Abies balsamea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Balsam fir
Tree with cones
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnospermae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
A. balsamea
Binomial name
Abies balsamea
  • Pinus balsamea L.
  • Abies balsamifera Michx.
  • Peuce balsamea (L.) Rich.
  • Abies hudsonia Bosc ex Jacques
  • Picea balsamea (L.) Loudon
  • Abies minor Duhamel ex Gordon

Abies balsamea or balsam fir is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central Alberta) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia).[3]


Balsam fir is a small to medium-size evergreen tree typically 14–20 metres (46–66 ft) tall, occasionally reaching a height of 27 metres (89 ft). The narrow conic crown consists of dense, dark-green leaves. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters (which tend to spray when ruptured), becoming rough and fissured or scaly on old trees. The leaves are flat and needle-like, 15 to 30 mm (58 to 1+18 in) long, dark green above often with a small patch of stomata near the tip, and two white stomatal bands below, and a slightly notched tip. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted so that the leaves appear to be in two more-or-less horizontal rows on either side of the shoot. The needles become shorter and thicker the higher they are on the tree. The seed cones are erect, 40 to 80 mm (1+12 to 3+14 in) long, dark purple, ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in September.


For thousands of years Native Americans used Balsam fir for medicinal and therapeutic purposes. The needles are digested directly off the tree by many animals and humans. Higher content dosage is ingested in tea. Balsam Fir contains vitamin C, which has been studied for its effects on bacterial and viral infections.[4]


The male reproductive organs generally develop more rapidly and appear sooner than the female organs. The male organs contain microsporangia which divide to form sporogenous tissue, composed of cells which become archesporial cells. These develop into microspores, or pollen-mother cells, once they are rounded and filled with starch grains. When the microspores undergo meiosis in the spring, four haploid microspores are produced which eventually become pollen grains. Once the male strobilus has matured the microsporangia are exposed at which point the pollen is released.

The female megasporangiate is larger than the male. It contains bracts and megasporophylls, each of which contains two ovules, arranged in a spiral. These then develop a nucellus in which a mother cell is formed. Meiosis occurs and a megaspore is produced as the first cell of the megagametophyte. As cell division takes place the nucleus of the megaspore thickens, and cell differentiation occurs to produce prothallial tissue containing an ovum. The remaining undifferentiated cells then form the endosperm.

When the male structure releases its pollen grains, some fall onto the female strobilus and reach the ovule. At this point the pollen tube begins to generate, and eventually the sperm and egg meet at which point fertilization occurs.[5]


There are two varieties:

  • Abies balsamea var. balsamea (balsam fir) – bracts subtending seed scales short, not visible on the closed cones. Most of the species' range.
  • Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis (bracted balsam fir or Canaan fir) – bracts subtending seed scales longer, visible on the closed cone. The southeast of the species' range, from southernmost Quebec to West Virginia. The name Canaan fir derives from one of its native localities, the Canaan Valley in West Virginia. Some botanists regard this variety as a natural hybrid between balsam fir and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), which occurs further south in the Appalachian mountains.


Balsam fir krummholz on Mount Hight, New Hampshire

Balsam firs are very shade tolerant, and tend to grow in cool climates, ideally with a mean annual temperature of 40 °F (4 °C), with consistent moisture at their roots.[6] They typically grow in the following four forest types:

  • Swamp – swamp forest types never completely dry out, so balsam firs have constant access to water. The ground is covered in sphagnum and other mosses. In swamps, balsam firs grow densely and slowly, and are slender.
  • Flat – sometimes referred to as "dry swamps," these areas are better drained than swamps but still retain moisture well. Fern moss covers the ground and there is a possibility of ground rot. In flat areas balsam fir grows fast, tall, and large, mixed with red spruce.
  • Hardwood slope – ground rot is common in this well-drained area, and leaf litter covers the forest floor. Balsam firs grow fast, tall, and large along with big hardwood trees such as yellow birch, sugar maple and beech.
  • Mountain top – On mountain tops, stands of balsam fir occasionally develop fir waves. They often grow at an elevation of 760 to 1,520 m (2,500 to 5,000 ft) in pure strands, or in association with black spruce, white spruce, and trembling aspen. The development is similar to that in swamps with slow growth resulting in slender, short trees. Some of the low branches touch the ground, and may grow roots to produce an independent tree.[7]

The foliage is browsed by moose and deer.[8] The seeds are eaten by American red squirrels, grouse, and pine mice;[9] the tree also provides food for crossbills and chickadees, as well as shelter for moose, snowshoe hares, white-tailed deer, ruffed grouse, and other small mammals and songbirds. The needles are eaten by some lepidopteran caterpillars, for example the Io moth (Automeris io).

