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List of phobias

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The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject (e.g. homophobia). The suffix is antonymic to -phil-.

For more information on the psychiatric side, including how psychiatry groups phobias such as agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, see phobia. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In some cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game, of notable example being a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News.[1] In some cases, a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym with the suffix -phil-, e.g. Germanophobe/Germanophile.

Many -phobia lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Also, a number of psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. Sometimes it leads to bizarre results, such as suggestions to cure "prostitute phobia".[2] Such practice is known as content spamming and is used to attract search engines.

An article published in 1897 in American Journal of Psychology noted "the absurd tendency to give Greek names to objects feared (which, as Arndt says, would give us such terms as klopsophobia – fear of thieves, triakaidekaphobia – fear of the number 13....)".[3]

Psychological conditions

Specialists may prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms such as personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder. Terms should strictly have a Greek prefix although many are irregularly formed with Latin or even English prefixes. Many use inaccurate or imprecise prefixes, such as aerophobia (fear of air) for fear of flying.


Phobia Condition
Achluophobia fear of darkness
Acousticophobia fear of noise – a branch of phonophobia
Acrophobia fear of heights
Aerophobia fear of aircraft or flying
Agoraphobia fear of certain inescapable/unsafe situations
Agyrophobia fear of crossing streets
Aichmophobia fear of sharp or pointed objects such as a needle or knife
Ailurophobia fear/dislike of cats, a zoophobia
Alektorophobia fear/dislike of chickens, a zoophobia
Anatidaephobia fear/dislike of ducks, a zoophobia
Algophobia fear of pain
Alliumphobia fear of the strong-scented Allium genus: garlic, onions, chives, shallots[4][5][6][7]
Ancraophobia fear of wind or drafts
Androphobia fear of adult men[8]
Anthropophobia fear of human beings[8]
Apeirophobia excessive fear of infinity, eternity, and the uncountable
Aphenphosmphobia fear of being touched
Apiphobia fear of bees, a zoophobia
Apotemnophobia fear of amputees, and/or of becoming an amputee[9][10]
Aquaphobia fear of water. Distinct from hydrophobia, a scientific property that makes chemicals averse to interaction with water, as well as an archaic name for rabies.
Arachnophobia fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions, a zoophobia
Astraphobia fear of thunder and lightning
Atelophobia fear of imperfection
Atychiphobia fear of failure[11] or negative evaluations of others
Autophobia fear of isolation[12]


Phobia Condition
Bacteriophobia fear of bacteria
Basophobia, basiphobia fear associated with astasia-abasia (fear of walking/standing erect) and a fear of falling
Batrachophobia fear/dislike of frogs and other amphibians, a zoophobia
Belonephobia fear of needles or pins[13][14]
Bibliophobia fear of books
Blood-injection-injury type phobia a DSM-IV subtype of specific phobias


Phobia Condition
Cacophobia, aschimophobia fear of ugliness
Carcinophobia fear of cancer
Catoptrophobia fear of mirrors
Chemophobia fear of chemicals
Cherophobia fear of happiness
Chiroptophobia fear/dislike of bats, a zoophobia
Chromophobia, chromatophobia fear of colors
Chronophobia fear of time and time moving forward
Chronomentrophobia fear of clocks[15]
Cibophobia, sitophobia aversion to food, synonymous with anorexia nervosa
Claustrophobia fear of having no escape and being closed in
Coimetrophobia fear of cemeteries
Coprophobia fear of feces or defecation[8]
Coulrophobia fear of clowns[16]
Cyberphobia fear of computers
Cynophobia fear/dislike of dogs, a zoophobia
Cephalalgiaphobia Fear of headaches


Phobia Condition
Dendrophobia fear of trees[17][18]
Dental fear, odontophobia fear of dentists and dental procedures
Dentophobia fear of dentists
Diagraphephobia fear of deleting files or an extreme fear of losing your computer data.[19]
Domatophobia fear of houses
Driving phobia, driving anxiety fear of driving
Dysmorphophobia, body dysmorphic disorder a phobic obsession with a real or imaginary body defect
Dystichiphobia fear of being involved in an accident[20]


