Abortion law

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Legal grounds for abortion by country
  Legal on request
Legally restricted to cases of:
  Risk to woman's life, to her health*, rape*, fetal impairment*, or socioeconomic factors
  Risk to woman's life, to her health*, rape, or fetal impairment
  Risk to woman's life, to her health*, or fetal impairment
  Risk to woman's life*, to her health*, or rape
  Risk to woman's life or to her health
  Risk to woman's life
  Illegal with no exceptions
  No information
* Does not apply to some countries in that category
Note: In some countries, abortion laws are modified by other laws, regulations, legal principles or judicial decisions. This map shows their combined effect as implemented by the authorities.

Abortion laws vary considerably between countries and have changed over time. Such laws range from abortion being freely available on request, to regulation or restrictions of various kinds, to outright prohibition in all circumstances.[1]

Abortion continues to be a controversial subject in many societies on religious, moral, ethical, practical, and political grounds. Though it has been banned and otherwise limited by law in many jurisdictions, abortions continue to be common in many areas, even where they are illegal. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), abortion rates are similar in countries where the procedure is legal and in countries where it is not,[2] due to unavailability of modern contraceptives in areas where abortion is illegal.[3]

Also according to the WHO, the number of abortions worldwide is declining due to increased access to contraception.[2] Almost two-thirds of the world's women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request for a broad range of social, economic, or personal reasons.

History[edit]

Abortion has existed since ancient times, with natural abortifacients being found amongst a wide variety of tribal people and in most written sources. The earliest known records of abortion techniques and general reproductive regulation date as far back as 2700 BC in China and 1550 BC in Egypt.[4] Early texts contain no mention of abortion or abortion law. When it does appear, it is entailed in concerns about male property rights, preservation of social order, and the duty to produce fit citizens for the state or community. The harshest penalties were generally reserved for a woman who procured an abortion against her husband's wishes, and for slaves who produced abortion in a woman of high status. Religious texts often contained severe condemnations of abortion, recommending penance but seldom enforcing secular punishment. As a matter of common law in England and the United States, abortion was illegal anytime after quickening—when the movements of the fetus could first be felt by the woman. Under the born alive rule, the fetus was not considered a "reasonable being" in Rerum Natura; and abortion was not treated as murder in English law.

In the 20th century, many Western countries began to codify abortion laws or place further restrictions on the practice. Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as Pro-life movements, were led by a combination of groups opposed to abortion on moral grounds, and by medical professionals who were concerned about the danger presented by the procedure and the regular involvement of non-medical personnel in performing abortions. Nevertheless, it became clear that illegal abortions continued to take place in large numbers even where abortions were rigorously restricted. It was difficult to obtain sufficient evidence to prosecute the women and abortion doctors, and judges and juries were often reluctant to convict. For example, Henry Morgentaler, a Canadian pro-choice advocate, was never convicted by a jury. He was acquitted by a jury in the 1973 court case, but the acquittal was overturned by five judges on the Quebec Court of Appeal in 1974. He went to prison, appealed, and was again acquitted. In total, he served 10 months, suffering a heart attack while in solitary confinement. Many were also outraged at the invasion of privacy and the medical problems resulting from abortions taking place illegally in medically dangerous circumstances. Political movements soon coalesced around the legalization of abortion and liberalization of existing laws.

By the mid 20th century, many countries had begun to liberalize abortion laws, at least when performed to protect the woman's life and in some cases on the woman's request. Under Vladimir Lenin, the Soviet Union legalized abortions on request in 1920.[5][6][7][8][9] The Bolsheviks saw abortion as a social evil created by the capitalist system, which left women without the economic means to raise children, forcing them to perform abortions. The Soviet state initially preserved the tsarist ban on abortion, which treated the practice as premeditated murder. However, abortion had been practiced by Russian women for decades and its incidence skyrocketed further as a result of the Russian Civil War, which had left the country economically devastated and made it extremely difficult for many people to have children. The Soviet state recognized that banning abortion would not stop the practice because women would continue using the services of private abortionists. In rural areas, these were often old women who had no medical training, which made their services very dangerous to women's health. In November 1920 the Soviet regime legalized abortion in state hospitals. The state considered abortion as a temporary necessary evil, which would disappear in the future Communist society, which would be able to provide for all the children conceived.[10] In 1936, Joseph Stalin placed prohibitions on abortions, which restricted them to medically recommended cases only, in order to increase population growth after the enormous loss of life in World War I and the Russian Civil War.[11][12][13] In the 1930s, several countries (Poland, Turkey, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Mexico) legalized abortion in some special cases (pregnancy from rape, threat to mother's health, fetal malformation). In 1948 abortion was legalized in Japan, 1952 in Yugoslavia (on a limited basis), and 1955 in the Soviet Union (on demand). Some Soviet allies (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania) legalized abortion in the late 1950s under pressure from the Soviets.[14]

