  • Expert Member, Central Health Council, Apex Body of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India [19]
  • Member, National Rural Health Mission Steering Group, Govt. of India [20]
  • Member, High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Care, Planning Commission, Govt. of India [21]
  • Member, National Commission on Macro-economics and Health, Govt. of India [22]
  • Member, Kelkar Committee on ‘Regional Imbalance and Balanced Regional Development', Govt. of Maharashtra [23]
  • Member, Audit Advisory Board, Comptroller and Auditor General, Govt. of India [24]
  • Chairman, Child Mortality Evaluation Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra [25]
  • Member, National ASHA Mentoring Group, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India [26]
  • Member, High Level Committee on Status of Tribal Communities, Govt. of India [27]
  • Member, National Commission on Population, Govt. of India [28]
  • Member, Steering Committee, Tropical Disease Research, World Health Organization, Geneva [29]
  • Member, Advisory Board, Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children, USA.[29]
  • Member, Committee on ‘Improving Birth Outcome in Developing Countries’ constituted by the Global Board on Health, National Academy of Science, USA [29]
  • Member, Scientist Advisory Board, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi [29]
  • Member, National Expert Group on Health for planning the 10th National Five Year Plan, Govt. of India [29]
  • Member, Governing Board, National Population Stabilization Fund, India [5]
  • Member, Planning Commission's Task Force on Panchyat Raj in Health [5]
  • Member, WHO Review Committee on Anti-fertility Vaccines [5]
  • Member, WHO Review Committee on Measuring Reproductive Morbidity [5]
  • Member, Governing Body of IIHMR(Indian Institute of Health Management and Research) [5]
  • Member, Institute of Medicine U.S. Committee on Improving Pregnancy Outcome in Underdeveloped Countries (2000 - 2001) [30]
Abhay and Rani Bang

Authored Books, Essays, Letters[edit]

Marathi Books

  • माझा साक्षात्कारी हृदयरोग Majha Sakshtakari Hrudayrog – Abhay Bang

(In this book Abhay Bang has written about his experiences during his heart disease and the learning he has gained due to it. The book won the Kelkar Award for the Best Literary Book in Marathi, 2000.)

  • गोईण (Goin) – Rani Bang

(This book won the Literary Award of the Government of Maharashtra. Goin means Friend in the Gondi language of tribal people. The book describes the relationship of tribal women with various trees in Gadchiroli district.)

  • कानोसा (Kanosa) – Rani Bang

(This book is about the perceptions of rural women regarding various issues of reproductive health.)

English Book

  • Putting Women First: Women and Health in a Rural Community – Dr. Rani Bang (Published in 2010.)

Abhay Bang has written an article "Meeting the Mahatma"[31] which is published in English Kumarbharti Textbook of Class 9 of Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Two of his articles "My Magical School"[32] and "Sevagram to Shodhgram"[33] have been translated in English by Prof. Arvind Gupta. He has written an open letter to the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Devendra Fadnavis, urging him to act on balanced development of Vidarbha and Marathwada regions of Maharashtra and to take steps to reduce liquor consumption in the state.[34]

Work[edit]

After returning to India they started working in Gadchiroli. They founded SEARCH in December 1985 and started working on community health problems in the tribal and rural areas of Gadchiroli. SEARCH established a partnership with communities in Gadchiroli for health and development and helped create “tribal-friendly” clinics and a hospital in the district.

Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate[edit]

When the couple started holding people[35] health assemblies they found that addressing infant mortality is a pressing need. The death of a one-month-old child within minutes of being brought to them greatly impacted the couple. They found that there were 18 causes that may have been responsible for that infant’s death, ranging from poverty, diarrhoea, infection or pneumonia to lack of a hospital. The challenge was how to save an infant who can die of 18 causes.[36] The Bangs and their colleagues at SEARCH conducted world-class research on practical approaches to reduce mortality of young children in resource-constrained settings. Bang found out a simple but radical solution – training of the village women in neonatal care.[1] He wrote a draft of the action research to be conducted and sought comments from his mentor, Professor Carl Taylor, the founder of the Department of International Health at Johns Hopkins University. In a handwritten note on the draft, Taylor wrote 'Abhay, this will be the most important work that you will ever do in your life'. [37] Subsequent work by Dr. Abhay Bang and his colleagues in two of the most notable of their studies demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of community-based management of childhood pneumonia and the provision of home-based neonatal care by community health workers.

