Abra (province)

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This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Abra.
Abra
Province
Flag of Abra
Flag
Official seal of Abra
Seal
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°35′N 120°45′E / 17.583°N 120.750°E / 17.583; 120.750Coordinates: 17°35′N 120°45′E / 17.583°N 120.750°E / 17.583; 120.750
Country Philippines
Region Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Founded March 10, 1917
Capital Bangued
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Eustaquio Bersamin (LP)
 • Vice Governor Chari Bersamin (LP)
Area[1]
 • Total 4,165.25 km2 (1,608.21 sq mi)
Area rank 31st out of 81
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 234,733
 • Rank 68th out of 81
 • Density 56/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • Density rank 80th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 0
 • Municipalities 27
 • Barangays 303
 • Districts Lone District of Abra
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2800 to 2826
Dialing code 74
ISO 3166 code PH-ABR
Spoken languages Ilocano, Tinguian, Isneg, Tagalog, English
Website www.abra.gov.ph

Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, is bordered by Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga and Apayao on the east.

History[edit]

Pre-colonial period[edit]

The first inhabitants of Abra were the ancestors of the Bontocs and the Ifugaos. These inhabitants eventually left to settle in the old Mountain Province. Other early inhabitants were the Tingguians, or Itnegs, as they are also known.

Spanish era[edit]

In 1598, a Spanish garrison was established in Bangued to protect Christian Ilocanos from Tingguian raids. Originally the area was called El Abra de Vigan ("The Opening of Vigan"). During the British Occupation of the Philippines, Gabriela Silang and her army fled to Abra from Ilocos and continued the revolt begun by her slain husband, Diego Silang. She was captured and hanged by the Spanish in 1763.

In 1818, the Ilocos region, including Abra, was divided into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. In 1846, Abra was created[3] as a political-military province with Lepanto as a sub-province. It remained so until the arrival of the Americans in 1899.

American period[edit]

In 1908 the Philippine Commission once again in annexed Abra to Ilocos Sur in an attempt to resolve Abra's financial difficulties. On March 9, 1917, the Philippine Assembly re-established Abra as a province.[4]

World War II[edit]

In 1942, the Japanese forces occupied the Philippines and entered Abra.

Abra was liberated by the Philippine Commonwealth forces and local Cordilleran guerrillas during the Battle of Abra in 1945, at the end of the Second World War.

Modern history[edit]

The revolutionary Marxist priest, Conrado Balweg, who fought for the rights of the Cordillera tribes, began his crusade in Abra. After successfully negotiating a peace accord with Balweg's group in 1987, the Philippine government created the Cordillera Administrative Region, which includes Abra.

Geography[edit]

Ph fil abra.png

Physical[edit]

Abra is hemmed in by the towering mountain ranges of the Ilocos in the west and the Cordillera Central in the east. The Abra River runs from the south in Benguet to the west and central areas, bisecting the whole Abra Valley. It is joined by the Tineg River originating from the eastern uplands at a point near the municipality of Dolores.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Abra is subdivided into 27 municipalities, all encompassed by a lone legislative district.[5]

 †  Provincial capital
Municipality Area[5] Population
(2010)[5][6]
Density No. of
barangays
ZIP
code
Income
class[5]
Coordinates

