Abitur after twelve years
Abitur after twelve years, or Gymnasium in eight years (often abbreviated as G8 or Gy8) describes the reduction from the duration in the Gymnasium from nine to eight school years in many of the States of Germany. In the States Berlin, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern the reduction took place from seven to six years because, there, primary education goes until grade 6. The principal argument for the reduction are the comparatively long times for vocational education in Germany.
Some German federal states already reverse the reform even though sound academic insights on reform effects are scarce.
|State||Introduction||Previously in effect|
|Baden-Württemberg||yes (2012- )|
|Bavaria||abolished||2012 until 2018|
|Berlin||yes (2012- )||1949 until 2000 (East Berlin)|
|Brandenburg||yes (2012- )||1949 until 2000|
|Bremen||yes (2012- )|
|Hamburg||yes (2010- )|
|Hesse||yes (2013- )|
|Mecklenburg-Vorpommern||yes (2008- )||1949 until 2001|
|Lower Saxony||abolished||2011 until 2015|
|North Rhine-Westphalia||yes (2012- )|
|Rhineland-Palatinate||yes (2016- )
(as a pilot project in
full-time schools only)
|Saarland||yes (2009- )|
|Saxony||yes (1949- )|
|Saxony-Anhalt||yes (2007- )||1949 until 2000|
|Schleswig-Holstein||yes (2016- )|
|Thuringia||yes (1949- )|
In part, parents’, teachers’ and students’ organizations express criticism, exclusively from the Western States of Germany. In spite of the removal of one school year, all contents of the, now thirteen, school years are arranged. This means that the school timetable is enlarged and that the students have to be at school between 32 and 40 periods a week. Altogether with the homework given and exam preparations a school week is calculated to include an estimate of 45 up to 55 periods.
However, there is little empirical evidence on the effect of this compression of instructional hours into fewer years of schooling on student outcomes.
- Spiegel Online: Im Osten nichts Neues
- Huebener, M. & Marcus, J. (2015): Empirische Befunde zu Auswirkungen der G8-Schulzeitverkürzung, DIW Roundup No. 57, 02/2015. for an overview of the legislation in February 2015.
- Spiegel Online: Diebstahl der Kindheit
- Huebener, M. & Marcus, J. (2015): Empirische Befunde zu Auswirkungen der G8-Schulzeitverkürzung, DIW Roundup No. 57, 02/2015.
- Huebener, M. & Marcus, J. (2015): Moving up a gear: The impact of compressing instructional time into fewer years of schooling, DIW Discussion Papers, No. 1450.
- www.g8-in-bayern.de — The Gymnasium in eight years in Bavaria
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