Home Based Neonatal Care (HBNC) model developed by Bang has resulted in reduction in infant mortality in the study villages of Gadchiroli. The home-based neonatal care interventions developed at SEARCH ignited worldwide interest and research on preventing neonatal deaths in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Prior to that, such deaths were considered nearly impossible to avert. As a result of their work, home-based neonatal care and community-based management of childhood pneumonia are now being implemented throughout the world in these settings.[7] Although initially the medical fraternity objected to Bang’s unconventional methods, they gradually understood his wisdom to provide an alternative to a large village community. Later, Indian paediatricians, after studying the evidence from the field, wholeheartedly backed Bang’s initiative to save newborns. Today, based on Bang’s Gadchiroli model, 800,000 village women in India are now being trained by the government under the ASHA programme.[36] India has incorporated this model in 12th national five-year plan to reduce infant mortality. This field trial showed that newborn care can be brought out of the confines of big hospitals and high tech units and be so simplified that it can be provided in any village in any home. After this research the global newborn care has never been the same. This approach, which brought down the infant mortality rate in rural Gadchiroli from 121 per 1000 live births to 30, was honoured by The Lancet in 2005 as one of the Vintage Papers. The editor and the historian of the journal considered Bang's paper on newborn care to be one of the milestone ones published in 180 years.[6] This approach has been incorporated in the national program by the Government of India and has been accepted by the WHO, UNICEF and USAID for reducing newborn mortality in developing countries.[38]

Abhay Bang with the Breath Counter he designed

Liquor Ban in Gadchiroli District[edit]

Abhay and Rani Bang were driving force for the movement of liquor ban in Gadchiroli district. Gadchiroli is the first district in Maharashtra where liquor is banned due to demand by the public. Bang made people of Gadchiroli aware about ill effects of alcohol, which led to demand from people to ban alcohol in Gadchiroli. Maharashtra government has come up with ban on alcohol in Gadchiroli. In 1990, the couple raised a movement for liquor ban in Gadchiroli district. The movement resulted in liquor ban in the district in year 1992, being the first example in India of liquor ban due to public demand. In May 2012, Abhay Bang was member of panel to study ban of Liquor in chandrapur district.[39]

Abhay and Rani Bang

Women's Issues[edit]

Rani Bang, a gynecologist has worked extensively on women's medical issues. The community based study of gynaecological problems in rural area that she conducted in 1988 is the first study in the world focusing on women's health beyond maternity care. Rani Bang first brought to the notice of the world that rural women had a large hidden burden of gynecological diseases. She subsequently trained the Dais in villages to make them village level health workers. With convincing evidence she advocated the need for a comprehensive reproductive health care package for rural women in India.[40] This study initiated the programme of women's reproductive health all over the world specifically in developing countries. She has written a book – 'Putting Woman First', which throws light on women's issues in rural India. Their research showed that nearly 92 percent of women had some kind of gynaecological issues.[16] Her research in this field has changed the understanding of this issue worldwide and global policy has changed accordingly. Rani Bang was one of the principal speakers in Tietze symposium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1990. She served as a consultant to INCLEN (International Clinical Epidemiology Network) for Reproductive health, IWHAM (International Women's Health Advocates on Microbicides), 10th Five Year Plan Maharashtra Health and Nutrition Committee Member. She was nominated for Nobel Peace Prize in 2003 as a member of 1000 women world wide for peace prize.[5] Rani Bang has worked on women's reproductive health issues, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS control, adolescent sexual health, tribal health, alcohol and alcoholism. She conducts sessions on sex education called 'Tarunyabhaan' for adolescents and teenagers across Maharashtra.[41] Rani Bang has been awarded with National Award for Women’s Development through Application of Science & Technology in recognition of her outstanding and pioneering contribution for the past two and a half decades on improving women’s health in rural India through an innovative and powerful approach of research with the people and for the people. The award was conferred upon her by the President of India at the National Conference on Showcasing Cutting Edge Science & Technology by Women in New Delhi.[40]

