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Abkhazia conflict

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Abkhazia conflict
Part of Dissolution of the Soviet Union and post-Soviet conflicts
Date18 March 1989 – present
Status Ongoing; frozen conflict
 Abkhaz ASSR (before 1992)
 Abkhazia (after 1992)
CMPC (1992–1993)
Russia /  Russia
 Georgian SSR (before 1990)
Georgia (country) / Georgia (country) Georgia (after 1990)
Commanders and leaders
Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicAbkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba
Abkhazia Sergei Bagapsh
Abkhazia Alexander Ankvab
Abkhazia Raul Khajimba
Abkhazia Aslan Bzhania
Shamil Basayev
Sultan Sosnaliyev
Musa Shanibov
Russia / Russia Boris Yeltsin
Russia Dmitry Medvedev
Russia Vladimir Putin
(2000–2008, 2012–present)
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Givi Gumbaridze
Zviad Gamsakhurdia
Eduard Shevardnadze
Georgia (country) Mikheil Saakashvili
Georgia (country) Giorgi Margvelashvili
Georgia (country) Salome Zourabichvili

The Abkhazia conflict is a territorial dispute over Abkhazia, a region on the eastern coast of the Black Sea in the South Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The conflict involves Georgia, Russian Federation and Russian-backed self-proclaimed Republic of Abkhazia, internationally recognised only by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria; Georgia and all other United Nations members consider Abkhazia a sovereign territory of Georgia.[2][3][4][5] However, as of 2023, Georgia lacks de facto control over the territory.

The beginning of the conflict dates back to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991; however, the dispute can be traced to 1918—1919 Sochi conflict, which involved a territorial conflict over Sukhumi okrug (which corresponds to Abkhazian region) between Georgian Democratic Republic, White Russia and Russian SFSR. Since 1989, the conflict involved several wars: 1992—1993 War in Abkhazia, 1998 War in Abkhazia and 2008 Russo-Georgian War.

The conflict, one of the bloodiest in the post-Soviet era, remains unresolved. The Georgian government has offered substantial autonomy to Abkhazia several times. However, both the Abkhaz government and the opposition in Abkhazia refuse any form of union with Georgia. Abkhaz regard their independence as the result of a war of liberation from Georgia, while Georgians believe that historically Abkhazia has always formed part of Georgia.[6] Georgians formed the single largest ethnic group in pre-1993 Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989. During the war the Abkhaz separatist side carried out an ethnic cleansing campaign which resulted in the expulsion of up to 250,000[7] and in the killing of more than 5,000 ethnic Georgians.[8] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) conventions of Lisbon, Budapest and Istanbul have officially recognized the ethnic cleansing of Georgians,[9] which UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708 also mentions.[10] The UN Security Council has passed a series of resolutions in which it appeals for a cease-fire.[11]


The written history of Abkhazia largely begins with the colonization by Ancient Greeks of its coast in the 6th-5th centuries BC. During this time, the territory was part of the western Georgian kingdom of Colchis (Egrisi). During the Antiquity, various tribes were recorded on the territory today known as Abkhazia: Moschi, Sanigs, Misimians, Apsilae and Abasgois. Moschi, Sanigs and Misimians were known to have Georgian (Kartvelian) origin, while origin of Apsilae and Abasgois is disputed, with some scholars considering them to be Kartvelian tribes, while others regard them as being ancestors of people today called as Abkhazians. Throughout Antiquity, the territory was controlled by Pontus, the Roman Empire, and the Byzantine Empire. Local tribes played a huge role into consolidation of local population into single unit. They managed to break free from the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century and establish their independent kingdom. During this time, the term "Apkhazeti" first appeared in the Georgian annals, which is of Mingrelian (Western Georgian) origin, "Apkha" meaning back or shoulder.[12][13][14] The term gave rise to the name "Abkhazia", which is used today in most foreign languages. It was used to denote whole Abasgia (Byzantine name for the territory). The medieval Kingdom of Abkhazia managed to unite whole Western Georgia into a single political entity and transferred its capital to the Georgian city of Kutaisi. Although the origin of this kingdom's ruling family is still disputed, most scholars agree that the Abkhazian kings were Georgian in culture and language. The kingdom is frequently referred in modern history writing as the Egrisi-Abkhazian kingdom due to the fact that medieval authors viewed the new monarchy as a successor state of Egrisi and sometimes used the terms interchangeably. In order to eliminate the Byzantine religious influence, the dynasty subordinated the local dioceses to the Georgian Orthodox patriarchate of Mtskheta.[15][16]