Phobia Condition
Ecophobia fear of cataclysmic environmental change
Eisoptrophobia fear of mirrors or seeing one's reflection in a mirror[21][22]
Emetophobia fear of vomiting
Enochlophobia fear of crowds
Entomophobia fear/dislike of insects, a zoophobia
Ephebiphobia fear of youth; inaccurate, exaggerated and sensational characterization of young people
Equinophobia fear of horses
Ergophobia, ergasiophobia fear of work or functioning, or a surgeon's fear of operating
Erotophobia fear of sexual love or sexual abuse
Erythrophobia, erytophobia, ereuthophobia fear of the color red, or fear of blushing
Eurotophobia aversion to female genitals


Phobia Condition
Frigophobia fear of becoming too cold


Phobia Condition
Galeophobia fear of sharks
Gamophobia fear of marriage
Gelotophobia fear of being laughed at
Gephyrophobia fear of bridges
Genophobia, coitophobia fear of sexual intercourse
Genuphobia fear of knees or the act of kneeling
Gerascophobia fear of growing old or aging
Gerontophobia fear of growing old, or a hatred or fear of the elderly
Globophobia fear of balloons
Glossophobia fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak
Gymnophobia fear of nudity[23]
Gynophobia fear of adult women


Phobia Condition
Halitophobia fear of bad breath
Haphephobia fear of being touched
Heptadekaphobia, heptadecaphobia fear of the number 17
Hedonophobia fear of obtaining pleasure
Heliophobia fear of the sun or sunlight
Helminthophobia, scoleciphobia, vermiphobia fear of worms,[24] a zoophobia
Hemophobia, haemophobia fear of blood
Herpetophobia fear/dislike of reptiles or amphibians, a zoophobia
Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia fear of the number 666
Hippophobia fear/dislike of horses,[25] a zoophobia
Hodophobia fear of travel
Hydrophobia[26] fear of water, see aquaphobia
Hypnophobia, somniphobia fear of sleep or nightmares[27]
Hypochondria fear of illness


Phobia Condition
Ichthyophobia fear of fish, including fear of eating fish, or fear of dead fish, a zoophobia
Insectophobia fear of insects, a zoophobia


Phobia Condition
Koumpounophobia fear of buttons on clothing[28]


Phobia Condition
Lilapsophobia fear of tornadoes or hurricanes
Lepidopterophobia fear of butterflies and moths, a zoophobia


Phobia Condition
Mageiricophobia fear of cooking
Masklophobia fear of people in masks, costumes and mascots
Megalophobia fear of large objects
Melanophobia fear of the color black
Melissophobia, apiphobia fear/dislike of bees, a zoophobia
Monophobia fear of being alone or isolated or of one's self
Musophobia, murophobia, suriphobia fear/dislike of mice or rats, a zoophobia
Mycophobia fear of mushrooms[29]
Myrmecophobia fear of ants, a zoophobia
Mysophobia, germophobia fear of germs, contamination or dirt


Phobia Condition
Necrophobia fear of death or the dead
Neophobia, cainophobia, cainotophobia, centophobia, kainolophobia, kainophobia, metathesiophobia, prosophobia fear of newness, novelty, change or progress
Noctiphobia fear of the night
Nomophobia fear of being out of mobile phone contact
Nosocomephobia fear of hospitals
Nosophobia fear of contracting a disease
Nostophobia, ecophobia fear of returning home
Numerophobia fear of numbers
Nyctophobia, achluophobia, lygophobia, scotophobia fear of darkness


Phobia Condition
Obesophobia fear of gaining weight
Oikophobia fear of home surroundings and household appliances
Odontophobia dental fear
Ommetaphobia fear of eyes
Oneirophobia fear of dreams
Ophidiophobia fear/dislike of snakes, a zoophobia
Ophthalmophobia fear of being stared at
Ornithophobia fear/dislike of birds, a zoophobia
Osmophobia, olfactophobia fear of odors
Ostraconophobia fear/dislike of shellfish, a zoophobia


Phobia Condition
Panphobia fear of everything or constant generalised fear of an unknown cause
Pedophobia, paedophobia, pediaphobia fear of babies and children
Phagophobia fear of swallowing
Phallophobia fear of erections or penises
Pharmacophobia fear of medications
Phasmophobia fear of ghosts or phantoms
Philophobia fear of love
Phyllophobia fear of leaves[30][31][32][33]
Phobophobia fear of fear itself or of having a phobia
Phonophobia fear of loud sounds or voices
Pogonophobia fear of beards
Pornophobia dislike or fear of pornography; may be used in reference to the opposition to visual nudity
Porphyrophobia fear of the color purple
Pteromerhanophobia fear of flying
Pyrophobia fear of fire