Tribal Health[edit]

Dr. Abhay and Dr. Rani Bang have been working with the tribal communities in the forest area of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra since 1986. They found malaria to pose the biggest health concern for this population. So, regular medical treatment apart, they also sought to make the local adivasis aware about the importance of using insecticide-treated mosquito nets. They also run a mobile medical unit in the forty eight tribal villages in the Dhanora block of Gadchiroli district and have a network of village volunteers trained in providing primary care in these villages. Dr. Abhay Bang is chairing a 13-member expert committee set up by Union Health Ministry and the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, tasked with coming out with a nationwide status report on tribal health issues along with suggesting possible policy formulations. While the “old” problems of malaria, malnutrition and mortality persist, Dr. Abhay Bang emphasises “new” health issues among tribals partly due to outside socio-cultural influences and steady inroads by market forces. Tribal women now list alcohol addiction among men as their biggest concern. The same goes with tobacco, with over 60 per cent of adults in Gadchiroli consuming it daily. These, alongside addition of salt in their foods and stress, are contributing to increased incidence of hypertension, feels Bang. The problems of language barrier and lack of motivation among healthcare staff, besides vacancies and absenteeism when it comes to working in tribal areas, has rendered the formal public healthcare system virtually dysfunctional. [42]

NIRMAN[edit]

Please see the article of Nirman for details.

In 2006, they started an initiative – Nirman, for identifying and nurturing young social change-makers in Maharashtra. It is an educational process to train the youth to take up crucial issues and problems in the society. NIRMAN provides guidance, expertise and environment to inculcate self learning and encourages youth for social action. NIRMAN includes a series of 3 camps, each separated by 6 months. So a batch of NIRMAN goes through 3 camps in a period of 1 year. A camp generally runs for 7–10 days at SEARCH, Gadchiroli. NIRMAN is a learning process based on Nai Talim way of education introduced by Mahatma Gandhi. It believes in – problem based learning instead of – classroom based learning.[43] NIRMAN initiative is providing a common platform for youth to engage, self-educate and decide on how they can make a difference to the society.

Discussions during the camps of Nirman

Started in 2006, NIRMAN brings together a group of youth aged between 18–28 years who are looking to give meaning to their lives. Amrut, Abhay and Rani Bang's younger son actively manages NIRMAN.[44] Dr. Abhay thinks that it is important to make present generation of doctors think about social challenges. "All doctors can earn enough to make a decent living and they must think about the purpose of their lives. Change would happen the moment they start contemplating." He believes that medical students should regularly be given rural or tribal stints as part of their curriculum so that they are exposed to the real challenges. He thinks that it is equally important to reward doctors who shun the charm of corporate world to serve the real people in need.[45]

Non-Communicable Diseases[edit]

Dr. Abhay and Dr. Rani Bang and their team at SEARCH has started working on the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as that is emerging as a priority area. A study conducted by SEARCH in 86 villages of Gadchiroli district has shown that rural people are now falling prey to lifestyle diseases like stroke which emerged as the most frequent cause of death. One in seven (14%) deaths in these villages occurs due to stroke, showing that the places like Gadchiroli are now passing through an 'epidemiological transition'. 87.3% stroke deaths occurred at home, indicating that rural people don't approach hospitals for treatment. Taking the study ahead, the SEARCH team now plans to test village based solutions to minimize deaths caused due to stroke in Gadchiroli villages in collaboration with the Wellcome Trust of UK and the department of biotechnology of the government of India. Dr. Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Neurologist and Senior Research Officer at SEARCH is the main author of the study. The team also included three young MBBS doctors from Nirman. The study has been published in 'Stroke', an international journal published by American Stroke and Heart Association.[46] The work has been presented at the 5th International Conference on Neurology and Epidemiology (November 18-20, 2015) in Australia. [47]