In the United Kingdom, the Abortion Act of 1967 clarified and prescribed abortions as legal up to 28 weeks (later reduced to 24 weeks). Other countries soon followed, including Canada (1969), the United States (1973 in most states, pursuant to Roe v. Wade – the U.S. Supreme Court decision which legalized abortion nationwide), Tunisia (1973), Denmark (1973), Austria (1974), France (1975), Sweden (1975), New Zealand (1977), Italy (1978), the Netherlands (1984), and Belgium (1990). However, these countries vary greatly in the circumstances under which abortion was to be permitted. In 1975, the West German Supreme Court struck down a law legalizing abortion, holding that they contradict the constitution's human rights guarantees. In 1976, a law was adopted which enabled abortions up to 12 weeks. After Germany's reunification, despite the legal status of abortion in former East Germany, a compromise was reached which deemed most abortions up to 12 weeks legal. In jurisdictions governed under sharia law, abortion after the 120th day from conception (19 weeks from LMP) is illegal, especially for those who follow the recommendations of the Hanafi legal school, while most jurists of the Maliki legal school "believe that ensoulment occurs at the moment of conception, and they tend to forbid abortion at any point [similar to the Roman Catholic Church]. The other schools hold intermediate positions. [..] The penalty prescribed for an illegal abortion varies according to particular circumstances involved. According to sharia, it should be limited to a fine that is paid to the father or heirs of the fetus".[15] See also: Islam and abortion.

Timeline of abortion on request[edit]

The table below lists in chronological order the UN member states that have legalized abortion on request in at least some initial part of the pregnancy, or that have fully decriminalized abortion.

Notes: Where a country has legalized abortion on request, prohibited it, and legalized it again (e.g. former Soviet Union, Romania), only the later year is included. Countries that result from the merger of states where abortion on request was legal at the moment of unification show the year when it became legal across the whole national territory (e.g. Germany, Vietnam). Similarly, countries, where not all subnational jurisdictions have legalized abortion on request, are not included (e.g. leading to the exclusion of Mexico and the United Kingdom). Countries are counted even if they were not yet independent at the time. The year refers to when the relevant law or judicial decision came into force, which may be different from the year when it was approved.

Year legalised Countries Countries per year Cumulative countries
1950  North Korea[16] 1 1
1953  Hungary 1 2
1955 ( Armenia  Azerbaijan  Belarus  Estonia  Georgia  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Latvia  Lithuania  Moldova  Russia  Tajikistan  Turkmenistan  Ukraine  Uzbekistan as part of the Soviet Union) 15 17
1965  Cuba 1 18
1973  Denmark  Tunisia[17]  United States[a] 3 21
1974  Singapore  Sweden 2 23
1975  Austria  France  Vietnam[a] 3 26
1977 ( Bosnia and Herzegovina  Croatia  Montenegro  North Macedonia  Serbia  Slovenia as part of Yugoslavia) 6 32
1978  Italy  Luxembourg 2 34
1979  China  Norway[b] 2 36
1983  Turkey 1 37
1984  Netherlands 1 38
1986  Cape Verde ( Czech Republic  Slovakia as part of Czechoslovakia)  Greece 4 42
1988  Canada 1 43
1989  Mongolia[19] 1 44
1990  Belgium  Bulgaria  Romania 3 47
1992  Germany[a] 1 48
1995  Albania  Guyana 2 50
1997  Cambodia  South Africa 2 52
2002  Nepal  Switzerland 2 54
2007  Portugal 1 55
2010  Spain 1 56
2012  São Tomé and Príncipe[20]  Uruguay 2 58
2015  Mozambique[c] 1 59
2018  Cyprus  Ireland 2 61
2019  Iceland 1 62
2020  New Zealand 1 63
2021  Argentina[d]  Australia[a][e]  South Korea  Thailand 4 67

International law[edit]

There are no international or multinational treaties that deal directly with abortion but human rights law and International criminal law touch on the issues.