In the 10th century, Kingdom of Abkhazia played an important role in Unification of the Georgian realm. Through dynastic succession, Bagrat Bagrationi united Kingdom of Abkhazia, Southern Georgian Kingdom of the Iberians and Eastern Georgian territories of Kartli under single political entity, Kingdom of Georgia. Duchy of Tskhumi was established on the territory of Abkhazia, which later was transformed into Duchy of Abkhazia. The Kingdom became the largest entity in the Caucasus by the 12th century. However, in the late 15th century, the civil strife within the Kingdom of Georgia led to its dissolution. Various new Georgian kingdoms arose in its place, such as Kingdom of Kakheti and Kingdom of Kartli in the Eastern Georgia, Samtskhe-Saatabago in the Southern Georgia and Kingdom of Imereti in the Western Georgia. The latter consisted of three principalities: Principality of Mingrelia, Principality of Guria and Principality of Abkhazia. Eventually Kingdom of Imereti declined due to power struggle within its ruling elites and constant Ottoman invasions, leading to these principalities gaining semi-independent status as they frequently acted independently and at times titled themselves as kings. In the 1570s, the Ottoman navy occupied the fort of Tskhumi on the Abkhazian coastline, turning it into the Turkish fortress of Suhum-Kale (hence, the modern name of the city of Sukhumi). In 1555, Georgia and the whole South Caucasus became divided between the Ottoman and Safavid Persian empires per the Peace of Amasya, with Abkhazia, along with all of western Georgia, remaining in the hands of the Ottomans. As a result, Abkhazia came under the increasing influence of Turkey and Islam, gradually losing its cultural and religious ties with the rest of Georgia. According to the Soviet historical science, Turkey, after the conquest has aimed at obliterating the material and spiritual culture of Abkhazia and forcibly convert the population to Islam.[17]

Conflict in 1918–1920[edit]

Following the Russian Revolutions, Georgia initially joined the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and subsequently became independent as the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) governed by Georgian Mensheviks, while Abkhazia fell under control of a group of local Bolsheviks and the Red Army of Russia following a Bolshevik-led rebellion against the local Abkhazian self-government, Abkhaz People's Council (APC). This forced the APC to request aid from the Democratic Republic of Georgia, which ousted the Bolshevik rebels in Sokhumi with the National Guard of Georgia.[18] Abkhazia joined Democratic Republic of Georgia as an autonomous entity. This later led to the Sochi conflict between Georgia and Soviet Russia over ownership of Abkhazia and the territories of the former Black Sea Governorate. Georgia managed to repulse the Red Army from Abkhazia but conceded to Russian claims over Sochi and Tuapse. In 1920, Psou river was agreed as a new state border between Soviet Russia and Georgia. This corresponds to the modern internationally recognized Georgia–Russia border. In 1921, Abkhazia was granted the status of the autonomous republic within the Georgian Democratic Republic.

In 1921, the Red Army invaded Georgia and toppled the Menshvik government of the DRG. Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (GSSR) was established under Bolshevik government, which was later incorporated into the USSR. In exchange for support for Bolsheviks in Abkhazia, the Soviet government agreed to increase the autonomy of Abkhazia. In 1921, Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia was created. However, it was not separate from Georgia and its status was defined as a treaty republic of GSSR. In 1931, status of Abkhazia was again downgraded to the autonomous republic, with Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic being established.

The late Soviet era conflict[edit]

Tensions between Abkhazians and Georgians began to escalate in 1980s as Georgians increasingly pushed for independence from the Soviet Union, while Abkhazians wanted to remain in the Soviet Union. On 18 March 1989, a group of Abkhazian intellectuals wrote letter to the Kremlin, expressing their desire to upgrade the status of Abkhazia to independent SSR within the Soviet Union or join Russia as an autonomous republic. This is known as Lykhny appeal. According to the 1979 Soviet Census, Georgians made up 45.7% of the population of Abkhazia, while Abkhazians were 17.8%. In response to the appeal, the Georgian anti-Soviet groups organized a series of unsanctioned meetings across Georgia, claiming that the Soviet government was using Abkhaz separatism in order to oppose the Georgia's pro-independence movement. The peaceful demonstration in Tbilisi was suppressed by the Soviet Army on 9 April 1989, which is known today as April 9 tragedy. In July 1989, the riots started in Abkhazia with the Abkhaz protest against an opening of a branch of Tbilisi State University in Sukhumi, and concluded with the looting of the Georgian school which was expected to house the new university on 16 July 1989. The ensuing violence quickly degenerated into a large-scale inter-ethnic confrontation. The first case of inter-ethnic violence in Georgia, it effectively marked the start of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict.