Phobia Condition
Radiophobia fear of radioactivity or X-rays
Ranidaphobia fear/dislike of frogs, a zoophobia


Phobia Condition
Scopophobia fear of being looked at or stared at
Sexophobia fear of sexual organs or sexual activities
Siderodromophobia fear of trains or railroads
Social phobia fear of people or social situations
Somniphobia fear of sleep
Spectrophobia fear of mirrors
Spheksophobia fear of wasps, a zoophobia
Stasiphobia fear of standing or walking
Submechanophobia fear of partially or fully submerged man-made objects[34][35]


Phobia Condition
Taphophobia, taphephobia fear of graves, or fear of being placed in a grave while still alive
Technophobia fear of advanced technology (see also Luddite)
Telephone phobia fear or reluctance of making or taking telephone calls
Teratophobia fear of giving birth to a monster[36] or a disfigured foetus[37]
Tetraphobia fear of the number 4
Thalassophobia fear of the sea, or fear of being in the ocean
Thanatophobia fear of dying
Thermophobia fear of intolerance to high temperatures
Tokophobia fear of childbirth or pregnancy
Tomophobia fear of invasive medical procedure[38]
Tonitrophobia fear of thunder
Toxiphobia fear of being poisoned
Traumatophobia a synonym for injury phobia: fear of having an injury
Trichophobia delusional fear of something in the roots of the hair that stops it from growing,[39] or fear of hair loss
Triskaidekaphobia, terdekaphobia fear of the number 13
Trypanophobia, belonephobia, enetophobia fear of needles or injections
Trypophobia fear of holes or textures with a pattern of holes[40]


Phobia Condition
Vehophobia fear of driving
Veloxrotaphobia fear of roller coasters
Verminophobia fear of germs


Phobia Condition
Workplace phobia fear of the workplace, a subset of ergophobia


Phobia Condition
Xanthophobia fear of the color yellow


Phobia Condition
Zoophobia fear of animals

Cultural prejudices and discrimination

Phobia Condition
Acephobia fear/dislike of asexual people
Aporophobia fear/dislike of people without resources
Biphobia fear/dislike of bisexuality or bisexuals
Ephebiphobia fear/dislike of youth
Gayphobia fear/dislike of gay men (specifically)
Gerontophobia, gerascophobia fear/dislike of aging or the elderly
Heterophobia fear/dislike of heterosexuals
Homophobia fear/dislike of homosexuality, homosexuals, or gays (as opposed to lesbians)
Lesbophobia fear/dislike of lesbians
Pedophobia fear/dislike of babies or children
Psychophobia fear/dislike of mental illness or the mentally ill
Transphobia fear/dislike of transgender people

Ethnic prejudices and discrimination

The suffix -phobia is used to coin terms that denote a particular anti-ethnic or anti-demographic sentiment, such as Americanophobia, Europhobia, Francophobia, Hispanophobia, and Indophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists (e.g. Polonophobia vs. anti-Polonism). Anti-religious sentiments are expressed in terms such as Christianophobia and Islamophobia.

Phobia Condition
Afrophobia fear/dislike of Africans
Albanophobia fear/dislike of Albanians
Anglophobia fear/dislike of England or English culture
Catalanophobia fear/dislike of Catalans, Catalonia, Catalan culture and the Catalan language
Christianophobia fear/dislike of Christians
Germanophobia fear/dislike of Germans
Hinduphobia fear/dislike of Hindus
Hibernophobia fear/dislike of Irish people
Hispanophobia fear/dislike of Hispanic people, Hispanic culture and the Spanish language
Hungarophobia fear/dislike of Hungarians
Indophobia fear/dislike of India or Indian culture
Indonesiaphobia fear/dislike of Indonesia or Indonesian culture
Iranophobia fear/dislike of Iran or Iranian culture
Islamophobia fear/dislike of Muslims
Italophobia fear/dislike of Italians
Judeophobia fear/dislike of Jews
Lusophobia fear/dislike of the Portuguese, Portuguese culture and the Portuguese language
Nipponophobia fear/dislike of the Japanese
Koryophobia fear/dislike of the Koreans
Latinophobia fear/dislike of Latin people
Negrophobia fear/dislike of black people
Polonophobia fear/dislike of the Polish
Russophobia fear/dislike of Russians
Kurdophobia fear/dislike of Kurdish people
Shiaphobia fear/dislike of Shiites
Sinophobia fear/dislike of Chinese people
Sunniphobia fear/dislike of Sunnis
Turcophobia fear/dislike of Turks
Ukrainophobia fear/dislike of Ukrainians
Xenophobia fear/dislike of foreigners

