Abrahamic religions, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to the tribal patriarch Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him, are one of the major divisions in comparative religion, along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the largest Abrahamic religions.
The largest Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are Judaism (late second millennium BCE), Christianity (first century CE) and Islam (seventh century CE).
Abrahamic religions with fewer adherents include Rastafari, Samaritanism (sometimes classified as a branch of Judaism), the Druze faith (often classified as a branch of Isma'ili Shi'i Islam), Bábism, and the Bahá'í Faith.
As of 2005[update], it was estimated that 54% (3.6 billion people) of the world's population considered themselves adherents of an Abrahamic religion, about 32% adherents of other religions, and 16% adherents of no organized religion. Christianity is the largest Abrahamic faith, with 33% of the world's population, Islam is second with 21%, and Judaism has 0.2%.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Origins and history
- 3 Common aspects
- 4 Significance of Abraham
- 5 Religions
- 6 God
- 7 Religious scriptures
- 8 End times and afterlife
- 9 Worship and religious rites
- 10 Proselytism
- 11 Violent conflicts
- 12 Other Abrahamic religions
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
It has been suggested that the phrase, "Abrahamic religion", may simply mean that all these religions come from one spiritual source.[according to whom?] Christians refer to Abraham as a "father in faith".[Rom. 4] There is an Islamic religious term, Millat Ibrahim (faith of Ibrahim), indicating that Islam sees itself as having practices tied to the traditions of Abraham. Jewish tradition claims descent from Abraham, and adherents follow his practices and ideals as the first of the three spiritual "fathers" or biblical Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
All the major Abrahamic religions claim a direct lineage to Abraham:
- Abraham is recorded in the Torah as the ancestor of the Israelites through his son Isaac, born to Sarah through a promise made in Genesis.[Gen. 17:16]
- The sacred text of Christianity is the Christian Bible, the first part of which, the Old Testament, is derived from the Jewish Bible, leading to similar ancestry claims as above, although most Christians are gentiles who consider themselves as grafted into the family tree under the New Covenant, see significance of Abraham for Christians for details.
- It is the Islamic tradition that Muhammad, as an Arab, is descended from Abraham's son Ishmael. Jewish tradition also equates the descendants of Ishmael, Ishmaelites, with Arabs, as the descendants of Isaac by Jacob, who was also later known as Israel, are the Israelites.
- The Báb, regarded by Bahá'í's as a predecessor to Bahá'u'lláh, was a Sayyid, or a direct descendant of Muhammad and thus traces his ancestry to Abraham's son Ishmael. Tradition also holds that Bahá'u'lláh is a descendant of Abraham through his third wife, Keturah.
Other terms sometimes used include Abrahamic faiths, Abrahamic traditions, religions of Abraham, Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Semitic religions, Semitic monotheistic religions, and Semitic one god religions.
Adam Dodds argues that the term "Abrahamic faiths", while helpful, can be considered misleading, as it conveys an unspecified historical and theological commonality that is problematic on closer examination. While there is commonality among the religions, in large measure their shared ancestry is peripheral to their respective foundational beliefs and thus conceals crucial differences. For example, the common Christian beliefs of Incarnation, Trinity and the resurrection of Jesus are not accepted by Judaism or Islam (see for example Islamic view of Jesus' death). There are key beliefs in both Islam and Judaism that are not shared by most of Christianity (such as strict monotheism and adherence to Divine Law), and key beliefs of Islam, Christianity, and the Bahá'í Faith not shared by Judaism (such as the prophetic and Messianic position of Jesus, respectively).
Origins and history
Judaism regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob,[n 1] a grandson of Abraham. It has a strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text as elucidated in the Oral Torah. In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism developed a small number of branches, of which the most significant are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.
Christianity began as a sect of Judaism[n 2] in the Mediterranean Basin[n 3] of the first century CE and evolved into a separate religion—Christianity—with distinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, considered by almost all denominations to be God the Son, one person of the Trinity. See God in Christianity.[n 4] The Christian biblical canons are usually held to be the ultimate authority, alongside sacred tradition in some denominations (such as the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church). Over many centuries, Christianity divided into three main branches (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant), dozens of significant denominations, and hundreds of smaller ones.
Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula[n 5] in the 7th century CE with a strictly unitary view of God.[n 6] Muslims hold the Qur'an to be the ultimate authority, as revealed and elucidated through the teachings and practices[n 7] of a central, but not divine prophet, Muhammad. The Islamic faith consider all prophets and messengers from Adam through the final messenger (Muhammad) to carry the same Islamic monotheistic principles. Soon after its founding Islam split into two main branches (Sunni and Shi'a), each of which now have a number of denominations.