km2 mi2 /km2 /mi2
Bangued
105.7 km2 40.8 sq mi 43,936 420/km2 1,100/sq mi 31 2800 1st 17°35′47″N 120°37′04″E / 17.5965°N 120.6179°E / 17.5965; 120.6179 (Bangued)
Boliney 216.92 km2 83.75 sq mi 4,063 19/km2 49/sq mi 8 2815 5th 17°22′44″N 120°49′11″E / 17.3790°N 120.8198°E / 17.3790; 120.8198 (Boliney)
Bucay 107.17 km2 41.38 sq mi 17,126 160/km2 410/sq mi 21 2805 5th 17°32′20″N 120°43′00″E / 17.5388°N 120.7167°E / 17.5388; 120.7167 (Bucay)
Bucloc 63.77 km2 24.62 sq mi 2,176 34/km2 88/sq mi 4 2817 6th 17°26′27″N 120°51′26″E / 17.4409°N 120.8572°E / 17.4409; 120.8572 (Bucloc)
Daguioman 114.37 km2 44.16 sq mi 1,715 15/km2 39/sq mi 4 2816 5th 17°27′30″N 120°55′31″E / 17.4584°N 120.9254°E / 17.4584; 120.9254 (Daguioman)
Danglas 156.02 km2 60.24 sq mi 4,734 30/km2 78/sq mi 7 2825 5th 17°41′03″N 120°39′35″E / 17.6841°N 120.6597°E / 17.6841; 120.6597 (Danglas)
Dolores 47.45 km2 18.32 sq mi 11,499 240/km2 620/sq mi 15 2801 5th 17°38′56″N 120°42′37″E / 17.6490°N 120.7103°E / 17.6490; 120.7103 (Dolores)
La Paz 51.41 km2 19.85 sq mi 14,882 290/km2 750/sq mi 12 2826 5th 17°40′35″N 120°41′07″E / 17.6763°N 120.6853°E / 17.6763; 120.6853 (La Paz)
Lacub 295.3 km2 114.0 sq mi 2,977 10/km2 26/sq mi 6 2821 5th 17°39′48″N 120°56′51″E / 17.6634°N 120.9474°E / 17.6634; 120.9474 (Lacub)
Lagangilang 101.44 km2 39.17 sq mi 13,824 140/km2 360/sq mi 17 2802 5th 17°36′37″N 120°44′04″E / 17.6103°N 120.7344°E / 17.6103; 120.7344 (Lagangilang)
Lagayan 215.97 km2 83.39 sq mi 4,477 21/km2 54/sq mi 5 2824 5th 17°43′15″N 120°42′21″E / 17.7207°N 120.7058°E / 17.7207; 120.7058 (Lagayan)
Langiden 116.29 km2 44.90 sq mi 3,170 27/km2 70/sq mi 6 2807 5th 17°34′37″N 120°33′50″E / 17.5769°N 120.5638°E / 17.5769; 120.5638 (Langiden)
Licuan-Baay (Licuan) 256.42 km2 99.00 sq mi 4,864 19/km2 49/sq mi 11 2819 5th 17°36′22″N 120°53′36″E / 17.6061°N 120.8932°E / 17.6061; 120.8932 (Licuan-Baay)
Luba 148.27 km2 57.25 sq mi 6,391 43/km2 110/sq mi 8 2813 5th 17°19′05″N 120°41′43″E / 17.3181°N 120.6952°E / 17.3181; 120.6952 (Luba)
Malibcong 283.17 km2 109.33 sq mi 3,807 13/km2 34/sq mi 12 2820 5th 17°33′49″N 120°59′24″E / 17.5636°N 120.9899°E / 17.5636; 120.9899 (Malibcong)
Manabo 110.95 km2 42.84 sq mi 10,756 97/km2 250/sq mi 11 2810 5th 17°25′59″N 120°42′17″E / 17.4331°N 120.7048°E / 17.4331; 120.7048 (Manabo)
Peñarrubia 38.29 km2 14.78 sq mi 6,544 170/km2 440/sq mi 9 2804 6th 17°33′51″N 120°39′08″E / 17.5642°N 120.6522°E / 17.5642; 120.6522 (Peñarrubia)
Pidigan 49.15 km2 18.98 sq mi 11,528 230/km2 600/sq mi 15 2806 5th 17°34′13″N 120°35′21″E / 17.5703°N 120.5893°E / 17.5703; 120.5893 (Pidigan)
Pilar 66.1 km2 25.5 sq mi 9,908 150/km2 390/sq mi 19 2812 5th 17°25′00″N 120°35′43″E / 17.4168°N 120.5954°E / 17.4168; 120.5954 (Pilar)
Sallapadan 128.62 km2 49.66 sq mi 5,985 47/km2 120/sq mi 9 2818 5th 17°27′18″N 120°45′36″E / 17.4551°N 120.7599°E / 17.4551; 120.7599 (Sallapadan)
San Isidro 48.07 km2 18.56 sq mi 4,888 100/km2 260/sq mi 9 2809 5th 17°27′56″N 120°36′06″E / 17.4656°N 120.6017°E / 17.4656; 120.6017 (San Isidro)
San Juan 64.08 km2 24.74 sq mi 10,546 160/km2 410/sq mi 19 2823 5th 17°41′00″N 120°43′55″E / 17.6834°N 120.7320°E / 17.6834; 120.7320 (San Juan)
San Quintin 66.59 km2 25.71 sq mi 5,233 79/km2 200/sq mi 6 2808 5th 17°32′34″N 120°31′13″E / 17.5427°N 120.5203°E / 17.5427; 120.5203 (San Quintin)
Tayum 61.14 km2 23.61 sq mi 13,940 230/km2 600/sq mi 11 2803 5th 17°36′59″N 120°39′19″E / 17.6165°N 120.6553°E / 17.6165; 120.6553 (Tayum)
Tineg 744.8 km2 287.6 sq mi 4,668 6.3/km2 16/sq mi 10 2822 2nd 17°46′58″N 120°56′38″E / 17.7828°N 120.9439°E / 17.7828; 120.9439 (Tineg)
Tubo 409.87 km2 158.25 sq mi 5,719 14/km2 36/sq mi 10 2814 4th 17°15′24″N 120°43′32″E / 17.2567°N 120.7256°E / 17.2567; 120.7256 (Tubo)
Villaviciosa 102.93 km2 39.74 sq mi 5,377 52/km2 130/sq mi 8 2811 5th 17°26′16″N 120°37′31″E / 17.4379°N 120.6253°E / 17.4379; 120.6253 (Villaviciosa)