Medical conditions

Phobia Condition
Osmophobia hypersensitivity to smells causing aversion to odors
Phonophobia hypersensitivity to sound causing aversion to sounds
Photophobia hypersensitivity to light causing aversion to light

Cultural phenomena

Phobia Condition
Bibliophobia fear or hatred of books, as a cultural phenomenon[41]
Lipophobia avoidance of fats in food[42][43][44] (see also Lipophobicity)
Coronaphobia fear of COVID-19[45]

-phobia in the natural sciences

In the natural sciences, words with the suffix -phobia/-phobic generally describe a predisposition for avoidance and/or exclusion. For antonyms, see here

Phobia Condition
Acidophobia preference for non-acidic conditions
Heliophobia aversion to sunlight
Hydrophobia the property of being repelled by water
Lipophobicity the property of fat rejection (sometimes also called lipophobia)
Oleophobicity the property of oil rejection
Photophobia (biology) a negative phototaxis or phototropism response, or a tendency to stay out of the light
Ultrahydrophobicity the property given to materials that are extremely difficult to get wet
Thermophobia aversion to heat

Jocular and fictional phobias

See also


  1. ^ a b The A–Z of Fear, a 30 October 1998 BBC News unsigned article in the "Entertainment" section
  2. ^ "Content Spammers Help You Overcome Prostitute Phobia". Webpronews.com. 25 August 2005. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  3. ^ Hall GS (1897). "A Study of Fears". American Journal of Psychology. 8 (2). University of Illinois Press: 157. doi:10.2307/1410940. JSTOR 1410940.
  4. ^ Grant A (31 October 2021). "Common Plant Phobias – Fear of Flowers, Plants, and More". Gardening Know-How. Retrieved 17 March 2023. Dracula no doubt would have alliumphobia, the fear of garlic.
  5. ^ Possible cultural factor:
    • Humes M (24 December 2009). "The Way We Ate: Fear of Garlic". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2023. From the 1880s to the 1930s, a period of accelerated immigration and great social change, garlic was the stench of the flophouse, the dominant note in the 'rich olfactory uneasiness' that blew in from Ellis Island, and the go-to metaphor for immigrant neighborhoods. Its sulfurous tang was almost beside the point; the bulb smelled of foreign incursion.
  6. ^ Possible observation factor: Allium#Toxicity – "Dogs and cats are very susceptible to poisoning after the consumption of certain species. Even cattle have suffered onion toxicosis." Cites include:
    • Cope R (August 2005). "Toxicology Brief: Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats" (PDF). Veterinary Medicine. 100 (8): 562–566. [Peer-reviewed.]
    • Rae HA (January 1999). "Onion toxicosis in a herd of beef cows". Canadian Veterinary Journal. 40 (1): 55–57. PMC 1539652. PMID 9919370. While humans appear to be relatively resistant to onion toxicity, there is some concern about the susceptibility of certain ethnic groups that have a genetic deficiency of G6PD. / Onion toxicity depends on factors other than variation in species susceptibility. Onions contain varying amounts of disulfide and SMCO toxins, depending on the species of onion, time of year, and growing conditions. Storing onions in large piles also provides a suitable environment for contamination of the crop with other toxins, such as mycotoxins, which could contribute to the disease process.
  7. ^ Possible experience factor:
    • Singh Z (12 October 2022). "Potential Side Effects of Chives". Chives: Nutritional Value, Health Benefits and Potential Side Effects of Chives. Singapore: HealthifyMe. Retrieved 17 March 2023. Chives can be potential gastrointestinal irritants in some people. The reactive oxidants released by chives can stimulate bowel problems such as diarrhoea and acid reflux. / Alliums can cause digestive disorders. Chives belong to the Allium genus and have an acidic pH of 5.75. It is a pH range that would make gastritis worse. Moreover, the high fructans content in chives triggers acid reflux. It would aggravate gastritis.
  8. ^ a b c Campbell RJ (2009). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–. ISBN 978-0-19-534159-1.
  9. ^ Anonymous (12 September 2021). "Apotemnophobia (Fear of People with Amputations)". Psych Times. Covington, Louisiana. Retrieved 13 February 2023.
  10. ^ Anonymous (10 November 2018). "What it's like to live with apotemnophobia – an intense fear of amputation". Metro.co.uk. London, England. Associated Press Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Fear of failure (atychiphobia): Symptoms and treatment". medicalnewstoday.com. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  12. ^ Gould GM (1910). The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blackiston's Son & Co. p. 100.