The Bahá'í Faith began within the context of Shi'a Islam in 19th-century Persia, after a merchant named Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází claimed divine revelation and took on the title of the Báb, or "the Gate". The Bab's ministry proclaimed the imminent advent of "He whom God shall make manifest", who Bahá'í's accept as Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'í's revere the Torah, Gospels and the Qur'an, and the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and `Abdu’l-Bahá' are considered the central texts of the faith. A vast majority of adherents are unified under a single denomination.
The unifying characteristic of Abrahamic religions is that all accept the tradition that God revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham. All are monotheistic, and conceive God to be a transcendent creator and the source of moral law. Their religious texts feature many of the same figures, histories, and places, although they often present them with different roles, perspectives, and meanings. Believers who agree on these similarities and the common Abrahamic origin tend to also be more positive towards other Abrahamic groups.
In these four Abrahamic religions the individual, God, and the universe are highly separate from each other. The Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, paternal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. One seeks salvation or transcendence not by contemplating the natural world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God (such as obedience with God's wishes or his law) and see divine revelation as outside of self, nature, and custom. Christianity differs somewhat in that it includes the key tenant of 'salvation by grace' and not through seeking to please God or by good works. Obedience for the Christian is expected as a natural response to having received salvation. This tenant is based on the Abrahamic principle of righteousness imputed by faith, and only through the provision of payment for sin by Jesus' sacrificial death as the promised Messiah.
All Abrahamic religions claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, although known by different names. All of these religions believe that God creates, is one, rules, reveals, loves, judges, punishes, and forgives.[need quotation to verify] However, although Christianity does not profess to believe in three gods — but rather three persons, or hypostases, united in one essence — the Trinitarian doctrine, which is a fundamental of faith for the vast majority of Christian denominations, conflicts with Jewish, Muslim, and Bahá'í concepts of monotheism. Since the conception of divine Trinity is not amenable to tawhid, the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam considers Christianity to be variously polytheistic or idolatrous.
Jesus (Arabic: Isa or Yasu among Muslims and Arab Christians respectively) is revered by Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith but with vastly differing conceptions; viewed as the saviour by Christians (and God incarnate by most Christians as well), as a Prophet of Islam and Messiah by Muslims, and as the Messiah and a Manifestation of God (but not God incarnate) by Bahá'í's. However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God (known as shirk in Islam and shituf in Judaism), is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Judaism and misguided by the Bahá'ís. The incarnation of God into human form is also seen as a heresy by Judaism, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith.
All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine will through inspired revelation. They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically, and that one day God will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment.
All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through revelation to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture.
Eschatological world view
An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come.
Importance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Its origins can be dated to 1004 BCE when according to Biblical tradition David established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son Solomon built the First Temple on Mount Moriah. Since the Hebrew Bible relates that Isaac's sacrifice took place there, Mount Moriah's importance for Jews pre-dates even these prominent events. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple (the Third Temple) on mount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal. Jerusalem has served as the only capital for five out of six Jewish states that have existed in Israel since 1400 BCE (the United Kingdom of Israel, the Kingdom of Judah, Yehud Medinata, the Hasmonean Kingdom, and modern Israel) with the exception of the Khazar State. It has been majority Jewish since about 1852 and continues through today.
Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian presence there since. William R. Kenan, Jr., professor of the history of Christianity at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, writes that from the middle of the 4th century to the Islamic conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the Roman province of Palestine was a Christian nation with Jerusalem its principal city. According to the New Testament, Jerusalem was the city Jesus was brought to as a child to be presented at the temple[Luke 2:22] and for the feast of the Passover.[Luke 2:41] He preached and healed in Jerusalem, unceremoniously drove the money changers in disarray from the temple there, held the Last Supper in an "upper room" (traditionally the Cenacle) there the night before he is said to have died on the cross, was arrested in Gethsemane. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha, his burial nearby (traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there.
Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina (even though not mentioned by name in the Qur'an). The Al-Aqsa mosque, which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Qur'an and its surroundings are addressed in the Qur'an as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba (Al-Haram Mosque), but toward Jerusalem (this was the qibla for 13 years): the qibla was switched to Kaaba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba (Quran, Al-Baqarah 2:144-150). Another reason for its significance is its connection with the Miʿrāj, where, according to traditional Muslim, Muhammad ascended through the Seven heavens on a winged mule named Buraq, guided by the Archangel Gabriel, beginning from the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount, in modern times under the Dome of the Rock.
Significance of Abraham
Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs.
