Aboriginal Tent Embassy

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Aboriginal Tent Embassy
Indigenous land rights in Australia
Part of History of Indigenous Australians
First day of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy, outside Parliament House, Canberra, 27 January 1972. Left to right- Billy Craigie, Bert Williams, Michael Anderson and Tony Coorey. (38934424564) (cropped).jpg
Police question Aboriginal Embassy protesters, Canberra, 27 January 1972. (27864808359).jpg
Bobbi Sykes and Gordon Briscoe 1972.jpg
Aboriginal Tent Embassy, Canberra 006.JPG
Invasion Day protest at the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra 01.jpg
From top: Billy Craigie, Bert Williams, Ghillar Michael Anderson and Tony Coorey, first day of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy, January 1972; Police question protesters, January 1972, Bobbi Sykes and Gordon Briscoe, July 1972; January 2015; Invasion Day 2010
Date26/27 January 1972
Canberra, Australia

35°18′04″S 149°07′48″E / 35.30111°S 149.13000°E / -35.30111; 149.13000Coordinates: 35°18′04″S 149°07′48″E / 35.30111°S 149.13000°E / -35.30111; 149.13000
Caused byDispossession of Indigenous Australians
GoalsLand rights, self-determination and reassertion of Indigenous sovereignty
MethodsNonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, peaceful protest
Parties to the civil conflict
Indigenous people of Australia
State and Commonwealth Governments of Australia
Bob Maza addresses a protest at the Embassy, 30 July 1972

The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is a permanent protest occupation site as a focus for representing the political rights of Aboriginal Australians. First established in 1972 as a protest against the McMahon government’s approach to Indigenous Australian land rights, it is made up of signs and tents. Since 1992 it has been located on the lawn opposite Old Parliament House in Canberra, the Australian capital. It is not considered an official embassy by the Australian Government. The targets of protests at the Embassy have changed over time, and as of 2021 include not only land rights but also Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination.


On 26 January 1972, four Aboriginal men (Michael Anderson, Billy Craigie, Tony Coorey and Bertie Williams) arrived in Canberra from Sydney, to establish an Aboriginal Embassy by planting a beach umbrella on the lawn in front of Parliament House (now Old Parliament House).[1] The Embassy was established in response to the McMahon Coalition Government's refusal to recognise Aboriginal land rights or native title in Australia. McMahon instead favoured a new general-purpose lease for Aboriginal people which would be conditional upon their "intention and ability to make reasonable economic and social use of land", while reserving for the Crown rights to minerals and forestry.[2]

The beach umbrella was soon replaced by several tents and Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous supporters came from all parts of Australia to join the protest. The occupiers were told by Kep Enderby that they were legally entitled to camp outside Parliament since it was Commonwealth Land. Chicka Dixon stated "I became the 'Minister for Defence' and we gave ourselves portfolios. We painted the gutter No Parking Aboriginal Staff Only and then we introduced the (Aboriginal) flag."[3]

Chicka Dixon also stated that in 1946 he attended a political rally, where the initial idea and inspiration for the Embassy was raised by Jack Patten, President and co-founder of the Aborigines Progressive Association. Patten had called for an Aboriginal mission station to be placed in front of Parliament House, where the eyes of the world could see the plight of the land's First Peoples.[4]

During the first six months of its life in 1972 the Embassy succeeded in uniting Aboriginal people throughout Australia in demanding uniform national land rights and mobilised widespread non-Indigenous support for the cause. Other people associated with the Embassy demonstration in 1972 include Paul Coe, Gary Foley, Gary Williams, John Newfong, Sam Watson, Pearl Gibbs, Roberta Sykes, Alana Doolan, Cheryl Buchannan, Pat Eatock, Kevin Gilbert, Denis Walker, Isabel Coe and Shirley Smith.[5]

In February 1972 the Aboriginal Tent Embassy presented a list of demands to Parliament:[6]

  • Control of the Northern Territory as a State within the Commonwealth of Australia; the parliament in the Northern Territory to be predominantly Aboriginal with native title and mining rights to all land within the Territory.
  • Legal title and mining rights to all other presently existing Aboriginal reserve lands and settlements throughout Australia.
  • The preservation of all sacred sites throughout Australia.
  • Legal title and mining rights to areas in and around all Australian capital cities.
  • Compensation money for lands not returnable to take the form of a down-payment of A$6 billion and an annual percentage of the gross national income.

The demands were rejected, and following an amendment to the Trespass on Commonwealth Lands Ordinance (which made the occupation a squat which could then be evicted), police moved in without notice in July 1972.[3] They removed the tents and arrested eight people.[7] Three days later, 200 activists returned to the site and were prevented from reoccupying it by 200 police. A week later, 1000 people came back to resquat the site again. Chicka Dixon commented "we decided to fight the coppers, so we armed ourselves with little sticks". The police did not intervene, and after listening to speeches the crowd dispersed peacefully.[3]

The ACT Supreme Court ruled in September 1972 that the amendment to the Trespass on Commonwealth Lands Ordinance did not allow for the eviction of the Embassy, and it was re-erected. A Bill was quickly added to make the Ordinance retrospective, and the Embassy was evicted again the next day.[8]

Gough Whitlam speaking at the Embassy, 8 February 1972

In October 1973, around 70 Aboriginal protesters staged a sit-in on the steps of Parliament House and the Tent Embassy was re-established. The sit-in ended when Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam agreed to meet with protesters.[6]

In May 1974 the embassy was destroyed in a storm, but it was re-established in October.