  13. ^ Akinola D (17 October 2020). "Belonephobia: The Fear of Pins and Needles". a Soothing Health. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  14. ^ Yim L (August 2006). "Belonephobia--a fear of needles". Australian Family Physician. 35 (8): 623–624. ISSN 0300-8495. PMID 16894439.
  15. ^ Thompson A (2019). Spiders, Clowns, and Great Mole Rats: Over 150 Phobias That Will Freak You Out, from Arachnophobia to Zemmiphobia. Ulysses Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-61243-932-7. Retrieved 25 February 2023 – via Google Books. Chronomentrophobia is the irrational fear of clocks, which usually extends to watches. ... The mere sight or sound of a ticking clock can cause depression and anxiety. People with this fear avoid clocks at all costs....
  16. ^ Planting T, Koopowitz SM, Stein DJ (19 January 2022). "Coulrophobia: An investigation of clinical features". The South African Journal of Psychiatry. 28: 1653. doi:10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v28i0.1653. PMC 8831965. PMID 35169508.
  17. ^ Frost R (1923). "New Hampshire [poem]". New Hampshire. Standard Ebooks. p. 14.
    "But his heart failing him, he dropped the axe
    And ran for shelter quoting Matthew Arnold:
    '... Remember Birnam Wood! The wood's in flux!'
    He had a special terror of the flux
    That showed itself in dendrophobia."
  18. ^ Schwab G (Winter 2021). "Trees, Fungi, and Humans: A Transspecies Story". CR: The New Centennial Review. 21 (3). Michigan State University Press: 245–267. Years ago, I had a terrifying nightmare. I was back in Konstanz, my German hometown, walking in a beautiful forest adjacent to the lake. Suddenly, the giant trees surrounding me ripped their roots out of the earth and began to run after me, chasing me all the way out of the forest. I ran and ran, fearing for my life. Later I learned that my dream had its roots in an ancient phobia of trees called dendrophobia, a primordial terror linked to a sense that trees are more alive than we think. For those suffering from dendrophobia, trees have a paradoxical mobility that enables them to use their roots to grab humans or even kill them by willfully dropping their branches on them. Dendrophobia, an officially recognized mental illness that may in extreme cases lead to institutionalization, is linked to trees being recognized not simply as living beings but rather as hostile ones, intent on inflicting harm on humans or even killing them.
  19. ^ "Fear of Deletion". 13 May 2011.
  20. ^ "Dystychiphobia (Fear of Accidents): Symptoms & Treatment". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 12 April 2024.
  21. ^ Sue D, Sue DW, Sue DM, Sue S (15 February 2013). Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior. Cengage Learning. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-1-285-62475-4.
  22. ^ Pitchot W (11 September 2014). "Effective treatment of eisoptrophobia with duloxetine: a case report". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 16 (5). doi:10.4088/PCC.14l01636. PMC 4321006. PMID 25667801.
  23. ^ Bullough VL, Bullough B (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 9781135825096.
  24. ^ Winkler K (January 1957). "[Helminthophobia]". Zeitschrift für Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten. 22 (2): 47–52. PMID 13409951.
  25. ^ Papakostas YG, Daras MD, Liappas IA, Markianos M (December 2005). "Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia" (PDF). History of Psychiatry. 16 (Pt 4 (no 64)): 467–471. doi:10.1177/0957154X05051459. PMID 16482685. S2CID 2721386.
  26. ^ Hydrophobia (and Superhydrophobia) can be used for chemical and scientific purposes. See Hydrophobe page.
  27. ^ Dunglison RJ (1895). A dictionary of medical science: containing a full explanation of the various subjects and terms of anatomy, physiology, ... (21st ed.). Lea Brothers & Co.
  28. ^ Russell J, Lintern F, Gauntlett L (1 September 2016). Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology Coursebook. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9781316605691. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  29. ^ Ott J (1976). "Psycho-mycological studies of Amanita–from ancient sacrament to modern phobia". Journal of Psychedelic Drugs. 8: 27–35. doi:10.1080/02791072.1976.10472005.
  30. ^ "phobo-, phob-, -phobia, -phobias, -phobe, -phobiac, -phobist, -phobic, -phobism, -phobous". Phobo-, phob-, -phobia, -phobias, -phobe, -phobiac, -phobist, -phobic, -phobism, -phobous – Word Information. English-Word Information (wordinfo.info). Retrieved 25 February 2023. phyllophobia… An excessive fear of leaves: Each time Virginia saw the excessive amount of leafage on the ground in the fall, she had phyllophobia because it was the time of year to do the raking which took many days to complete!