The July events in Abkhazia left at least 18 dead and 448 injured, of whom, according to official accounts, 302 were Georgians.[19] Although the government managed to end the violence and maintain peace at that time, the conflict developed further and resulted in the next years in what is often referred as "war of laws". In 1991, Georgia refused to take part in referendum to preserve the Soviet Union as a renewed federation, opting to hold an independence referendum, which led to a declaration of independence. However, Abkhazia defied Tbilisi and took part in the Soviet referendum, which was boycotted by the Georgian population of Abkhazia.

In order to defuse tensions, newly elected Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia agreed on an arrangement to grant a wide over-representation to the Abkhazians in the local Supreme Council, with Abkhazians, while being only 18% of the population, getting the largest portion of seats.[20] According to this settlement, the 65 seats in the Supreme Soviet were allocated to different ethnic groups; 28 were reserved for Abkhazians, 26 for Georgians (46% of the total population) and 11 for the other ethnic groups.[21] The elections were held in September 1991 and resulted in Vladislav Ardzinba being appointed as Chairman of the Abkhazian Supreme Council. Ardzinba, who was a charismatic but excitable figure popular among the Abkhaz, was believed by Georgians to have helped to instigate the anti-Georgian violence of July 1989. Ardzinba exploited the Georgian Civil War which began in December 1991 to consolidate his power and launched a practice of replacing ethnic Georgians in leading positions with the Abkhaz. Ardzinba created the Abkhazian National Guard that was mono-ethnically Abkhaz, and on 24 June 1992, attacked the building of the Abkhazian Interior Ministry, a last stronghold of Georgian authority in Abkhazia, severely beating the ethnic Georgian minister Givi Lominadze and installing Abkhaz Alexander Ankvab. These events led to a split in the Supreme Council between Georgian and Abkhazian factions and forced the Georgian faction to boycott the sessions. In turn, On 23 July 1992, the Abkhazian faction of the Supreme Council, without a quorum, passed a resolution on restoring the 1925 Abkhazian constitution, declaring a "sovereign state" from Georgia. On 25 July 1992, State Council of the Republic of Georgia, a governing body of Georgia at that time, responded with a special resolution, which nullified this declaration, with Georgian leader Eduard Shevardnadze pointing out that the separatist decision contradicted the opinion of the majority of Abkhazian population.[22] Meanwhile, the Abkhaz leader Vladislav Ardzinba intensified his ties with hard-line Russian politicians and military elite and declared he was ready for a war with Georgia.[23] Russia used Abkhaz and also South Ossetian separatists as its ethnically-based proxies to inflame ethnic conflicts in Georgia, undermine Georgian independence and assert Russia's control over the strategically important South Caucasus.[24][25]

War in Abkhazia[edit]

The conflict eventually devolved into a war, which lasted for 13 months, beginning in August, 1992, with Georgian government forces and a militia composed of ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia and separatist forces consisting of ethnic Abkhazians and Armenians who also lived in Abkhazia. The separatists were supported by the North Caucasian and Cossack militants and (unofficially) by Russian forces stationed in Gudauta. The conflict resulted in the ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia. The agreement in Moscow ended hostilities in 1994, however, this would not last.

Resumption of hostilities[edit]

In April–May 1998, the conflict escalated once again in the Gali District when several hundred Abkhaz forces entered the villages still populated by Georgians to support the separatist-held parliamentary elections. Despite criticism from the opposition, Eduard Shevardnadze, President of Georgia, refused to deploy troops against Abkhazia. A ceasefire was negotiated on May 20. The hostilities resulted in hundreds of casualties from both sides and an additional 20,000 Georgian refugees.

In September 2001, around 400 Chechen fighters and 80 Georgian guerrillas appeared in the Kodori Valley. The Chechen-Georgian paramilitaries advanced as far as Sukhumi, but finally were repelled by the Abkhazian forces.

Saakashvili era[edit]

The new Georgian government of President Mikheil Saakashvili promised not to use force and to resolve the problem only by diplomacy and political talks.[26]

While at a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) summit it was decided not to carry out contacts with separatists, the trans-border economic cooperation and transport between Abkhazia and Russia grew in scale, with Russia claiming that all this is a matter of private business, rather than state.[citation needed] Georgia also decried the unlimited issuing of Russian passports in Abkhazia with subsequent payment of retirement pensions and other monetary benefits by Russia, which Georgia considers to be economic support of separatists by the Russian government.[26]