The Nuremberg Military Tribunal decided the case of United States v Greifelt & others [1948] on the basis that abortion was a crime within its jurisdiction according to the law defining crimes against humanity and thus within its definition of murder and extermination.[23]

The Catholic Church remains highly influential in Latin America, and opposes the legalisation of abortion.[24] The American Convention on Human Rights, which in 2013 had 23 Latin American parties, declares human life as commencing with conception. In Latin America, abortion on request is only legal nationwide in Cuba (1965), Uruguay (2012)[25] and Argentina (2021).[22] It is also legal in Mexico City and in the Mexican states of Hidalgo and Oaxaca in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.[26] Abortions are completely banned in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic and only allowed in certain restricted circumstances in most other Latin American nations.[24]

In the 2010 case of A, B and C v Ireland, the European Court of Human Rights found that the European Convention on Human Rights did not include a right to an abortion.

In 2005 the United Nations Human Rights Committee ordered Peru to compensate a woman (known as K.L.) for denying her a medically indicated abortion; this was the first time a United Nations Committee had held any country accountable for not ensuring access to safe, legal abortion, and the first time the committee affirmed that abortion is a human right.[27] K.L. received the compensation in 2016.[27] In the 2016 case of Mellet v Ireland, the UN HRC found Ireland's abortion laws violated International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights because Irish law banned abortion in cases of fatal fetal abnormalities.

National laws[edit]

While abortions are legal at least under certain conditions in almost all countries, these conditions vary widely. According to a United Nations report with data gathered up to 2019,[28] abortion is allowed in 98% of countries in order to save a woman's life. Other commonly-accepted reasons are preserving physical (72%) or mental health (69%), in cases of rape or incest (61%), and in cases of fetal impairment (61%). Performing an abortion because of economic or social reasons is accepted in 37% of countries. Performing abortion only on the basis of a woman's request is allowed in 34% of countries, including in the United States, Canada, most European countries and China.[28]

The exact scope of each legal ground also varies. For example, the laws of some countries cite health risks and fetal impairment as general grounds for abortion and allow a broad interpretation of such terms in practice, while other countries restrict them to a specific list of medical conditions or subcategories. Many countries also specify different gestational limits for when abortion can be done under each legal ground, for example 12 weeks for abortion on request and no limit to save a woman's life.[28]

In some countries, additional procedures must be followed before the abortion can be carried out even if the basic grounds for it are met. For example, in Finland, where abortions are not granted based merely on a woman's request, approval for each abortion must be obtained from two doctors (or one in special circumstances).[29][30] The vast majority, 90% of abortions in Finland are performed for socio-economic reasons.[31] How strictly all of the procedures dictated in the legislation are followed in practice is another matter. For example, in the United Kingdom, a Care Quality Commission's report in 2012 found that several NHS clinics were circumventing the law, using forms pre-signed by one doctor, thus allowing abortions to patients who only met with one doctor.[32]

Summary tables[edit]

Legend
Green check.svg Permitted
Yes Permitted, with complex legality or practice
Maybe Varies by subdivision
No Prohibited, with complex legality or practice
Dark Red x.svg Prohibited

Independent countries[edit]

The table below summarizes the legal grounds for abortion in all United Nations member states and United Nations General Assembly observer states and some countries with limited recognition. This table is mostly based on data compiled by the United Nations up to 2019,[33] with some updates, additions and clarifications citing other sources.