Barangays[edit]

The 27 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 303 barangays, with Poblacion in La Paz as the most populous in 2010, and Pattaoig in San Juan as the least.[6][5]

Further information: List of barangays in Abra

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Abra
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 184,743 —    
1995 195,964 +1.11%
2000 209,491 +1.44%
2007 230,953 +1.35%
2010 234,733 +0.59%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Abra's inhabitants are mostly descendants of Ilocano settlers and members of the Tingguian tribe. As of 2011, the population of the province is 240,141.

The predominant languages are Ilocano[7] and Itneg.[8] Based on the 2000 census survey, the majority of the province population is Ilocano 71.9%. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Tinguian 18.7%, Ibanag 4.5%, Isneg 3.2% and Tagalog 0.4%.[9]

Economy[edit]

As of 1990, there were 743 cottage industries in Abra, of which 208 are registered with the Department of Trade and Industry. 59% are engaged in bamboo and rattan craft making, both leading industries in the area.

In 1992, the natural dye industry, together with loom weaving and embroidery, was revived by former Governor Ma. Zita Claustro-Valera, the first female governor of Abra.

Abra's economy is agriculture-based. Its major crops are rice, corn, and root crops; commercial products include coffee, tobacco, and coconut. Extensive grassland and pasture areas are used for livestock production.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Fernández, Leandro Heriberto. A Brief History of the Philippines. Ginn. p. 195. 
  4. ^ Act No. 2683, March 09, 1917 Supreme Court E-Library
  5. ^ a b c d e "Province: Abra". Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Population Counts - Cordillera Administrative Region" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines), April 4, 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  7. ^ Dalby, Andrew (2004-02-18). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-231-11569-8. 
  8. ^ Tryon, Darrell T. (1994). Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction to Austronesian Studies. Ratzlow-Druck. p. 171. ISBN 3-11-012729-6. 
  9. ^ "Abra: Housing Unit Occupancy Rate Nears 100%". National Statistics Office. 3 April 2002. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 

External links[edit]