In a study published in Economic and Political Weekly, Dr. Bang and SEARCH team members showed that the rural and tribal district of Gadchiroli was spending approximately 73.4 Crore Rs. annually on consuming tobacco and related products. [48] More than 50% of the population was consuming tobacco. SEARCH has been conducting programs to spread awareness regarding the ill effects of tobacco use and providing de-addiction services. The Maharashtra state government has formed a 12-member task force under chief minister Devendra Fadnavis for creating awareness about ill effects of using tobacco products and Dr. Abhay Bang is an advisor in the force. It will concentrate on Gadchiroli district for the first three years. A committee has also been constituted under the Gadchiroli District Collector for implementing the plans devised by the task force. A representative of Dr. Bang's organization SEARCH will be a member of the committee. According to Dr. Bang, spread of information and awareness for prevention, initiation of village committees and urban ward committees, implementation of laws and regulations, treatment for deaddiction, counselling via NGOs and stimulation of an alcohol and tobacco free environment in government offices, schools, colleges, markets etc. will be the methods used by the task force. [49]

Inspirations and Approach[edit]

  • In an interview to a Marathi channel, Abhay Bang enlisted his inspirations as – Gandhi[50] (He says that Mahatma Gandhi has a great influence on his life), People (the collective wisdom of people) and Science.
  • During his young age he was drawn towards social reformers and activists, first Vinoba Bhave and later, Jai Prakash Narayan. Inspired by their philosophies, he chose to work in villages.[51]
  • Listening is one of the novel approaches Bang couple adopted while working in Gadchiroli.[16]

"(After publication in medical journal Lancet) Within a year or two, there was an entirely new approach to women's health worldwide. The global population policy changed from looking at mere reproduction to the whole issue of women's reproductive health. That was our first experience of how powerful this (listening to patients) approach could be."[16]

  • Dr Bang was heavily influenced by Gandhi's philosophy of 'self-rule'. "Gandhi had a vision of how society should be, of how India should be self-ruled. But it was not only India that should be allowed to self-rule, it was every human being as well…I took inspiration from that and asked myself, 'How can individuals and communities become autonomous and independent with their own healthcare?'" [52]
  • The couple's drive to deliver health care that truly serves people is extraordinarily deep-rooted.
  • "Bit by bit, we are closer to our youthful dream of a health-care revolution that would be Arogya-Swaraj — people's health in people's empowered hands”.[53]

Thoughts About Research & Social Action[edit]

  • "Disparity in research capacity will be worse than economic disparity because it is more fundamental. Therefore, for true democracy, it is necessary that people be a partner in research. Research with the People!" [54]
  • "Research is normally done sitting in air-conditioned, ivory towers. At Shodhgram (Search village), we do research with people. We have used what we learn to change society and, to some extent, we have succeeded at the policy level too." [51]
  • "Whatever research SEARCH does, has to provide benefit to local population."[9]
  • "It is research with the people, not on the people."[1]
  • "You won't find solutions to rural India's health issues in modern facilities that are far removed. Effective strategies will emerge only when you work with the people. Coming to Gadchiroli after leaving the luxurious life in the US is the most important decision we ever made." [55]
  • "Rule Number 1: research is to be conducted where the problems are, and not where the facilities are."
  • "Rule Number 2: the research should not be conducted merely because I find it intellectually interesting. It should address the needs of the community I work with, not the research community I report to."
  • "Rule Number 3: very rich researchable topics are waiting all around us to be discovered. But we are looking at somewhere else for something dramatic. The ordinary, the common does not appeal to us as a research challenge. In reality, great discoveries are hidden in it." [54]
  • "There are over 7,000 tribal communities in the world today and the use of IT can help solve their health problems which have assumed serious proportions." [56]
  • "There has to be a merger between science and society if India is to achieve sustainable growth and bridge the urban-rural divide." [57]