Abies balsamea is one of the most cold-hardy trees known, surviving at temperatures as low as −45 °C (−49 °F) (USDA Hardiness Zone 2). Specimens even showed no ill effects when immersed in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C (−320.8 °F).[10]

Conservation Status[edit]

It is listed as endangered in Connecticut. This status applies to native populations only.[11]


The balsam fir is the preferred main host of the eastern spruce budworm, which is a major destructive pest throughout the eastern United States and Canada.[12] During cyclical population outbreaks, major defoliation of the balsam fir can occur, which may significantly reduce radial growth.[13] This can kill the tree. An outbreak in Quebec in 1957 killed over 75% of balsam fir in some stands.[14]

The needles of balsam fir can be infected by the fungus Delphinella balsameae.[15]


Christmas trees[edit]

Both varieties of the species are very popular as Christmas trees, particularly in the northeastern United States. Balsam firs cut for Christmas are not taken from the forest, but are grown on large plantations. The balsam fir is one of the greatest exports of Quebec and New England. It is celebrated for its rich green needles, natural conical shape, and needle retention after being cut, and it is notably the most fragrant of all Christmas tree varieties.[16]

Many of these plantations are family farms handed down from generation to generation. The techniques of shearing, growing, and other cultivation secretly passed down from grandparents to grandchildren. Families like the Rousseau's of Quebec, Rose of New Brunswick, and Kessler's (North Pole Xmas Trees) of New Hampshire have kept family traditions for almost a century.

The balsam fir was used six times for the US Capitol Christmas Tree between 1964 and 2019.[10]

In northern areas of Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin balsam fir branches (boughs) are used to make Christmas wreaths.


Abies balsamea is also grown as an ornamental tree for parks and gardens. Very hardy down to −20 °C (−4 °F) or below, it requires a sheltered spot in full sun. The dwarf cultivar A. balsamea 'Hudson' (Hudson fir), grows to only 1 m (3.3 ft) tall by 1.5 m (4.9 ft) broad, and has distinctive blue-green foliage with pale undersides. It does not bear cones. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[17][18]

Other cultivars include:

  • 'Angustata'
  • 'Argentea'
  • 'Brachylepis'
  • 'Coerulea'
  • 'Columnaris'
  • 'Glauca'
  • 'Globosa'
  • 'Longifolia'
  • 'Lutescens'
  • 'Macrocarpa'
  • 'Marginata'
  • 'Nana'
  • 'Nudicaulis'
  • 'Paucifolia'
  • 'Prostrata'
  • 'Pyramidalis'
  • 'Variegata'
  • 'Versicolor'[19]

Other uses[edit]

Balsam fir essential oil in clear glass vial

The resin is used to produce Canada balsam, and was traditionally used as a cold remedy and as a glue for glasses, optical instrument components, and for preparing permanent mounts of microscope specimens. Given its use as a traditional remedy and the relatively high ascorbic acid content of its needles, historian Jacques Mathieu has argued that the balsam fir was the "aneda" that cured scurvy during the second expedition into Canada of Jacques Cartier.[20] The wood is milled for framing lumber (part of SPF lumber), siding and pulped for paper manufacture. Balsam fir oil is an EPA approved nontoxic rodent repellent. The balsam fir is also used as an air freshener and as incense.[21]

Prior to the availability of foam rubber and air mattresses, balsam fir boughs were a preferred mattress in places where trees greatly outnumbered campers. Many fir limbs are vertically bowed from alternating periods of downward deformation from snow loading and new growth reaching upward for sunlight. Layers of inverted freshly cut limbs from small trees created a pleasantly fragrant mattress lifting bedding off the wet ground; and the bowed green limbs were springs beneath the soft needles. Upper layers of limbs were placed with the cut ends of the limbs touching the earth to avoid uncomfortably sharp spots and sap.[22]

Native American ethnobotany[edit]

The Native Americans use it for a variety of medicinal purposes.[23]

The Abenaki use the gum for slight itches and as an antiseptic ointment.[24] They stuff the leaves,[25] needles and wood into pillows as a panacea.[26]

The Algonquin people of Quebec apply a poultice of the gum to open sores, insect bites, boils and infections, use the needles as a sudatory for women after childbirth and for other purposes, use the roots for heart disease, use the needles to make a laxative tea, and use the needles for making poultices.[27]

The Atikamekw chew the sap as a cold remedy, and use the boughs as mats for the tent floor.[28]