  31. ^ Doran T (September 2002). "Chewproof (review)". Books Ireland. No. 251. Wordwell Books. p. 215. doi:10.2307/20632455. ISBN 978-1-902420-54-7. ISSN 0376-6039. JSTOR 20632455. Retrieved 26 February 2023. However it might be useful this autumn to know that phyllophobia is a fear of leaves….
  32. ^ Robertson JG (2003). An Excess of Phobias and Manias: A Compilation of Anxieties, Obsessions, and Compulsions That Push Many Over the Edge of Sanity. Senior Scribe Publications. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-9630919-3-2. Retrieved 26 February 2023. phyllophobia: An excessive fear of leaves.
  33. ^ Wolfe R (22 October 2016). "Jump in, if you're not phyllophobic". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. ISSN 1060-4332. Phyllophobia, the fear of leaves, might not be as much in the news this autumn as coulrophobia, the fear of clowns. But anywhere that crinkly, dead leaves are, some people are scared of them.
  34. ^ Roane HS, Ringdahl JE, Falcomata TS, eds. (2015). Clinical and Organizational Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis. Academic Press. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-12-420249-8.
  35. ^ Linder C (29 November 2019). "The 25 Coolest Shipwrecks in the World". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  36. ^ "Teratophobia definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  37. ^ "Teratophobia (Concept Id: C0522188)". MedGen. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  38. ^ Schmid M, Wolf RC, Freudenmann RW, Schönfeldt-Lecuona C (November 2009). "Tomophobia, the phobic fear caused by an invasive medical procedure – an emerging anxiety disorder: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports. 3: 131. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-131. PMC 2803803. PMID 20062769.
  39. ^ Basavaraj KH, Navya MA, Rashmi R (July 2010). "Relevance of psychiatry in dermatology: Present concepts". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (3): 270–275. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.70992. PMC 2990831. PMID 21180416.
  40. ^ Thomas G (15 October 2012). "Do holes make you queasy or even fearful". The Daily Herald. Arlington, IL. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  41. ^ Jackson H (1932). The Fear of Books. University of Illinois. ISBN 978-0-252-07040-2.
  42. ^ Fischler C (1992). "From lipophilia to lipophobia. Changing attitudes and behaviors towards fat: a socio-historical approach". In Mela DJ (ed.). Dietary fats determinants of preference, selection, and consumption. London, New York: Elsevier Applied Science. pp. 103–115.
  43. ^ Askegaard S, Ostberg J (2003). "Consumers' Experience of Lipophobia: A Swedish Study". Advances in Consume Research. 30: 161.
  44. ^ Askegaard S, Jensen AF, Holt DB (1999). "Lipophobia: A transatlantic concept?". Advances in Consume Research. 26 (1): 331–336.
  45. ^ Arora A, Jha AK, Alat P, Das SS (December 2020). "Understanding coronaphobia". Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 54: 102384. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102384. PMC 7474809. PMID 33271693.
  46. ^ Kelly-Bootle S (May 1995). "Aibohphobia". The Computer Contradictionary. MIT Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-262-61112-1.
  47. ^ Jenkins J (10 June 2006). "I hate to burst Poway Unified's balloon". U-T San Diego. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010.
  48. ^ "Fear of Peanut Butter: Why Arachibutyrophobia is a Real Phobia". United We Care. 22 May 2021.
  49. ^ Schultz C (19 May 1982). "Peanuts Comic Strip". GoComics.com.
  50. ^ "Name Discrimination Study Finds Lakisha And Jamal Still Less Likely To Get Hired Than Emily And Greg". wbur.org. 18 August 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  51. ^ Farmer B (10 January 2008). "Phobia catalogue reveals bizarre list of fears". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. A catalogue of unusual phobias reveals that the fear of long words is known as hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia.
  52. ^ "The Fourth Dimension". Doctor Who. Season 14. BBC One.
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Further reading

  • Aldrich C (2 December 2002). The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing. pp. 224–236. ISBN 1-55369-886-X.
  • Summerscale K (6 October 2022). The Book of Phobias and Manias. Profile Books. ISBN 9781788162814.

External links