Matta El Meskeen
Father Matta El Meskeen or Matthew the Poor, born Youssef Iskandar (20 September 1919 – 8 June 2006) was an Egyptian Coptic Orthodox monk. He was the key figure in the revival of Egyptian monasticism which began in 1969 when he was appointed to the Monastery of St Macarius in the Wadi El Natrun in Egypt. By the time of his death the community had grown from 6 aged monks to 130 monks, and many other monasteries had revived, and new ones opened. He was twice nominated to become Coptic Pope, but was not chosen in either case.
He was also a theologian, and author of 181 books and hundreds of journal articles on Biblical exegesis, Ecclesiastical rites, spiritual and theological matters, and much more. Some of these writings were controversial.
Father Matta El Meskeen was born Youssef Eskander in Banha, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, in 1919, although the website for the St. Macarius monastery says that he was born in Damanhour, Egypt. In 1944, he graduated in Pharmacy from the University of Cairo. After leading a successful life and establishing a wealthy lifestyle for himself—Eskander at the time was the owner of two pharmacies, two villas, and two cars—he renounced his material possessions in 1948, and entered the monastery of Saint Samuel the Confessor in Mount Qalamoun (roughly near Maghagha, Upper Egypt). In 1951, he was ordained a priest against his will.
After living for a few years in the monastery of St. Samuel the Confessor in Mount Qalamoun, Father Matta decided to move out into Wadi El Rayan in the late 1950s. There, he lived as a recluse in the spirit of the ancient Desert Fathers for twelve years. By 1960, seven other monks had joined him. The community expanded to twelve by 1964. These twelve monks were sent by Pope Kyrillos VI to Wadi El Natrun in 1969 to develop the monastery of St. Macarius the Great.
At that time only six elderly, frail fathers lived near the road between Cairo and Alexandria. Matta and his twelve companions cared for them while reconstructing the monastery. The administrative, agricultural, institutional, and printing/publishing developments at the renewed Monastery of St. Macarius the Great were staggering. President Sadat donated land to the monastery to be brought into cultivation. But the spiritual revolution was much greater. By 1981 Matta had over eighty monks in the monastery. The monastery also finances services and projects for the poor, both Muslims and Christians.
Father Matta was once the Father in Confession and spiritual guide of Pope Shenouda III (during the 1950s). Father Matta was also the spiritual guide of the late Alexandrian priest Father Bishoy Kamel a contemporary Coptic Orthodox saint, and the Coptic historian Iris Habib Elmasry.
Alongside two others (Bishop Samuel and Bishop (and later Pope) Shenouda, Father Matta was a candidate for the Patriarchal throne in 1971, following the death of Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria (Kyrillos VI) but he did not reach the final stage of three candidates.
Father Matta El Meskeen is considered by many as a prominent Copt. But he was allegedly suspended from position in the Coptic Church twice, first by Pope Yusab II in 1955, and then again by Pope Kyrillos VI for nine years from 1960 to 1969. This seems to have been for administrative or political reasons. For instance, his book about 'the Church and the State', in which he called for total separation of the two as well as certain theological issues.
Relationship with Pope Shenouda III
During the 1950s, Father Matta was at one time spiritual father and confessor of the man who became Pope Shenouda III. Pope Shenouda acknowledged Father Matta El-Meskeen, whom he calls "my father monk" in the introduction to his book Intelaq Al-Rouh (The Release of the Spirit).
But there seem to have been some major disagreements between both leaders and their followers, e.g., in relation to the concept of theosis and also regarding Father Matta's position on Mark 16. Pope Shenouda's reply concerning the theological and dogmatic opinions of Fr. Matta (Arabic RealAudio; recorded in 1991/2003) and HE Metropolitan Bishoy's lecture about Fr Matta. (Arabic Audio; recorded on 18 September 2006).
Pope Shenouda visited St Macarius monastery in November 1996, a date which coincided with the silver jubilee of his consecration as pope, and was warmly welcomed by Father Matta who described the visit as a "special blessing".
- "Whenever physical hunger turned cruel against me, I found my gratification in prayer. Whenever the biting cold of winter was unkind to me, I found my warmth in prayer. Whenever people were harsh to me (and their harshness was severe indeed) I found my comfort in prayer. In short, prayer became my food and my drink, my outfit and my armor, whether by night or by day."
