The Abhira tribe is an ancient Vedic clan.
Theories regarding the origins of the ancient Abhira — the putative ancestors of the Ahirs — are varied for the same reasons as are the theories regarding their location; that is, there is a reliance on interpretation of linguistic and factual analysis of old texts that are known to be unreliable and ambiguous. S. D. S. Yadava describes how this situation impacts on theories of origin for the modern Ahir community because
Their origin is shrouded in mystery and is immersed in controversy, with many theories, most of which link the Ahirs to a people known to the ancients as the Abhiras.
Some scholars, such as A. P. Karmakar, consider the Abhira to be a Proto-Dravidian tribe who migrated to India and point to the Puranas as evidence. D. R. Bhandarkar supports the non-Aryan origin theory, directly relating Krishna to Rig Veda's "Krishna Drapsah", where he fights the Aryan god Indra. Abhiras were the people of Yadava community. Yadu was the eldest son of Yayati and Devyani, who was the daughter of Shukracharya. All the territory of Mathura belonged to Abhiras. Further, the ancient text Mahabharata describes Abhira as forming one of the seven republics, Samsaptak Gunas, and as a friend of the Matsyas, a pre-Vedic tribe.
Other scholars, such as Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya, dismiss these non-Aryan theories as anachronistic and say that the Abhira are recorded as being in India in the 1st-century CE work, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Bhattacharya considers the Abhira of old to be a race rather than a tribe. Ramaprasad Chanda says that the Abhiras were Aryan in speech and belonged to the Indo-Afghan stock. The Puranic Abhiras, have occupied the territories of Herat, which is probably a survival of their name, as they are invariably juxtaposed with the Kalatoyakas and Haritas — the peoples of Afghanistan.
Whether they were a race or a tribe, nomadic in tendency or displaced or part of a conquering wave, with origins in Indo-Scythia or Central Asia, Aryan or Dravidian — there is no academic consensus, and much in the differences of opinion relate to fundamental aspects of historiography, such as controversies regarding dating the writing of the Mahabharata and acceptance or otherwise of the Aryan invasion theory. Similarly, there is no certainty regarding the occupational status of the Abhira, with ancient texts sometimes referring to them as pastoral and cowherders but at other times as robber tribes.
Bhagwan Singh Suryavanshi says archaeological research in Deccan has revealed the presence of pastoral people of the Neolithic era who shares many attributes of the Abhira. Hence, they might have been present much earlier than has been previously postulated so. He concludes that they spread from Indus to Mathura, and migrated southward and eastward. He also says that similarity of culture and a common belief that they are descendants of Krishna is proof that they sprang from a common source.
Others believe that Abhiras were originally nomadic pastoral tribes fom the lower Indus valley in modern Pakistan, who migrated eastwards and southwards across Avanti which includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan. They were warriors, and after serving in the armies of various states, especially of the Sakas, some of their leaders set up an independent princes at mountainous strongholds in Southern India.
The Abhiras split into both varna and jati categories; there were Abhira brahmins, Abhira kshatriyas, Abhira vaisyas, Abhira carpentars and Goldsmiths. For example Baradas Abhiras are of Rajput origin. They derive their name from acting as priests of Abhira.
Abhira and Arjuna fight
Abhiras are mentioned as warriors in support of Duryodhana. The Gopas, whom Krishna had offered to Duryodhana to fight in his support when he himself joined Arjuna's side, were no other than the Yadavas themselves, who were also the Abhiras. Ramayana refers to Abhiras as Ugradarshana — Mlecchas and dasyus. The Abhiras also have been described as Vratas. Panini mentions these Vratas as robbers. The Abhiras are said to have looted the train of Arjuna, the Pandava, when he was returning from Dwaraka being accompanied by some of the members of "Sri Krsna's family after the death of the latter. Abhiras are said to have waylaid Arjuna and deprived him of his treasure and beautiful women somewhere in Punjab. Abhiras who looted Arjuna were the supporters of the Kauravas, and in the Mahabharata, Abhir, Gopa, Gopal and Yadavas are all synonyms. They defeated the hero of Mahabharatha war, and did spare him when he disclosed the identity of the members of the family of Sri Krishna.