For Jews, Abraham (with his wife, Sarah) is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you."[Gen. 12:2] With Abraham, God entered into "an everlasting covenant throughout the ages to be God to you and to your offspring to come."[Gen. 17:7] It is this covenant that makes Abraham and his descendants children of the covenant. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham (and Sarah).
Abraham is primarily a revered ancestor or patriarch (referred to as Avraham Avinu (אברהם אבינו in Hebrew) "Abraham our father") to whom God made several promises: chiefly, that he would have numberless descendants, who would receive the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land"). According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post-Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah.
Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith, and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus — the Son of God through whom God promised to bless all the families of the earth. For Christians, Abraham is a spiritual forebear as well as/rather than a direct ancestor depending on the individual's interpretation of Paul the Apostle,[Rom. 4:9–12] with the Abrahamic covenant "reinterpreted so as to be defined by faith in Christ rather than biological descent" or both by faith as well as a direct ancestor; in any case, the emphasis is placed on faith being the only requirement for the Abrahamic Covenant to apply (see also New Covenant and supersessionism). In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith,[Heb. 11:8–10] and his obedience to God by offering Isaac is seen as a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son Jesus.[Rom. 8:32]
Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than (as in supersessionism), being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus. They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile (before he was circumcised) "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. 15:6] (cf. Rom. 4:3, James 2:23), "those who have faith are children of Abraham" [Gal. 3:7] (see also John 8:39). This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham.[Rom. 4:20] [Gal. 4:9] However, with regards to Rom. 4:20 and Gal. 4:9, in both cases he refers to these spiritual descendants as the "sons of God"[Gal. 4:26] rather than "children of Abraham".
For Muslims, Abraham is a prophet, the "messenger of God" who stands in the line from Adam to Muhammad, to whom God gave revelations,[Quran 4:163], who "raised the foundations of the House" (i.e., the Kaaba)[Quran 2:127] with his first son, Isma'il, a symbol of which is every mosque. Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first in a genealogy for Muhammad. Islam considers Abraham to be "one of the first Muslims" (Surah 3)—the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost, and the community of those faithful to God, thus being referred to as ابونا ابراهيم or "Our Father Abraham", as well as Ibrahim al-Hanif or "Abraham the Monotheist". Islam holds that it was Ishmael, (Isma'il, Muhammad's ancestor) rather than Isaac, whom Ibrahim was instructed to sacrifice. Also, the same as Judaisim, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
- See also section Other Abrahamic religions
One of Judaism's primary texts is the Tanakh, an account of the Israelites' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. One of his great-grandsons was Judah, from whom the religion ultimately gets its name. The Israelites were initially a number of tribes who lived in the Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah.
After being conquered and exiled, some members of the Kingdom of Judah eventually returned to Israel. They later formed an independent state under the Hasmonean dynasty in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of the Roman Empire, which also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants. From the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews wrote the Talmud, a lengthy work of legal rulings and Biblical exegesis which, along with the Tanakh, is a key text of Judaism.
Christianity began in the 1st century as a sect within Judaism initially led by Jesus. His followers viewed him as the Messiah, as in the Confession of Peter; after his crucifixion and death they came to view him as God incarnate, who was resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead and create an eternal Kingdom of God. Within a few decades the new movement split from Judaism.
After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace vis a vis the Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire in 380, but has been split into various churches from its beginning. An attempt was made by the Byzantine Empire to unify Christendom, but this formally failed with the East–West Schism of 1054. In the 16th century the birth and growth of Protestantism further split Christianity into many denominations.
Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran. Although it considers Muhammad to be the Seal of the prophets, Islam teaches that every prophet preached Islam, providing a historical back-story for the religion by independently recognizing Jewish and Christian prophets, and adding others. The teachings of Quran are presented as the direct revelation and words of Allah, and earlier scriptures are considered to have been corrupted over time. Islam (meaning "submission", in the sense of submission to God) is universal (membership is open to anyone); like Judaism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called tawhid, or "strict" or "simple" monotheism. Early disputes over who would lead Muslims following the death of Muhammad led to a split between Sunni and Shia, Islam's two main denominations.
The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent, but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.
In Jewish theology, God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable, and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God of Israel is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered Israel from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the 613 Mitzvot at Mount Sinai as described in the Torah.
The national god of the Israelites has a proper name, written YHWH (Hebrew: יְהֹוָה, Modern Yehovah, Tiberian Yəhōwāh) in the Hebrew Bible. The name YHWH is a combination of the future, present, and past tense of the verb "howa" (Hebrew: הוה) meaning "to be" and translated literally means "The self-existent One". A further explanation of the name was given to Moses when YHWH stated Eheye Asher Eheye (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה) "I will be that I will be", the name relates to God as God truly is, God's revealed essence, which transcends the universe. It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim, relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".