In February 1975 Aboriginal activist Charles Perkins negotiated the "temporary" removal of the Embassy with the Government, pending Government action on land rights. The Fraser Government subsequently enacted the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976, after its drafting by the Whitlam Labor Government in 1975.[citation needed]

In March 1976, the Embassy was established in a house in the nearby suburb of Red Hill; however, this closed in 1977.[citation needed]

For a short period in 1979, the embassy was re-established by Lyall Munro Jnr, Cecil Patten, and Paul Coe, as the "National Aboriginal Government" on Capital Hill, site of the proposed new Parliament House.[9]

Aboriginal Tent Embassy, 2015

On the twentieth anniversary of its founding, the Aboriginal Tent Embassy was re-established at the original site on the lawns of Old Parliament House in 1992. Despite being a continual source of controversy, with many calls for its removal, it has existed on the site since that time.[7]

The site of the Tent Embassy was added to the Australian Register of the National Estate in 1995, as the only Aboriginal site in Australia that is recognised nationally as representing political struggle for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.[8] Some elders of the local Ngunnawal people called for the eviction of the Tent Embassy in 2005, viewing it as an eyesore.[10]

In the leadup to the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Isabel Coe from the Wiradjuri Nation set up a Peace Camp and combined ashes from Canberra's sacred fire to the fire at Victoria Park in Camperdown, New South Wales to promote reconciliation.[11] This sacred fire was originally made by Kevin Buzzacott and lit by Wiradjuri man Paul Coe at the embassy in 1998.[12]

There have also been a number of suspicious fires at the site.[7] The most devastating fire took place in June 2003, when 31 years of records were lost.[13]

2005 consultation[edit]

Damage to the Embassy from a December 2003 arson attack

In August 2005, the Federal Government announced a review into the Aboriginal Tent Embassy. They consulted with Aboriginal communities around Australia to determine what shape the Tent Embassy should take in the future.[14] The group was headed by Minister Jim Lloyd and included a number of Aboriginal elders from around Australia. Professional mediators Callum Campbell and Tom Stodulka were called in to facilitate the process and consult with Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, to obtain and represent their views. They reached a decision on the Embassy's future early in December 2005.[citation needed]

Fortieth anniversary[edit]

Corroboree for Sovereignty, Aboriginal Tent Embassy, January 2010

On Australia Day, 26 January 2012, the Embassy was celebrating its fortieth anniversary. The National Congress of Australia's First Peoples had planned a series of events over two days, to celebrate the struggle for Aboriginal land rights and the theatre of political protest.[3]

What became known as the Australia Day 2012 protests occurred when Prime Minister Julia Gillard and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott went to the Lobby Restaurant, close to the embassy site. That morning Abbott had been asked whether he found the Embassy "still relevant" and he had replied "I think the Indigenous people of Australia can be very proud of the respect in which they are held by every Australian and, yes, I think a lot has changed since then and I think it probably is time to move on from that".[15]

These comments angered activists since they felt Abbott was proposing that the Embassy should be evicted. Gillard and Abbott were hastily escorted from the restaurant under the protection of police officers, and during the scramble Gillard lost one of her shoes, which was collected by protesters. At first the Embassy posted on its Facebook page that the shoe would be returned only in exchange for stolen land, but the shoe was later returned to her.[16][17][18][19][20]

Other Aboriginal tent embassies[edit]

In 2012, there were six other tent embassies dotted around the nation.[21]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dow, Coral (4 April 2000). "Aboriginal Tent Embassy: Icon or Eyesore?". Parliament of Australia. Canberra: Parliamentary Library. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  2. ^ McMahon, William. "AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES COMMONWEALTH POLICY AND ACHIEVEMENTS STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER — The Rt Hon. William McMahon, C.H., M.P. (pdf)" (PDF). Collaborating for Indigenous Rights. National Museum Australia. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d McLaren, Nick (20 January 2012). "40 years of canvas diplomacy". ABC news. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  4. ^ "The Aboriginal Tent Embassy". The Commons. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  5. ^ Australia Day under a beach umbrella, Collaborating for Indigenous Rights, National Museum of Australia Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b "The Bush Capital «  The Global Dispatches". www.theglobaldispatches.com. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  7. ^ a b c "Timeline: Aboriginal Tent Embassy". SBS. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Aboriginal Embassy Site, King George Tce, Parkes, ACT, Australia (Place ID 18843)". Australian Heritage Database. Department of the Environment. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  9. ^ "ABORIGINAL RIGHTS". Woroni (Canberra, ACT : 1950 - 2007). 20 August 1979. p. 15. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  10. ^ "The Future of the Tent Embassy". Message Stick. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 25 November 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  11. ^ Fire of the Land Archived 8 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine (2002 documentary)
  12. ^ "Five Fast Facts: The Aboriginal Tent Embassy". Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  13. ^ Yaxley, Louise (19 June 2003). "Aboriginal Tent Embassy burnt out". The World Today. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  14. ^ Truscott, Marilyn. "Reconciling two settings: responding to threats to social and scenic heritage values" (PDF). International Council on Monuments and Sites. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  15. ^ Jessica Wright; Dan Harrison; Dylan Welch (27 January 2012). "Australia Day Turns Ugly". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Aboriginal protesters overreacted to Tony Abbott, says Warren Mundine". Australian Associated Press. 29 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Riot police rescue Gillard, Abbott from protesters". abc.net.au. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  18. ^ Packham, Ben; Vasek, Lanai (27 January 2012). "Gillard, Abbott escorted under guard amid Aboriginal Tent Embassy protest". The Australian.
  19. ^ Martin, Lisa; Curtis, Katina (26 January 2012). "Gillard and Abbott rescued after being trapped by protesters in Canberra". The Herald Sun. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  20. ^ Medhora, Shalailah (27 January 2012). "Gillard's shoe returned after protest". SBS. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  21. ^ "'Intercontinental Cry' Article on Australian Sovereignty movement". Sovereign Union:First Nations Asserting Sovereignty. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2020.

Further reading[edit]

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