- "It is no joy for the church to have many active members of varied services who lack the spiritual proficiency for renewing souls and regenerating them in a genuine spiritual rebirth to win them for the Kingdom of Heaven. The true joy of the Church lies in leaders who possess spiritual insight, who walk ahead of their flocks so that the flocks can follow a sure path. It is not possible to obtain spiritual insight by action or study, spiritual insight is attained by silence, retreat and long prayers in their various stages."
- "I felt I was late to come to the knowledge of Christ; studying the Bible appeared such a daunting task. In desperation, I asked the Lord to give me either a long life to have enough time to study the Bible well, or enough wisdom to grasp its hidden meanings. In His everlasting generosity, God gave me both."
When asked why he never defended himself against the many accusations regarding some of his writings, Father Matta El-Meskeen replied,
- "Did you read the Exposition of the Gospel of John and benefit from it? ... My son I won't spend my time replying to anyone, but, my son, I will die and they will die and the Church will remain, as well as what we offered to her, and the next generations will judge us."
The Gospel of the day of his departure (June 8, 2006) according to the Coptic Lectionary was John 15:17-25.
|“||I can't say I'm happy, but I am at peace now. Every morning I was expecting news of more bloody collisions. Sadat's actions protect the church and the Copts. They are from God.||”|
The interview happened just days before Islamic militants assassinated Sadat during a military parade on October 6, 1981.
In Vol.27, No. 3 & 4, Fall & Winter 2006 of Coptic Church Review, there is an important article by Rev. Dr. John Watson, who lives in Highcliffe, Dorset, England. It is in 27 pages in length and is entitled "Abouna Matta El Meskeen Contemporary Desert Mystic". Coptic Church Review is published by Society of Coptic Church Studies, P.O. Box 714, E. Brunswick, NJ 08816, USA. The article is also available in microfilm format from University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
In May 2017, the Monastery of Bose in Italy published the first collectanea of studies (in Italian) entitled "Matta el Meskin: a contemporary desert father" entirely dedicated to the life, the works and the spirituality of father Matta el Meskeen which includes the contributions of some of the best knowers worldwide of this contemporary father of the desert .
- "English Keraza — Pope Shenouda's explanation on why Fr. Matta was not accepted as Pope — see Page 6" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Page 6 of Arabic El-Keraza (dated June 23, 2006)". Copticpope.org. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Article". Stmacariusmonastery.org. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Media clip". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Watainet article Archived August 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Al-Araby article Archived August 8, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- "St. Mina Monastery article on Fr. Matta". Stmina-monastery.org. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Bishoy Kamel". OrthodoxWiki. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2004-06-26. Archived from the original on 2004-06-26. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "St Mina article". Stmina-monastery.org. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Rezgar article". Rezgar article. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Al-Ahaly article Archived December 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Islam online article
- "Al-Ahram article". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 2012-07-25. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "PDF article" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Copticpope.org". Copticpope.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Yahoo! Groups". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060807225057/http://arabi.ahram.org.eg/Arabi/ahram/2006/6/17/WEEK6.htm. Archived from the original on August 7, 2006. Retrieved January 20, 2007. Missing or empty
- متى المسكين.. تعرفوه؟ - ولاد البلد - عشرينات (in Arabic). 2006-06-26. Archived from the original on 2006-12-31.
- Al Masri, Sami (2006-06-29). "من الرجال من لا يموتون ... -أبونا متَّى المسكين-". Archived from the original on 2006-08-06.
- "Question about humanity and the cross". Monachos.net. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- http://orthodoxchristianity.net/index.php?option=com_smf&Itemid=32&topic=8933.msg119518#msg119518. Retrieved January 20, 2007. Missing or empty
- "Fr. Matta el Maskeen (Matthew the Poor)". Orthodoxchristianity.net. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Web site by some of Fr. Matta's proponents". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "A detailed study about the Mark 16 controversy (Arabic)". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Part 1[permanent dead link]
- Part 2[permanent dead link]
- "zipped mirror". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "4 parts zipped together". Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-20.
- Medina, Sara; Wurmstedt, Robert C.; Harrison, Nathaniel (1981-09-28). "Religion: Egypt's Copts in Crisis". Time. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Books in English by Fr. Matta
- Arabic El-Keraza Magazine dated June 23, 2006 — Pope Shenouda's views regarding the teachings of Fr. Matta
- English Keraza — Pope Shenouda's explanation on why Fr. Matta was not made Coptic Pope — see Page 6
- Matta El-Meskeen on Orthodox Wiki
- British Orthodox Church Website — obituary article looking back at the issues with Fr. Matta
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