In Christian theology, God is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent (involved in the world). Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus.
Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381. Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith. Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways.
The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things". In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted. As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible (e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the Father is in Heaven), others based on theological reasoning.
In Islamic theology, God (Arabic: الله Allāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd ) unique (wāḥid ) and inherently One (aḥad ), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to Islamic teachings, God exists without place and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things." God, as referenced in the Quran, is the only God. Islamic tradition also describes the 99 names of God. These 99 names describe attributes of God, including Most Merciful, The Just, The Peace and Blessing, and the Guardian.
Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. This belief is summed up in chapter 112 of the Qur'an titled Al-Ikhlas, which states "Say, he is Allah (who is) one, Allah is the Eternal, the Absolute. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent".[Quran 112:1]
All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being.
The sacred scriptures of Judaism are the Tanakh, a Hebrew acronym standing for Torah (Law or Teachings), Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings). These are complemented by and supplemented with various (originally oral) traditions: Midrash, the Mishnah, the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings. The Tanakh (or Hebrew Bible) was composed between 1,400 BCE, and 400 BCE by Jewish prophets, kings, and priests.
The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the 300,000+ stylized letters that make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use; hence the skills of a Torah scribe are specialist skills, and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.
The sacred scriptures of most Christian groups are the Old Testament and the New Testament. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional materials.
The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus (the Four Gospels, as well as several other writings (the epistles) and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired, and together comprise the Christian Bible.
The vast majority of Christian faiths (including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism) recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the death of Jesus, and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, the English King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times.
The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders (see canon law). Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding (sola scriptura).
Islam's holiest book is the Qur'an, comprising 114 Suras ("chapters of the Qur'an"). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions (which they believe to be corrupted). According to the Qur'an (and mainstream Muslim belief), the verses of the Qur'an were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions. These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire.
The Qur'an mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus, among others (see also: Prophets of Islam). The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God (through Gabriel) to Muhammad and codified in the Qur'an.
Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Qur'an as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Qur'an, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.
Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an is complemented by the Hadith, a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: genuine (sahih), fair (hasan) or weak (da'if).
By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims.
The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad (sira) form the Sunnah, an authoritative supplement to the Qur'an. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (Faqīh) provide another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition (see Fiqh.)
The Qur'an contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" (see Suras 2:130,135; 3:95; 6:123,161; 12:38; 16:123; 22:78). In the Qur'an, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura 2:135, for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (to salvation)." Say thou (O Muslims): "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God." ' In the Qur'an, Abraham is declared to have been a Muslim (a hanif, more accurately a "primordial monotheist"), not a Jew nor a Christian (Sura 3:67).
End times and afterlife
In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come.
Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus (to complete his life and die) and the coming of Mahdi (Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shi'a as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi).
Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul, which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly after death. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions.
Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the Next World") are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew Bible of an afterlife (see Naboth and the Witch of Endor), Judaism focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward.
Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead (Heaven, Hell, Limbo, Purgatory) or universal reconciliation in which all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism, the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist.
In Islam, God is said to be "Most Compassionate and Most Merciful" (Qur'an 1:1, as well as the start of all suras but one). However, God is also "Most Just"; Islam prescribes a literal Hell for those who disobey God and commit gross sin. Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels.
Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels, with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah (martyrs).
Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk (i.e. associating God in any way, such as claiming that He is equal with anything or denying Him), this is not pardonable — he or she will stay forever in Hell.
Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity.
Worship and religious rites
Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities—Shabbat, Sabbath, or jumu'ah; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days, and rested in the seventh.
Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah, and facing in the direction of Jerusalem's Temple Mount. Other practices include circumcision, dietary laws, Shabbat, Passover, Torah study, Tefillin, purity and others. Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law.
All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year (an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year). All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one.
Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments, which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion, and may also include Confirmation, Confession, Last Rites and Holy Orders.
Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal and other documents. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora, particularly since the Protestant Reformation.
The followers of Islam (Muslims) are to observe the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily (salat) towards the direction (qibla) of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is alms giving (Zakah), a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Qur'an and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required (i.e. proceeds from renting space), and increases to 50% on "unearned wealth" such as treasure-finding, and to 100% on wealth that is considered haram, as part of attempting to make atonement for the sin, such as that gained through financial interest (riba).
Fasting (sawm) during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan, is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health (as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim physician" is required to agree), that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting. In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed.
Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj (e.g. if making Hajj would put stress on one's financial situation, but would not end up in homelessness or starvation, it is still required). During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the "stoning of the devil" at Mina.
At the end of the Hajj, the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels, are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut, to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael (contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice) with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts of ihram and the hajj is complete.
Western Christianity replaced that custom with a baptism ceremony varying according to the denomination, but generally including immersion, aspersion, or anointment with water. The Early Church (Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem) decided that circumcision is not required for Gentile Christians. The Council of Florence in the 15th century prohibited it. Paragraph #2297 of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral. By the 21st century, the Catholic Church had adopted a neutral position on the practice, as long as it is not practiced as an initiation ritual. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.
Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates (with the notable exceptions of the United States, and the Philippines, South Korea, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Kenya, and many African Christian countries). Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage. Male circumcision is also widely practiced among Christians from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and North Africa. (See also aposthia.)
Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah, or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation.
Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam.
With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions.
The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days. The law of abstinence requires a Catholic from 14 years of age until death to abstain from eating meat on Fridays in honor of the Passion of Jesus on Good Friday. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops obtained the permission of the Holy See for Catholics in the U.S. to substitute a penitential, or even a charitable, practice of their own choosing. Eastern Rite Catholics have their own penitential practices as specified by the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) embraces numerous Old Testament rules and regulations such as tithing, Sabbath observance, and Jewish food laws. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures."[Leviticus 11:1–47] among others
In the Christian Bible, the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree[Acts 15:19–21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele, who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show." He also writes that "as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third, in 731, forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days."
Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition. Though not a day of rest (creation does not make God tired and therefore He did not rest on the 7th day in Muslim belief), Islam holds Friday as a day of special prayer.
Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws, a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity.
The Rambam (Rabbi Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers) commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come, if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. In the U.S., as of 2003 28% of married Jews were married to non-Jews. See also Conversion to Judaism.
Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegations are the conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews and Eastern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews and Muslims during the time of the Spanish Inquisition, where they were offered the choice of exile, conversion or death; and of the Aztecs by Hernán Cortés. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation, especially in England and Ireland (see recusancy and Popish plot).
Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offenses are regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). According to Pope Paul VI, "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in faith must be free: no one therefore is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith against his own will." The Roman Catholic Church has declared that Catholics should fight anti-Semitism.
Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī, plural du‘āt. A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam through a dialogical process, and may be categorized in some cases as the Islamic equivalent of a missionary, as one who invites people to the faith, to the prayer, or to Islamic life.
Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah.
In Islamic theology, the purpose of Da‘wah is to invite people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, to understand the commandments of God as expressed in the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet, as well as to inform them about Muhammad. Da‘wah produces converts to Islam, which in turn grows the size of the Muslim Ummah, or community of Muslims.
Between Abrahamic religions
- Christians were killed by Jews during the Bar Kochba revolt.[unreliable source?]
- The Yemeni Jewish Himyar tribe, led by King Dhu Nuwas, massacred 20,000 Christians in 524.
- The Sasanian conquest and occupation of Jerusalem involved the massacre of Christians by Jews.
- The wars between the emerging Islamic Caliphates and the Christian Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire between the 7th and the 11th centuries CE were a series of military, political and religious conflicts which led to the islamization of large territories in the Near East such as Egypt and Syria.
- The Crusades (end of 11th – end of 13th century CE) were a series of military expeditions from Western Europe to the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean: a rather unsuccessful attempt by Western (Catholic) Christians to conquer what was perceived by all Christians as the Holy Land from its Muslim inhabitants. In passing, Crusades were also marked with conflicts between Western and Eastern (Orthodox, Syro-Jacobite and Armenian) Christians and unilateral damage inflicted by Western Christians to Jews.
- The conquest and the following Reconquista of Spain, and founding of Portugal (beginning of 8th – end of 15th century CE) were a series of wars between Muslims and Christians in the Iberian peninsula resulting in the founding of several Muslim and Christian Medieval states and the final victory of the Catholic Crown of Castile and Aragon against the Muslim Emirate of Granada.
- The Ottoman conquest of the Balkan peninsula (mid-14th – end of 15th century CE) followed by a series of wars between the Islamic Ottoman Empire and various Christian powers and alliances (end of 14th – beginning of 20th century CE) was an important political, military and cultural process for South-Eastern Europe resulting in the fall of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire and its successor states and finally leading to the emerging of several modern nations in that region.