Media Coverage[edit]

The work done by Dr. Abhay and Dr. Rani Bang and SEARCH has received wide coverage in variety of media and forums, including National Geographic,[50] TIME Magazine,[16] Forbes,[54] The Guardian,[1] The Telegraph,[58] El Pais,[59] The Times of India,[51] The Economic Times,[60] Frontline,[61] Hindustan Times,[62] Outlook,[63] Business Today,[64] [65] Sakal Times,[41] The Week,[5] NDTV,[66] IBN Lokmat,[67] ABP Majha,[68] E TV,[69] Mi Marathi,[70] TEDx,[71] World Economic Forum,[72] Ashoka,[73] CORE,[74] The Center for High Impact Philanthropy at the University of Pennsylvania,[75] Society of Scholars at the Johns Hopkins University,[76] Clinton Global Initiative,[77] Reliance Foundation,[78] MacArthur Foundation,[9] Save the Children Canada,[79] The Center for Compassion and Global Health,[80] Azim Premji University,[81] etc.

Their work has been cited in a variety of journals including British Medical Journal,[82] Reproductive Health Matters,[83] Pediatrics by AAP,[84] Journal of Pakistan Medical Association,[85] The Indian Practitioner,[86] Indian Journal of Rheumatology,[87] The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal,[88] Indian Journal of Cancer,[89] Health, Culture and Society,[90] American Journal of Public Health,[91] Seminars in Neonatology,[92] Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology,[93] Social Scientist,[94] Health Policy and Planning,[95] The New England Journal of Medicine,[96] Community Development Journal,[97] BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth,[98] International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing,[99] Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine.[100]

Awards and Honors[edit]

Dr Abhay and Dr Rani Bang and their organization SEARCH have been felicitated with a number of awards, a few of them are as follows:

  • Time Magazine The Global Health Heroes, 2005[101]
  • Maharashtra Bhushan Award The highest state honour of the Government of Maharashtra, 2003 [5]
  • MacArthur Foundation International Award, 2006 [9]
  • Society of Scholars, Johns Hopkins University, USA, 2013 [102]
  • World Health Organization - Public Health Champions Award for Outstanding Contribution to Public Health in India, WHO India, 2016 [103] [104]
  • National Award for Women's Development through application of Science & Technology, Government of India, 2007 [105]
  • Sheshadri Gold Medal of the Indian Council of Medical Research for outstanding research in community medicine, 1996 [106]
  • Ashoka Fellows, 1984 [107] [108]
  • Lifetime Achievement Award from CNN-IBN, 2011 [5]
  • Times of India Social Impact Award, 2015 [109]
  • Jamnalal Bajaj Award, 2006 [110]
  • First Distinguished Alumni Award from the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2013 [111]
  • 'Dory Storms' Child Survival Recognition Award from CORE Group, Washington, 2010 [106]
  • Stree Shakti Puraskar from Ministry of Women & Child Development, Government of India, 2005 [5]
  • Satpal Mittal Award for Population by the Indian Association of Parliamentarians, New Delhi, 2002 [106]
  • State Award for De-addiction by Government of Maharashtra, 2001 [106]
  • Mahatma Gandhi Award for Humanitarian Service, 1994 [106]
  • Dr. James Tong National Award of the Voluntary Health Association of India for the best voluntary health organization, 1999 [106]
  • 'Bapu' Award from Gandhi National Memorial Society, Pune, 2009 [106]
  • Vivekanand Manava Sewa Award, 2002 [106]
  • The Kelkar Award for the best literary book in Marathi, 2000 [106]
  • Ramshastri Prabhune Puraskar for Social Justice, 2002 [106]
  • 'Navratna Puraskar' from Doordarshan Sahyadri Channel, Mumbai, 2005 [106]
  • 'Spirit of Mastek' Award, 2005 [112]
  • 'Jewel of Maharashtra' Award from Zee 24 Tass & Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, 2010 [5]
  • 'Dr Wankar Memorial Lifetime Achievement Award' Indian Medical Association, 2016 [113]
  • 'Mother Teresa Memorial International Award for Social Justice' Harmony Foundation, 2015 [114]
  • 'Nani A Palkhivala Award for Civil Liberties' Palkhivala Memorial Trust, 2016 [115]
  • 'Express Public Health Award - Lifetime Achievement Award for Contribution in Public Health' Indian Express Group and Public Health Foundation of India, 2016 [116]
  • 'Couple of the Year' The Week Magazine, 1996 [5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e http://www. Guardian.co.uk Global development, Infant and child mortality, Elizabeth Day – The Observer, Sunday 20 March 2011 Dr Abhay Bang: the revolutionary pediatrician (Accessed on 28 November 2012)
  2. ^ Official website of SEARCH (Archived on 7 November 2012)
  3. ^ Dr Abhay T Bang MD; Rani A Bang MD; Sanjay B Baitule DHMS; M Hanimi Reddy PhD; Mahesh D Deshmukh MSc (4 December 1999). "Effect of home-based neonatal care and management of sepsis on neonatal mortality: field trial in rural India". The Lancet 354 (9194): 1955–1961. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(99)03046-9. PMID 10622298. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m SNDT Women's University Convocation Dr. Rani Abhay Bang
  6. ^ a b c [2]
  7. ^ a b [3]
  8. ^ Loksatta डॉ. राणी व डॉ. अभय बंग यांना जॉन्स हॉपकिन्स विद्यापीठाचा पुरस्कार (Accessed on 3rd April 2016)
  9. ^ a b c d VIDEO Abhay Bang, SEARCH on MacArthur Award 18 December 2006, 3:03 p.m. Official website of Macarthur foundation (Accessed on 11 November 2012)
  10. ^ My Magical School – Abhay Bang (Accessed on 24 May 2012)
  11. ^ a b Meeting with Mahatma – Abhay Bang (Accessed on 8 November 2012)
  12. ^ Sale, Amoal. "Dr. Abhay Bang – Man with Indomitable Spirit". amoalsale.wordpress.com June 2014.  External link in |website= (help)
  13. ^ [4]
  14. ^ [5]
  15. ^ [6]
  16. ^ a b c d e Alex Perry – Time Magazine – Monday, 31 October 2005 The Listeners (Accessed on 11 November 2012)
  17. ^ The Economic Times [7](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  18. ^ The Hindu - Taking health care to tribal heartland [8](Accessed on 9 December 2015)
  19. ^ The Times of India, 28th April, 2016 Bang on Central health council
  20. ^ Press Information Bureau of Govt. of India [9](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  21. ^ Public Health Foundation of India [10](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  22. ^ World Health Organization [11](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  23. ^ Times of India [12](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  24. ^ The Economic Times [13](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  25. ^ The Times of India [14](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  26. ^ National Health Mission, Govt. of India [15](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  27. ^ NIC, Govt. of India [16](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  28. ^ NIC, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India [17](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  29. ^ a b c d e [18](Accessed on 17 October 2015)