In May 2006 the Coordinating Council of Georgia's Government and Abkhaz separatists was convened for the first time since 2001.[27] In late July the 2006 Kodori crisis erupted, resulting in the establishment of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. For the first time after the war, this government was located in Abkhazia, and it was headed by Malkhaz Akishbaia, Temur Mzhavia and Ada Marshania.[28]

On May 15, 2008 United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recognising the right of all refugees to return to Abkhazia and reclaim their property rights. It regretted the attempts to alter pre-war demographic composition and called for the "rapid development of a timetable to ensure the prompt voluntary return of all refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes."[29]

August 2008[edit]

On August 10, 2008, the Russo-Georgian War spread to Abkhazia, where separatist rebels and the Russian air force launched an all-out attack on Georgian forces. Abkhazia's pro-Moscow separatist President Sergei Bagapsh said that his troops had launched a major "military operation" to force Georgian troops out of the Kodori Gorge, which they still controlled.[30] As a result of this attack, Georgian troops were driven out of Abkhazia entirely.

On August 26, 2008, the Russian Federation officially recognized both South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states.[31]

In response to Russia's recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the Georgian government announced that the country cut all diplomatic relations with Russia and that it left the Commonwealth of Independent States.[32]

After the 2008 war[edit]

Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia have remained tense after the war. Georgia has moved to increase Abkhazia's isolation by imposing a sea blockade of Abkhazia. During the opening ceremony of a new building of the Georgian Embassy in Kyiv (Ukraine) in November 2009, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili stated that residents of South Ossetia and Abkhazia could also use its facilities. "I would like to assure you, my dear friends, that this is your home, as well, and here you will always be able to find support and understanding", he said.[33]

On July 9, 2012, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly passed a resolution at its annual session in Monaco, underlining Georgia's territorial integrity and referring to breakaway Abkhazia and South Ossetia as occupied territories. The resolution "urges the Government and the Parliament of the Russian Federation, as well as the de facto authorities of Abkhazia, Georgia and South Ossetia, Georgia, to allow the European Union Monitoring Mission unimpeded access to the occupied territories." It also said that the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly was "concerned about the humanitarian situation of the displaced persons both in Georgia and in the occupied territories of Abkhazia, Georgia and South Ossetia, Georgia, as well as the denial of the right of return to their places of living."[34]