Abhiras in Deccan
From 203 to 270 the Abhiras ruled over the whole of deccan as a paramount power. In deccan Abhiras were the immediate successors of the Satavahanas.
Rule of Konkan
Abhira king Isvarasena of Nasik Inscription XV. was one of the Abhira conquerors of the Andhras who took from them to west Deccan. A migration of Abhiras from Ptolemy's Abiria in Upper Sindh through Sindh by sea to the Konkan and then to Nasik. Abhira rule started about 203 AD following the end of Yajnasri Satakarni's reign and Abhira Isvarasena's accession took place in Saka 151 or 229 ADSakasena was the first abhira king. His inscriptions from Konkan and coins from Andhra Pradesh suggest that he ruled over the major part of the warstwhile Satavahana empire, It followed that Abhira Shivadatta founded the Abhira kingdom after Yajnasri in the Nasik-Konkan area.
Rule of Gujarat
Abhiras lived in the desert; but later they gradually pushed towards the south, In the 1st and 2nd centuries AD; Aberia or the abhira country lay not far from Saurastra.
Abhiras of Rajputana
Mahabharata (IX, 37, 1) locates the Abhiras in western Rajputana where the river Sarasvati disappears. and north eastern Sind. In Samudragupta's time (c. AD 350) the Abhiras lived in Rajputana and Malava on the western frontier of the Gupta empire. Historian Dineshchandra Sircar thinks of Abiravan between Herat and Kandahar which may have been the original home of the Abhiras. Their occupation of Rajasthan also at later date is evident from the Jodhpur inscription of Samvat 918, that the Abhira people of the area were a terror to their neighbours, because of their violent demeanour. Abhiras of Rajputana were sturdy and regarded as Mlecchas, and carried on anti Brahmancial activities. As a result, life and property became unsafe. Pargiter points to the Pauranic tradition that the Yadavas, while retreating northwards after the Kurukshetra war from their western home in Dwarka and Gujarat, were attacked and broken up by the rude Abhiras of Rajasthan.
The Abhiras did not stop in Rajasthan; some of their clans moved south and west reaching Saurastra and Maharastra and taking service under the Satavahanas and the Kshatrapas. Also founded a kingdom in the northern part of the Maratha country, and an inscription of the ninth year of the Abhira King Ishwarsena.
- This article incorporates text from The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: commercial, industrial and scientific, products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures, Volume 2, by Edward Balfour, a publication from 1885 now in the public domain in the United States.
- Bhattacharya, Sunil Kumar (1996). Krishna — Cult In Indian Art. M.D. Publications. p. 126. ISBN 9788175330016. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Yadava, S. D. S. (2006). Followers of Krishna: Yadavas of India. Lancer Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9788170622161. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya (1 January 1996). Krishna-cult in Indian art. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-81-7533-001-6. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Rao, M. S. A. (1 May 1979). Social movements and social transformation: a study of two backward classes movements in India. Macmillan. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Ramaprasad Chanda; Varendra Research Society (1969). The Indo-Aryan races: a study of the origin of Indo-Aryan people and institutions. Indian Studies: Past & Present. p. 55. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Sudāmā Miśra (1973). Janapada state in ancient India. Bhāratīya Vidyā Prakāśana. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Malik, Aditya (1990). "The Puskara Mahatmya: A Short Report". In Bakker, Hans. The History of Sacred Places in India As Reflected in Traditional Literature. Leiden: BRILL and the International Association of Sanskrit Studies. p. 200. ISBN 9789004093188. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Śrīrāma Goyala (1986). A Religious History of Ancient India, Upto C. 1200 A.D.: Smarta, epic-Pauranika and Tantrika Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Kusumanjali Prakashan. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Haripriya Rangarajan; G. Kamalakar; A. K. V. S. Reddy; K. Venkatachalam (1 January 2001). Jainism: art, architecture, literature & philosophy. Sharada Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-85616-77-3. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- University of Calcutta. Dept. of Ancient Indian History and Culture (1986). Journal of ancient Indian history. D.C. Sircar. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Thapar, Romila (1978). Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations. Orient Blackswan. p. 149. ISBN 978-8-12500-808-8.
