Abkhaz alphabet

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Abkhaz Alphabet
Languages Abkhaz
Creator Peter von Uslar, Aleksey Chochua
Time period
Parent systems

The Abkhaz alphabet is an alphabet for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters.

Abkhaz did not become a written language until the 19th century. Hitherto, Abkhazians, especially princes, had been using Greek (up to c. 9th century), Georgian (9–19th centuries), and partially Turkish (18th century) languages.[1] The Abkhaz word for alphabet is анбан (anban), which was borrowed from Georgian ანბანი (anbani).

The first dedicated Abkhaz alphabet was created in 1862 by the Russian general Peter von Uslar. It had 37 letters and was based on the Cyrillic script. In 1909, it was expanded to 55 letters by Aleksey Chochua to adjust to the extensive consonantal inventory of Abkhaz.

In 1926, during the korenizatsiya policy in the Soviet Union, the Cyrillic alphabet was replaced by a Latin alphabet devised by Nikolay Marr. It featured 77 letters and was called the "Abkhaz analytical alphabet". In 1928, this was replaced by another Latin alphabet. (See illustration at right.) From 1938 to 1954 the Abkhaz language was written in the Georgian alphabet.

Since 1954, the Abkhaz language has been written in a new 62-letter Cyrillic alphabet (see chart below). Of these, 38 are graphically distinct; the rest are digraphs with ь and ә which indicate palatalization and labialization, respectively. Unusually, the Cyrillic plosive letters К П Т represent ejective consonants; the non-ejectives (pulmonic consonants) are derived from these by means of a descender at the bottom of the letter. In the case of the affricates, however, the plain letter are pulmonic, and the derived letters ejective.

The modern Abkhaz orthography gives preference to the letters Г П with descender (Ӷ Ԥ) instead of hook (Ҕ Ҧ). The characters Ԥ and ԥ are encoded in Unicode since version 5.2.[2]

The Abkhaz Latin alphabet used 1926–1928 designed by Nicholas Marr[3]
The Abkhaz Latin alphabet used 1928–1938 with corresponding Cyrillic and IPA transcriptions.
The modern Abkhaz Cyrillic alphabet
Letter Name Transliteration IPA Value
А а А a /ɑ/
Б б Бы b /b/
В в Вы v /v/
Г г Гы g /ɡ/
Гь гь Гьы g' /ɡʲ/
Гә гә Гәы /ɡʷ/
Ӷ ӷ Ӷы ġ /ʁ/
Ӷь ӷь Ӷьы ġ' /ʁʲ/
Ӷә ӷә Ӷәы ġə /ʁʷ/
Д д Ды d /d/
Дә дә Дәы /d͡b/
Е е Е e /ɛ/
Ж ж Жы ž /ʐ/
Жь жь Жьы ž' /ʒ/
Жә жә Жәы žə /ʒᶣ/
З з Зы z /z/
Ӡ ӡ Ӡы ʒ /d͡z/
Ӡә ӡә Ӡәы ʒə /d͡ʑᵛ/
И и Иы i /j, jɨ, ɨj, i/
К к Кы k /kʼ/
Кь кь Кьы k' /kʼʲ/
Кә кә Кәы /kʼʷ/
Қ қ Қы /kʰ/
Қь қь Қьы k̢' /kʲʰ/
Қә қә Қәы k̢° /kʷʰ/
Ҟ ҟ Ҟы /qʼ/
Ҟь ҟь Ҟьы k̄' /qʼʲ/
Ҟә ҟә Ҟәы k̄° /qʼʷ/
Л л Лы l /l/
М м Мы m /m/
Н н Ны n /n/
О о О o /ɔ/
П п Пы p /pʼ/
Ԥ ԥ Ԥы /pʰ/
Р р Ры r /r/
С с Сы s /s/
Т т Ты t /tʼ/
Тә тә Тәы /t͡pʼ/
Ҭ ҭ Ҭы /tʰ/
Ҭә ҭә Ҭәы t̢° /t͡pʰ/
У у Уы u /w, wɨ, ɨw, u/
Ф ф Фы f /f/
Х х Хы x /χ/
Хь хь Хьы x' /χʲ/
Хә хә Хәы /χʷ/
Ҳ ҳ Ҳы /ħ/
Ҳә ҳә Ҳәы x̢° /ħᶣ/
Ц ц Цы c /t͡sʰ/
Цә цә Цәы /t͡ɕᵛʰ/
Ҵ ҵ Ҵы /t͡sʼ/
Ҵә ҵә Ҵәы c̄° /t͡ɕʼᵛ/
Ч ч Чы č /t͡ʃʰ/
Ҷ ҷ Ҷы Ӵ /t͡ʃʼ/
Ҽ ҽ Ҽы ċ /t͡ʂʰ/
Ҿ ҿ Ҿы ċ̨ /t͡ʂʼ/
Ш ш Шы š /ʂ/
Шь шь Шьы š' /ʃ/
Шә шә Шәы š° /ʃᶣ/
Ы ы Ы y /ɨ/
Ҩ ҩ Ҩы /ɥ ~ ɥˤ/ (< */ʕᶣ/)
Џ џ Џы ǰ /d͡ʐ/
Џь џь Џьы ǰ' /d͡ʒ/
Ь ь ' /ʲ/
Ә ә ° /ʷ,ᶣ,ᵛ/

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Бгажба Х. С. Из истории письменности в Абхазии. — Тбилиси. 1967. С. 34
  2. ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3435.pdf
  3. ^ Марр, Николай Яковлевич (1864–1934): Абхазский аналитический алфавит. (in: Труды яфетического семинария, vol. I, Leningrad 1926), p. 51, table 2

External links[edit]