- The Spanish inquisition was an attempt by the Christian Catholic church in Spain in the wake of the centuries long Reconquista to suppress or expel Jews and Muslims and to prosecute Christian heretics. Openly Jewish and Muslim people were expelled rather than killed, but many submitted to forced conversion to Catholicism to avoid expulsion. The Inquisitors often did not trust the converts, and persecuted them cruelly for being secret adherents of their original religions, which was often true but sometimes fabricated. Jewish forced converts were known as "anusim," or sometimes by the pejorative "morrano (pig)."
- At various points in history pogroms against Jews were common in Christian Europe, and in many Islamic areas. See blood libel.
- Persecution of Bahá'ís and Political accusations against the Bahá'í Faith review the substantive efforts in parts of the world against the Bahá'ís and their religion.
Between branches of the same Abrahamic religion
- The Fourth Crusade and subsequent wars between Catholic Europeans and the Orthodox Byzantine Greeks following the Great Schism.
- The Christian Reformation of the 16th century CE was an attempt towards a religious reform in the Western (Catholic) Christian Church which resulted in a series of Religious Wars between Catholic and emerging Reformist/Protestant Christian forces during the 16th and 17th centuries CE throughout Western Europe.
- The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was due to religious conflict between Catholic and Protestant Christians, and economic causes.
- There have been many violent conflicts between the Sunni and Shi'a branches of Islam; see Shi'a–Sunni relations.
- After the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a western coalition there was armed conflict between branches of Islam, with fighting and bombings, even of mosques.
Between Abrahamic religions and non-adherents
- Religious hostility fueled the Jewish–Roman wars.
- Many Roman emperors persecuted Christians. For example, see Diocletianic Persecution.
- In the initial expansion of both Christianity and Islam, a number of pagan communities were converted by force.
- The Catholic Inquisition, mentioned above, also targeted non-believers in the orthodox doctrines of Roman Catholicism and many lost their livelihoods or their lives.
- Christian evangelism was a partial motivation for the colonization of the Americas.
- Communist dictatorships practiced a policy of religious oppression in favour of personality cults revering the leader or the state.
Other Abrahamic religions
Historically, the Abrahamic religions have been considered to be Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three. The other, similar religions were seen as either too new to judge as being truly in the same class, or too small to be of significance to the category.
However, some of the restriction of Abrahamic to these three is due only to tradition in historical classification. Therefore, restricting the category to these three religions has come under criticism. The religions listed below here claim Abrahamic classification, either by the religions themselves, or by scholars who study them.
Though smaller and younger than the well-known Abrahamic religions, the Bahá'í Faith is significant because of its activities, distribution and numbers. The religion is almost entirely contained in a single, organized, hierarchical community, and is also recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity. The Association of Religion Data Archives estimated some 7.3 million Bahá'ís in 2005 and the only religion to consistently surpass population growth in each major region of the planet over the last century, often growing at twice the rate of the population.
Bahá'u'lláh (1817-1892), the founder, affirms the highest religious station for Abraham and generally for prophets mentioned among the other Abrahamic religions, and has claimed a lineage of descent from Abraham through Keturah and Sarah. Additionally Bahá'u'lláh actually did lose a son, Mírzá Mihdí. Bahá'u'lláh, then in prison, eulogized his son and connected the subsequent easing of restrictions to his son's dying prayer and compared it to the intended sacrifice of Abraham’s son.
The religion also shares many of the same commonalities of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The religion emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God, the station of the founders of the major religions as Manifestations of God come with revelation as a series of interventions by God in human history that has been progressive, and each preparing the way for the next. There is no definitive list of Manifestations of God, but Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá referred to several personages as Manifestations; they include individuals generally not recognized by other Abrahamic religions - Krishna, Zoroaster, and Buddha - and general statements go further to other cultures.
Abrahamic ethno-religious groups
Some small religions, such as Samaritanism, Druzes, Rastafari movement, and the Bábí Faith, are Abrahamic. These religions are regional, with Samaritans largely in Israel and the West Bank, Druze largely in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, and Rastafari largely in Jamaica.
- Abraham's family tree
- Ancient Semitic religion
- Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
- Christianity and Islam
- Christianity and Judaism
- Islam and Judaism
- People of the Book
- Jacob is also called Israel, a name the Bible states he was given by God.
- cf. Judaizer, Messianic Judaism
- With several centers, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Thessaloniki and Corinth, Antioch, and later spread outwards, eventually having two main centers in the empire, one for the Western Church and one for the Eastern Church in Rome and Constantinople respectively by the 5th century AD
- Triune God is also called the "Holy Trinity"
- Islam arose specifically in Tihamah city of Mecca and Hejaz city of Medina of Arabia
- The monotheistic view of God in Islam is called tawhid which is essentially the same as the conception of God in Judaism
- Teachings and practices of Muhammad are collectively known as the sunnah, similar to the Judaic concepts of oral law and exegesis, or talmud and midrash
- Historically, the Bahá'í Faith arose in 19th-century Persia, in the context of Shi'a Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith considers itself an independent religious tradition, which arose from a Muslim context but also recognizes other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.
