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Abram Kardiner (17 August 1891, New York City – 20 July 1981, Connecticut) was an American anthropologist and psychoanalyst. He is most famously known for his seminal 1941 study The Traumatic Neuroses of War, seen by many modern specialists as a key beginning work on psychological trauma. Based on work conducted at No. 81 Veterans' Bureau Hospital in the Bronx, New York City, in the 1920s and early 1930s, his study was one of the first to make explicit connections between peacetime and war trauma, and many of the symptoms he described in patients would later be utilized in the 1980 definition of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by the American Psychiatric Association.