- Sukhdev Singh Chib (1977). Haryana. Light & Life Publishers. p. 3. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- University of Calcutta. Dept. of Pali (1 January 2002). Journal of the Department of Pali. University of Calcutta. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- A. B. L. Awasthi (1965). Studies in Skanda Purāṇa 1. Kailash Prakashan. p. 100. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Bhagwan singh Suryavanshi, Abhira their history & culture (MS University Archaeology, & Ancient History Series, No.6) xvi, Maharaja Siyajirao, university of Baroda, 1962
- Anthony Kennedy Warder (1977). Indian Kāvya Literature: The early medieval period: Śūdraka to Viśākhadatta. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,. pp. Page No. 3. ISBN 9788120804456. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Indian Kāvya Literature: The early medieval period: Śūdraka to Viśākhadatta Page3
- Harirāma Jośī (1998). Pages of the forgotten past. Joshi Research Institute. p. 54. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- G. K. Ghosh; Shukla Ghosh (2003). Brahmin women. Firma KLM. ISBN 978-81-7102-107-9. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1994). The making of early medieval India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563415-0. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Haran Chandra Chakladar (1 January 1990). Social life in ancient India: studies in Vātsyāyāna's Kāma Sūtra. Asian Educational Services. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-81-206-0524-4. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- India. Dept. of Archaeology (1955). Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi era. Govt. Epigraphist for India. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Kumar Suresh Singh (1985). Tribal society in India: an anthropo-historical perspective. Manohar. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Rash Bihari Lal; Anthropological Survey of India (2003). Gujarat 1. Popular Prakashan. pp. 465–. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Kumar Suresh Singh; Anthropological Survey of India (2003). People of India. 22, Part 1. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 465. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Man in India 54. 1974. p. 39. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Popatlal Govindlal Shah (1968). Ethnic history of Gujarat. Gujarat Research Society. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Social movements and social transformation: a study of two backward classes movements in India
- Sandhya Jain (2004). Adi deo Arya devata: a panoramic view of tribal-Hindu cultural interface. Rupa & Co., Original from the University of Michigan. pp. 121,122.
- D. R. Regmi; Nepal Institute of Asian Studies (1969). Ancient Nepal. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Subodh Kapoor (2002). Encyclopaedia of ancient Indian geography. Cosmo Publications. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-81-7755-298-0. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- J. N. Singh Yadav (1992). Yadavas through the ages, from ancient period to date. Sharada Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-85616-03-2. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Numismatic Society of India (1991). The journal of the Numismatic Society of India 53. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha (1999). Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha. 50–51. Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha. p. 187. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Dineshchandra Sircar (1971). Studies in the geography of ancient and medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-81-208-0690-0. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Vakataka – Gupta Age Circa 200–550 AD By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Anant Sadashiv Altekar
- Nau Nihal Singh (1 January 2003). The royal Gurjars: their contribution to India. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. pp. 276–. ISBN 978-81-261-1414-6. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Tej Ram Sharma (1 January 1989). A political history of the imperial Guptas: from Gupta to Skandagupta. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-81-7022-251-4. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- A political history of the imperial Guptas: from Gupta to Skandagupta By Tej Ram Sharma
- Kailash Chand Jain (1972). Ancient cities and towns of Rajasthan: a study of culture and civilization. Motilal Banarsidass. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Haryana: studies in history and culture. Kurukshetra University. 1968. p. 44. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya (1 January 1996). Krishna-cult in Indian art. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-81-7533-001-6. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Anant Sadashiv Altekar (1967). Vakataka – Gupta Age Circa 200–550 AD. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 143–. ISBN 978-81-208-0026-7. Retrieved 20 June 2011.