The Cree use the pitch for menstrual irregularity, and take an infusion of the bark and sometimes the wood for coughs. They use the pitch and grease used as an ointment for scabies and boils. They apply a poultice of pitch applied to cuts. They also use a decoction of pitch and sturgeon oil used for tuberculosis, and take an infusion of bark for tuberculosis. They also use the boughs to make brush shelters and use the wood to make paddles.[29]

The Innu people grate the inner bark and eat it to benefit their diet.[30]

The Iroquois use a steam from a decoction of branches as a bath for rheumatism and parturition, and ingest a decoction of the plant for rheumatism. They take a compound decoction for colds and coughs, sometimes mixing it with alcohol. They apply a compound decoction of the plant for cuts, sprains, bruises and sores.[31] They apply a poultice of the gum and dried beaver kidneys for cancer.[32] They also take a compound decoction in the early stages of tuberculosis, and they use the plant for bedwetting and gonorrhea.[33]

The Maliseet use the juice of the plant as a laxative,[34] use the pitch in medicines,[35] and use an infusion of the bark, sometimes mixed with spruce and tamarack bark, for gonorrhea.[36] They use the needles and branches as pillows and bedding, the roots as thread, and use the pitch to waterproof seams in canoes.[35]

The Menominee use the inner bark as a seasoner for medicines, take an infusion of the inner bark for chest pain, and use the liquid balsam pressed from the trunk for colds and pulmonary troubles. They also use the inner bark as a poultice for unspecified illnesses.[37] They also apply gum from plant blisters to sores.[38]

The Miꞌkmaq use a poultice of inner bark for an unspecified purpose,[37] use the buds, cones and inner bark for diarrhea, use the gum for burns, colds, fractures, sores and wounds, use the cones for colic, and use the buds as a laxative. They also use the bark used for gonorrhea and buds used as a laxative.[39] They use the boughs to make beds, use the bark to make a beverage, and use the wood for kindling and fuel.[40]

The Ojibwe melt the gum on warm stones and inhale the fumes for headache.[41] They also use a decoction of the root as an herbal steam for rheumatic joints.[41] They also combine the gum with bear's grease and use it as an ointment for hair.[42] They use the needle-like leaves in as part of ceremony involving the sweat bath, and use the gum for colds and inhale the leaf smoke for colds.[43] They use the plant as a cough medicine.[44] The gum is used for sores and a compound containing leaves is used as wash. The liquid balsam from bark blisters is used for sore eyes.[43] They boil the resin twice and add it to suet or fat to make a canoe pitch.[45] The bark gum is taken for chest soreness from colds, applied to cuts and sores, and decoction of the bark is used to induce sweating. The bark gum is also taken for gonorrhea.[46]

The Penobscot smear the sap over sores, burns, and cuts.[47]

The Potawatomi use the needles to make pillows, believing that the aroma prevented one from getting a cold.[48] They also use the balsam gum as a salve for sores, and take an infusion of the bark for tuberculosis and other internal afflictions.[48]

Tree emblem[edit]