  30. ^ Planning Commission Website, Govt. of India [19](Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  31. ^ Meeting the Mahatma[20]
  32. ^ My Magical School[21]
  33. ^ Sevagram to Shodhgram[22]
  34. ^ A Postcard from Dr Abhay Bang [23] Accessed on 6th Jan 2016
  35. ^ dictionary
  36. ^ a b [24]
  37. ^ Johns Hopkins Magazine SEARCH Mission(Accessed on 3rd April 2016)
  38. ^ Brief information about Bang on www.compassioninglobalhealth.org (Accessed on 1 December 2012)
  39. ^ Times of India 12 February 2012 – Nagpur Liquor panel may suggest ban in Chanda (Accessed on 1 December 2012)
  40. ^ a b [25] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  41. ^ a b [26] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  42. ^ The Indian Express A pioneering doctor-activist speaks to The Indian Express about the unique health issues confronting India’s tribal communities (Accessed on 18th January 2016)
  43. ^ [27] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  44. ^ [28] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  45. ^ Times of India, 27 Sept 2015 Doc couple with heart for neglected (Accessed on 31 October 2015)
  46. ^ Times of India 16 July 2015, Nagpur Stroke is a major cause of death (Accessed on 31 October)
  47. ^ 5th International Conference on Neurology and Epidemiology, Australia [29] (Accessed on 30 November)
  48. ^ Economic & Political Weekly 2 Feb 2013 Tobacco vs Development Private Spending on Tobacco in Gadchiroli District (Accessed on 25th Jan 2016)
  49. ^ Times of India, Nagpur 15 Jan 2016 Task force set up to fight tobacco abuse (Accessed on 25th Jan 2016)
  50. ^ a b Published: July 2015 Nationalgeographic.com - In the Footsteps of Gandhi (Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  51. ^ a b c [30] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  52. ^ [31] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  53. ^ [32] (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  54. ^ a b c Forbes India Research with the people (Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  55. ^ The New Indian Express 25 April, 2016 The Super Humans of Gadchiroli (Accessed on 26th April, 2016)
  56. ^ DNA 5 Jan, 2015, Mumbai Dr. Abhay Bang speaking at the 102nd Indian Science Congress (Accessed on 31 October 2015)
  57. ^ Sakal Times 25 Aug, 2015‘Migration hampers growth’ (Accessed on 6th Jan 2016)
  58. ^ [33]
  59. ^ [34]
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  65. ^ Change the medication [40]
  66. ^ [41]
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  101. ^ Poster of Duke Global Health Institute on the website of SEARCH (Accessed on 1 December 2012)
  102. ^ Johns Hopkins University Commencement Society of Scholars, 1969 to Present(Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  103. ^ WHO India Website WHO India honours public health champions (Accessed on 8th April 2016)
  104. ^ The Times of India, 9th April Chela gets award along with guru (Accessed on 9th April 2016)
  105. ^ Department of Science and Technology, Government of India [76](Accessed on 14 October 2015)
  106. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Planning Commission of the Government of India Dr. Bang's Profile(Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  107. ^ Ashoka Website Ashoka Innovators for the Public(Accessed on 22nd March 2016)
  108. ^ Ashoka India Website Ashoka India Investing in New Solutions for Our World's Toughest Problems(Accessed on 22nd March 2016)
  109. ^ Sunil Warrier,TNN Mar 9, 2015,TOI Social Impact Awards 2015: ‘Search’ light shines on tribal lives
  110. ^ "Jamnalal Bajaj Award". Jamnalal Bajaj Foundation. 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  111. ^ Johns Hopkins University, International Center for Maternal & Newborn Health Drs. Abhay and Rani Bang Honored by the Johns Hopkins University and the Department of International Health(Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  112. ^ Mastek Website Winners of Spirit of Mastek Awards(Accessed on 16 October 2015)
  113. ^ Times of India, Nagpur Edition 19th Oct 2015 Don’t avoid rural service, Devendra Fadnavis tells docs (Accessed on 25th Jan 2016)
  114. ^ Mumbai Mirror, 23rd Nov 2015 Fighters for social justice honoured with Mother Teresa Memorial Award(Accessed on 22nd March 2016)
  115. ^ Times of India, 29th Jan 2016 Palkhiwala award for Bang (Accessed on 29th Jan 2016)
  116. ^ Express Healthcare Public health champions honoured at Express Public Health Awards (Accessed on 7th April 2016)

External links[edit]

Video links[edit]