In 2016, murder of ethnic Georgian Giga Otkhozoria by Abkhaz border guards caused international resonance and raised question about human rights situation of ethnic Georgians remaining in Abkhazia, particularly Gali district, where 98% is ethnic Georgian and is often subject to ethnic discrimination, denial of political and civil rights and police misconduct.[35][36][37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Russian troops withdraw from Georgian town". BBC News. 18 October 2010.
  2. ^ Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8330-3260-7.
  3. ^ Clogg, Rachel (January 2001). "Abkhazia: ten years on". Conciliation Resources. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  4. ^ Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7007-1481-0.
  5. ^ Parfitt, Tom (6 Aug 2007). "Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 Feb 2023.
  6. ^ "The staff of the Foreign Ministry of Abkhazia laid a wreath at the memorial in the Park of Glory on the Memorial Day of Fatherland Defenders". mfaapsny.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  7. ^ 1993 Human Rights Report: Georgia. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. US State Department. January 31, 1994. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015.
  8. ^ Gamakharia, Jemal (2015). INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY TO BRING A VERDICT ON THE TRAGEDY OF ABKHAZIA/GEORGIA (PDF). Khvicha Kardava. p. 7. ISBN 978-9941-461-12-5. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  9. ^ Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit Archived 2017-10-17 at the Wayback Machine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 6 December 1994
  11. ^ Bruno Coppieters; Alekseĭ Zverev; Dmitriĭ Trenin (1998). Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Portland, OR: F. Cass. p. 61. ISBN 0714648817.
  12. ^ "TITUS Texts: Megrelian-Georgian Dictionary Kajaia: Frame". titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  13. ^ "აფხა (აფხას) – მეგრულ-ქართული ლექსიკონი". www.nplg.gov.ge. Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  14. ^ Kodua, Harry. "მეგრულ ქართული ლექსიკონი". www.megrulad.ge (in Georgian). Retrieved 2021-05-09.
  15. ^ Rapp Jr., Stephen H. (October–December 2000). "Sumbat Davitis-dze and the Vocabulary of Political Authority in the Era of Georgian Unification". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 120 (4 (October – December, 2000)): 570–576. doi:10.2307/606617. JSTOR 606617.
  16. ^ Toumanoff C., "Chronology of the Kings of Abasgia and other Problems". Le Muséon 69 (1956), pp. 73-90.
  17. ^ History of Abkhazia Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine in the online edition of Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya
  18. ^ Rayfield, Donald (2012-12-15). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia (Kindle ed.). London: Reaktion Books. p. 326. ISBN 978-1-78023-030-6.
  19. ^ Kaufman 2001, p. 238: "Citation 111, which references Elizabeth Fuller, "The South Ossetian Campaign or Unification," p. 18 Report on the USSR, 1, No. 30 (July 28, 1989)."
  20. ^ Donnacha, Beachain (2012). "The dynamics of electoral politics in Abkhazia" (PDF). Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 45 (1–2). Elsevier: 172.
  21. ^ Bruno Coppieters (1996) Contested Borders in the Caucasus Archived 2012-11-27 at the Wayback Machine VUB Press
  22. ^ "New ethnic dispute in Georgia". UPI. 25 July 1992. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  23. ^ Svante E. Cornell (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, pp. 345–9. Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-1162-8.
  24. ^ Hamilton, Robert E. (2011). The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications. Strategic Studies Institute. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-58487-491-1. Russian relations with Georgia were the worst among the post-Soviet states. In addition to fanning the flames of separatism in South Ossetia since 1990s, Russia militarily supported separatists in Abkhazia (1992-1993), which is also a part of Georgian territory, to undermine Georgia's independence and assert Russia's control over the strategically important South Caucasus. [...] This use of small, ethnically- and religiously-based proxies is not unlike Iran's use of Hezbollah and Hamas in Levant.
  25. ^ Rywkin, Michael (2016-09-16). Moscow's Lost Empire. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-28771-3. Keeping Georgian territory undivided is a high priority for Tbilisi, and the Kremlin realized very well that playing on Abkhazian, Ossetian and Ajar separatism was a way to keep Georgia off balance. [...] Under Gorbachev, the Kremlin, eager to undermine the aspirations of the Georgian national-independence movement, initially encouraged the Abkhaz in another variation of the old divide-and-rule game. A second group, Ossetians, are divided between two territorial entities: one, within the Russian Federation, enjoys autonomous republic status, while the other, to the south, is an autonomous region within Georgia. Here the problem is not demography but geopolitics: for the Southern Ossetian territory slices through historically Georgian lands. Its separation would wreak havoc with Georgia's territorial integrity, communications and economy.
  26. ^ a b Abkhazia Today. Archived 2011-02-15 at the Wayback Machine The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 10. Retrieved on May 30, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
  27. ^ "UN Representative Says Abkhazia Dialogue Is Positive" Archived August 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Tbilisi-Based Abkhaz Government Moves to Kodori, Civil Georgia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  30. ^ Harding, Luke (August 10, 2008). "Georgia under all-out attack in breakaway Abkhazia". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  31. ^ "Russia Recognizes Independence of Georgian Regions (Update2)". Bloomberg. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
  32. ^ "Georgia breaks ties with Russia" Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine BBC News. Accessed on August 29, 2008.
  33. ^ Yuschenko, Saakashvili open new building of Georgian Embassy in Kyiv Archived November 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (November 19, 2009)
  34. ^ "OSCE Parliamentary Assembly from 5 to 9 July 2012, Final Declaration and Resolutions". Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  35. ^ "How are the rights of Georgian children violated in Gali district of occupied Abkhazia? [VIDEO]". Agenda.ge. 1 November 2023. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  36. ^ "Tragic Drowning in Enguri Highlights Tbilisi's Policy Failure in Gali". Civil Georgia. 2023-05-27. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  37. ^ "Occupied Lives: Georgians' Daily Struggles Under Russian Control in Gali". Caucasus Watch. 2023-07-05. Retrieved 5 July 2023.


Further reading[edit]

  • Blair, Heather "Ethnic Conflict as a Tool of Outside Influence: An Examination of Abkhazia and Kosovo.", 2007
  • Goltz, Thomas. "Georgia Diary: A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus".M.E. Sharpe (2006). ISBN 0-7656-1710-2
  • Lynch, Dov. The Conflict in Abkhazia: Dilemmas in Russian 'Peacekeeping' Policy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, February 1998.
  • MacFarlane, S., N., “On the front lines in the near abroad: the CIS and the OSCE in Georgia’ s civil wars", Third World Quarterly, Vol 18, No 3, pp 509– 525, 1997.
  • Marshania, L., Tragedy of Abkhazia, Moscow, 1996
  • McCallion, Amy Abkhazian Separatism
  • Steele, Jon. "War Junkie: One Man`s Addiction to the Worst Places on Earth" Corgi (2002). ISBN 0-552-14984-5
  • White Book of Abkhazia. 1992–1993 Documents, Materials, Evidences. Moscow, 1993.

External links[edit]