- "Philosophy of Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- C.J. Classification of religions: Geographical. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Accessed: 15 May 2013
- Massignon 1949, pp. 20–23
- Smith 1998, p. 276
- Derrida 2002, p. 3
-  Israelite religion has is origins in Canaanite religions of the Bronze Age, it became distinct from other Canaanite religions in Iron Age I due to a focus on the monolatristic worship of Yahweh. Judaism likely became fully monotheistic in the 6th century BCE (Iron Age II).
- "Abrahamic Religion". Christianity: Details about... Christianity Guide. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Introduction to Judaism Classroom Materials" (PDF). Jewish Museum of Maryland. 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Synopsis of book, "The Druze and Their Faith in Tawhid"". Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
- Onyeakor, Joachim (2012). Did We Create God?. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781477136973. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
Abrahamic religions (Christianity encompassing Anglican, Catholic, evangelical, Jehovah's Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, Orthodox, Pentecostal (having more than thousand denominations), Islam, Judaism, Rastafari movement, Babism, Baha'i Faith, Gnosticism, Mandaeans and Sabians, and Samaritanism)
- * "Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U of Wisconsin. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Lawson, Todd (December 13, 2012). Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney, Christopher, eds. "Baha'i Religious History". Journal of Religious History 36 (4): 463–470. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2012.01224.x. ISSN 1467-9809. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- Collins, William P., reviewer (September 1, 2004). "Review of: The Children of Abraham : Judaism, Christianity, Islam / F. E. Peters. -- New ed. -- Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2004". Library Journal (New York) 129 (14): 157, 160. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved Sep 13, 2013.
- The numbers were based on upper bounds and do not add to 100%. Hunter, Preston. "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com.
- "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- The Quran, albaqarah; v. 135
- Scherman, pp. 34–35.
- Saheeh al-Bukharee, Book 55, hadith no. 584; Book 56, hadith no. 710
- "Part Four – On the Origin, Powers and Conditions of Man". www.bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
- David Kay, The Semitic Religions—Hebrew, Jewish, Christian & Moslem, Reqd books, 2008
- Dodds, Adam (July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and Discontinuity in Christian and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly 81 (3): 230–253.
- Greenstreet, p. 95.
- "The Bahá’í Faith – The website of the worldwide Bahá’í community". www.bahai.org. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
- * Dolbee, Sandi (27 Mar 2003). "Faith, Hope and Understand: Teenagers Questions and learn about each other's Faiths". The San Diego Union – Tribune. p. E.1. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "WORLD RELIGIONS RESOURCES". WPC library catalog. Warner Pacific College. 2012. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "The Journey of Abraham" (PDF). Part of Library’s Stories of Faith Program; Discussion to Focus on Shared Beliefs of Semitic Religions. San Diego Public Library. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
- "Tagged: Abrahamic religions". Search Results. National Library of Australia. 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U of Wisconsin. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Mayton, Daniel M. (2009). Nonviolent Perspectives Within the Abrahamic Religions. Peace Psychology Book Series. Springer US. pp. 167– 203. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-89348-8_7. ISBN 978-0-387-89348-8.
- "Abrahamic religions". Library of Congress Authorities & Vocabularies. The Library of Congress. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Bacquet, Karen (May 2006). "When Principle and Authority Collide: Baha'i Responses to the Exclusion of Women from the Universal House of Justice". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions (University of California Press) 9 (4): 34–52. doi:10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034.
- Peters, Francis E.; Esposito, John L. (2006). The children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12769-9.
- "Religion: Three Religions – One God". Global Connections of the Middle East. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Kunst, J. R., & Thomsen, L. (2014). Prodigal sons: Dual Abrahamic categorization mediates the detrimental effects of religious fundamentalism on Christian-Muslim relations. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2014.93796 https://www.academia.edu/7455300/Prodigal_sons_Dual_Abrahamic_categorization_mediates_the_detrimental_effects_of_religious_fundamentalism_on_Christian-Muslim_relations
- Kunst, J., Thomsen, L., Sam, D. (2014). Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians. European Journal of Social Psychology, https://www.academia.edu/6436421/Late_Abrahamic_reunion_Religious_fundamentalism_negatively_predicts_dual_Abrahamic_group_categorization_among_Muslims_and_Christians
- Uri Rubin, Prophets and Prophethood, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
- "Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings". bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
- Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973–74. The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts. The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 541.