Balsam fir is the provincial tree of New Brunswick.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Abies balsamea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42272A2968717. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42272A2968717.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Abies balsamea". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 12 Oct 2016 – via The Plant List. Note that this website has been superseded by World Flora Online
  3. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Abies balsamea (balsam fir)". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  4. ^ Hemilä, Harri (December 2003). "Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 52 (6): 1049–1050. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh002. PMC 7110025. PMID 14613951.
  5. ^ Bakuzis, E.V.; Hansen, Henry L.; Kaufert, Frank H. (January 1965). Balsam Fir: A Monographic Review. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 2, 8–14. ISBN 9780816661282.
  6. ^ Walters, Michael B.; Reich, Peter B. (July 2000). "Seed Size, Nitrogen Supply, and Growth Rate Affect Tree Seedling Survival in Deep Shade". Ecology. 81 (7): 1887–1901. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[1887:SSNSAG]2.0.CO;2. hdl:11299/175095. ISSN 0012-9658.
  7. ^ Zon, Raphael (March 25, 1914). "Balsam Fir". Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 55: 2–7.
  8. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 278. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
  9. ^ Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 188.
  10. ^ a b "Abies balsamea". The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  11. ^ "Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 17 January 2018. (Note: This list is newer than the one used by plants.usda.gov and is more up-to-date.)
  12. ^ Out Of Print : Biosystematic Studies of Conifer-Feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in the Western United States : Edited by Jerry A. Powell - University of California Press. Retrieved 2017-10-23. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  13. ^ Blais, J. R. (1958). "The Vulnerability of Balsam Fir to Spruce Budworm Attack in Northwestern Ontario, with Special Reference to the Physiological Age of the Tree". The Forestry Chronicle. 34 (4): 405–422. doi:10.5558/tfc34405-4.
  14. ^ Blais, J. R.; Martineau, R. (1960). "A Recent Spruce Budworm Outbreak in the Lower St. Lawrence and Gaspe Peninsula with Reference to Aerial Spraying Operations". The Forestry Chronicle. 36 (3): 209–224. doi:10.5558/tfc36209-3.
  15. ^ Guertin, Julien F.; Zitouni, Mina; Tanguay, Philippe; Hogue, Richard; Beaulieu, Carole (2018). "Detection of Delphinella shoot blight in plantations of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) Christmas trees in Quebec, Canada". Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 41 (1): 87–97. doi:10.1080/07060661.2018.1547791. S2CID 92569747.
  16. ^ Flynn, James H.; Holder, Charles D., eds. (2001). A Guide to Useful Woods of the World (2nd ed.). Madison, WI: Forest Products Society. pp. 2–3. ISBN 1-892529-15-7.
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Abies balsamea Hudsonia Group 'Hudson' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  18. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 1. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  19. ^ http://site.ebrary.com/lib/umich/reader.action?docID=10231274}[dead link]
  20. ^ Mathieu, Jacques. L'Annedda: L'arbre de vie (Quebec: Septentrion, 2009).
  21. ^ "Balsam fir oil (129035) Fact Sheet". 2015-08-20. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  22. ^ Thoreau, Henry David The Maine Woods Apollo edition (1966) Thomas Y. Crowell Company
  23. ^ "Abies balsamea". Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  24. ^ Rousseau, Jacques, 1947, Ethnobotanique Abenakise, Archives de Folklore 11:145-182, page 164
  25. ^ Rousseau, Jacques, 1947, Ethnobotanique Abenakise, Archives de Folklore 11:145-182, page 155
  26. ^ Rousseau, Jacques, 1947, Ethnobotanique Abenakise, Archives de Folklore 11:145-182, page 163-164
  27. ^ Black, Meredith Jean, 1980, Algonquin Ethnobotany: An Interpretation of Aboriginal Adaptation in South Western Quebec, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series Number 65, page 124
  28. ^ Raymond, Marcel., 1945, Notes Ethnobotaniques Sur Les Tete-De-Boule De Manouan, Contributions de l'Institut botanique l'Universite de Montreal 55:113-134, page 118
  29. ^ Leighton, Anna L., 1985, Wild Plant Use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of East-Central Saskatchewan, Ottawa. National Museums of Canada. Mercury Series, page 21
  30. ^ Speck, Frank G., 1917, Medicine Practices of the Northeastern Algonquians, Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Americanists Pp. 303-321, page 313
  31. ^ Herrick, James William, 1977, Iroquois Medical Botany, State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis, page 269
  32. ^ Rousseau, Jacques, 1945, Le Folklore Botanique De Caughnawaga, Contributions de l'Institut botanique l'Universite de Montreal 55:7-72, page 37
  33. ^ Herrick, James William, 1977, Iroquois Medical Botany, State University of New York, Albany, PhD Thesis, page 270
  34. ^ Mechling, W.H., 1959, The Malecite Indians With Notes on the Micmacs, Anthropologica 8:239-263, page 244
  35. ^ a b Speck, Frank G. and R.W. Dexter, 1952, Utilization of Animals and Plants by the Malecite Indians of New Brunswick, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 42:1-7, page 6
  36. ^ Mechling, W.H., 1959, The Malecite Indians With Notes on the Micmacs, Anthropologica 8:239-263, page 257
  37. ^ a b Smith, Huron H., 1923, Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4:1-174, page 45
  38. ^ Densmore, Francis, 1932, Menominee Music, SI-BAE Bulletin #102, page 132
  39. ^ Chandler, R. Frank, Lois Freeman and Shirley N. Hooper, 1979, Herbal Remedies of the Maritime Indians, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1:49-68, page 53
  40. ^ Speck, Frank G. and R.W. Dexter, 1951, Utilization of Animals and Plants by the Micmac Indians of New Brunswick, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 41:250-259, page 258
  41. ^ a b Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 338
  42. ^ Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 350
  43. ^ a b Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 378
  44. ^ Reagan, Albert B., 1928, Plants Used by the Bois Fort Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians of Minnesota, Wisconsin Archeologist 7(4):230-248, page 244
  45. ^ Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 420
  46. ^ Hoffman, W.J., 1891, The Midewiwin or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa, SI-BAE Annual Report #7, page 198
  47. ^ Speck, Frank G., 1917, Medicine Practices of the Northeastern Algonquians, Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of Americanists Pp. 303-321, page 309
  48. ^ a b Smith, Huron H., 1933, Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 7:1-230, page 121

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]