Legal grounds on which abortion is permitted in independent countries[33]
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Abkhazia[34] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Afghanistan Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Albania Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Algeria Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Andorra No[f] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Angola[g] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Antigua and Barbuda Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Argentina[22] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Armenia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Australia[h][e] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Austria Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Azerbaijan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Bahamas Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Bahrain Green check.svg No[i] No[i] No[i] No[i] No[i]
 Bangladesh Green check.svg No[j] No[j] No[j] No[j] No[j]
 Barbados Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Belarus Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Belgium Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Belize Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Benin Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Bhutan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Bolivia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[k] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Botswana Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Brazil Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Yes[l] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Brunei Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Bulgaria Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Burkina Faso Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Burundi Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Cambodia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Cameroon Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Canada Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Cape Verde Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Central African Republic Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Chad Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Chile Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 China[m] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Colombia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Comoros Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Congo Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Costa Rica Green check.svg Green check.svg No[o] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Croatia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Cuba Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Cyprus Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Czech Republic Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes[p] Yes[q] Yes[q] Yes[q] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Denmark Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Djibouti Green check.svg Yes[r] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Dominica Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Dominican Republic No[s] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 East Timor[t] Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Ecuador Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[u] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Egypt Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 El Salvador Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Equatorial Guinea Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Eritrea Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Estonia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Eswatini Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Ethiopia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Fiji Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Finland[v] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 France[w] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Gabon Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Gambia Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Georgia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Germany Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Ghana Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Greece Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Grenada Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guatemala Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guinea Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guinea-Bissau Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guyana Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Haiti[x] Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Honduras[59] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Hungary Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Iceland Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 India Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Indonesia Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Iran Green check.svg Green check.svg No[y] Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Iraq Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Ireland Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Israel Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[z] Dark Red x.svg
 Italy Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Ivory Coast Green check.svg No[aa] Green check.svg No[aa] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Jamaica Yes[ab] Yes[ac] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Japan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Jordan Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Kazakhstan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Kenya Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Kiribati Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Kosovo[68] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Kuwait Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Kyrgyzstan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Laos[69] Yes[ad] No[ae] No[ae] No[ae] No[ae] No[ae]
 Latvia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Lebanon Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Lesotho Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Liberia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Libya Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Liechtenstein Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Lithuania Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Luxembourg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Madagascar Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Malawi Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Malaysia Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Maldives Green check.svg Yes[r] Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mali Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Malta No[af] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Marshall Islands Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mauritania Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mauritius Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mexico[74] [subdivisions] Maybe [ag] Maybe [ah] Green check.svg Maybe [ah] Maybe [ah] Maybe [ah]
 Aguascalientes Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Baja California Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Baja California Sur Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Campeche Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Chiapas Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Chihuahua Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Coahuila Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Colima Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Durango Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guanajuato Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Guerrero Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Hidalgo[75] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Jalisco Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mexico City Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Mexico State Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Michoacán Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Morelos Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Nayarit Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Nuevo León Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Oaxaca Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Puebla Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Querétaro Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Quintana Roo Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 San Luis Potosí Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Sinaloa Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Sonora Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tabasco Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tamaulipas Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tlaxcala Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Veracruz[76] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Yucatán Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Zacatecas Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Micronesia Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Moldova Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Monaco Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mongolia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Montenegro Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Morocco Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Mozambique Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Myanmar Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Namibia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Nauru Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
   Nepal Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Netherlands[ai] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 New Zealand[79] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Nicaragua Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Niger Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Nigeria [subdivisions] Green check.svg Maybe [aj] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Abia Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Adamawa Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Akwa Ibom Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Anambra Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Bauchi Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Bayelsa Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Benue Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Borno Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Cross River Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Delta Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Ebonyi Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Edo Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Ekiti Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Enugu Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Federal Capital Territory Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Gombe Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Imo Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Jigawa Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Kaduna Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Kano Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Katsina Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Kebbi Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Kogi Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Kwara Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Lagos Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Nasarawa Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Niger Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Ogun Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Ondo Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Osun Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Oyo Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Plateau Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Rivers Green check.svg Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Sokoto Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Taraba Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Yobe Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Zamfara Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Northern Cyprus[80] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 North Korea Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 North Macedonia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Norway[al] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Oman Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Pakistan Yes[n] Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Palau Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Palestine Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Panama Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Papua New Guinea Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Paraguay Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Peru Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Philippines Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Poland Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg No[am] No[am] Dark Red x.svg
 Portugal Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Qatar Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Romania Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Russia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Rwanda Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes[ak] Yes[ak] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Saint Lucia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[an] Dark Red x.svg
 Samoa Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 San Marino Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 São Tomé and Príncipe Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Saudi Arabia Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Senegal Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Serbia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Seychelles Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Sierra Leone Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Singapore Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Slovakia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Slovenia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Solomon Islands Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Somalia Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 South Africa Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 South Korea Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[ao] Yes[ao]
 South Sudan Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Spain Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Sri Lanka Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Sudan Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Suriname Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Sweden Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
  Switzerland Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Syria Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Taiwan[85] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tajikistan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Tanzania Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Thailand[86] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Togo Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tonga Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
Country Risk to life Risk to health Rape Fetal impairment Economic or social On request
 Trinidad and Tobago Yes[n] Yes[n] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Tunisia Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Turkey Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Turkmenistan Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Tuvalu Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Uganda Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Ukraine Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 United Arab Emirates Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg Yes[ap] Dark Red x.svg Dark Red x.svg
 United Kingdom [subdivisions] Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[aq] Green check.svg Green check.svg Maybe [ar]
 England Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[aq] Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Northern Ireland[89] Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg Green check.svg
 Scotland Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[aq] Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 Wales Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[aq] Green check.svg Green check.svg Dark Red x.svg
 United States[90] [subdivisions] Green check.svg Yes[as] Yes[as] Yes[as] Yes[as] Yes[as]
 Alabama Green check.svg Green check.svg Yes[ak] Yes[ak] Yes[ak] Yes[ak]
 Alaska Green check.svg