- Steven Fine (2011). The Temple of Jerusalem: From Moses to the Messiah: In Honor of Professor Louis H. Feldman. BRILL. pp. 302–303.
- Morgenstern, Arie; Translated by Joel A. Linsider (2006). "Epilogue: Emergence of a Jewish Majority in Jerusalem". Hastening redemption: Messianism and the resettlement of the land of Israel. US: Oxford University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-19-530578-4.
- Lapidoth, Ruth; Moshe Hirsch (1994). The Jerusalem question and its resolution: selected documents. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-7923-2893-3.
- Wilken, Robert L. "From Time Immemorial? Dwellers in the Holy Land." Christian Century, 30 July – 6 August 1986, p.678.
- Miraj (Britannica)
- "Jerusalem (Britannica)", Jerusalem(Britannica)
- Dome of the Rock
- "Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison. 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Shultz, Joseph P. "Two Views of the Patriarchs", in Nahum Norbert Glatzer, Michael A. Fishbane, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (eds.) (1975). Texts and Responses: Studies presented to Nahum N. Glatzer on the occasion of his 70th birthday by his students. Brill Publishers. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9789004039803
- Kaplan, Aryeh (1973). "The Jew". The Aryeh Kaplan Reader. Mesorah Publications. p. 161. ISBN 9780899061733
- Blasi, Turcotte, Duhaime, p. 592.
- "The Hymn of Security MacArthur, John (1996). The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: Romans. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8254-1522-5.
- "So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith." "In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring." (Rom. 9:8)
- Rom. 4:20, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
- Gal. 4:9, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
- Bickerman, p.188cf.
- Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford companion to world mythology. US: Oxford University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
- Fischer, Michael M. J.; Mehdi Abedi (1990). Debating Muslims: cultural dialogues in postmodernity and tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 163–166. ISBN 978-0-299-12434-2.
- Hawting, Gerald R. (2006). The development of Islamic ritual; Volume 26 of The formation of the classical Islamic world. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. xviii, xix, xx, xxiii. ISBN 978-0-86078-712-9.
- Pavlac, Brian A (2010). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities. Chapter 6.
- Religions » Islam » Islam at a glance, BBC, 5 August 2009.
- Basic Christian Doctrine by John H. Leith (Jan 1, 1992) ISBN 0664251927 pages 55-56
- Introducing Christian Doctrine (2nd Edition) by Millard J. Erickson (Apr 1, 2001) ISBN 0801022509 pages 87-88
- Perhaps even pre-Pauline creeds.
- Prestige G.L. Fathers and Heretics SPCK:1963, p. 29
- Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black:1965, p.280
- Mercer Dictionary of the Bible edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0865543739 page 935
- Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p 115
- Theology: The Basics by Alister E. McGrath (Sep 21, 2011) ISBN 0470656751 pages 117-120
- Irenaeus of Lyons by Eric Francis Osborn (Nov 26, 2001) ISBN 0521800064 pages 27-29
- Global Dictionary of Theology by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (Oct 10, 2008) ISBN 0830824545 pages 352-353
- Christian Doctrine by Shirley C. Guthrie (Jul 1, 1994) ISBN 0664253687 pages 111 and 100
- Hirschberger, Johannes. Historia de la Filosofía I, Barcelona: Herder 1977, p.403
- Gerhard Böwering God and his Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Quran.com, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.22
- John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.88
- "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
- Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3
- Quran 6:103
- Quran 29:46
- F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
- Baker, Mona; Saldanha, Gabriela (2008). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-415-36930-5.
- ʻUthmān ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ al-Shahrazūrī; Eerik Dickinson (2006). An Introduction to the Science of Hadith: Kitab Ma'rifat Anwa' 'ilm Al-hadith. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85964-158-3.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shiʻi Islam: the history and doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. Yale University Press. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.
- al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (1994). Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller). Amana Publications. pp. 995–1002. ISBN 0-915957-72-8.
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Baptism: "According to rabbinical teachings, which dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, next to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be fulfilled by a proselyte to Judaism (Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab. 135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d). Circumcision, however, was much more important, and, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems", 1898, p. 70). But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices had ceased, Baptism remained the sole condition for initiation into religious life. The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of hands, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews at the ordination of a rabbi. Anointing with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary condition".
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||This article's further reading may not follow Wikipedia's content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive, less relevant or many publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (September 2015)|
- Bakhos, Carol (2014). The Family of Abraham: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Interpretations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05083-9.
- Derrida, Jacques (2002). Anidjar, Gil, ed. Acts of Religion. New York & London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92401-6.
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