Reservoir glass with naturally coloured verte absinthe and an absinthe spoon
|Country of origin||Switzerland|
|Alcohol by volume||45–74%|
Absinthe (/, - /; French: [apsɛ̃t]) is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage. It is an anise-flavoured spirit derived from botanicals, including the flowers and leaves of Artemisia absinthium ("grand wormwood"), together with green anise, sweet fennel, and other medicinal and culinary herbs.
Absinthe traditionally has a natural green colour but may also be colourless. It is commonly referred to in historical literature as "la fée verte" (the green fairy). Although it is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a liqueur, absinthe is not traditionally bottled with added sugar; it is therefore classified as a spirit. Absinthe is traditionally bottled at a high level of alcohol by volume, but it is normally diluted with water prior to being consumed.
Absinthe originated in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland in the late 18th century. It rose to great popularity as an alcoholic drink in late 19th- and early 20th-century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers. Owing in part to its association with bohemian culture, the consumption of absinthe was opposed by social conservatives and prohibitionists. Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, Marcel Proust, Aleister Crowley, Erik Satie, Edgar Allan Poe, Lord Byron and Alfred Jarry were all known absinthe drinkers.
Absinthe has often been portrayed as a dangerously addictive psychoactive drug and hallucinogen. The chemical compound thujone, although present in the spirit in only trace amounts, was blamed for its alleged harmful effects. By 1915, absinthe had been banned in the United States and in much of Europe, including France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and Austria-Hungary. Although absinthe was vilified, it has not been demonstrated to be any more dangerous than ordinary spirits. Recent studies have shown that absinthe's psychoactive properties (apart from that of the alcohol) have been exaggerated.
A revival of absinthe began in the 1990s, following the adoption of modern European Union food and beverage laws that removed longstanding barriers to its production and sale. By the early 21st century, nearly 200 brands of absinthe were being produced in a dozen countries, most notably in France, Switzerland, Australia, Spain, and the Czech Republic.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Production
- 4 Preparation
- 5 Styles
- 6 Storage
- 7 Health effects
- 8 Regulations
- 9 Cultural influence
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The French word absinthe can refer either to the alcoholic beverage or, less commonly, to the actual wormwood plant, with grande absinthe being Artemisia absinthium, and petite absinthe being Artemisia pontica. The Latin name artemisia comes from the Greek ἀρτεμισία "wormwood" and the latter from Artemis, the ancient Greek goddess of the hunt. Absinthe is derived from the Latin absinthium, which in turn comes from the Greek ἀψίνθιον apsínthion, "wormwood". The use of Artemisia absinthium in a drink is attested in Lucretius' De Rerum Natura (I 936–950), where Lucretius indicates that a drink containing wormwood is given as medicine to children in a cup with honey on the brim to make it drinkable. Some claim that the word means "undrinkable" in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which meant Peganum harmala, also called Syrian Rue—although it is not actually a variety of rue, another famously bitter herb. That Artemisia absinthium was commonly burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *spend, meaning "to perform a ritual" or "make an offering". Whether the word was a borrowing from Persian into Greek, or from a common ancestor of both, is unclear. Alternatively, the Greek word may originate in a pre-Greek substrate word, marked by the non-Indo-European consonant complex νθ (-nth). Alternative spellings for absinthe include absinth, absynthe and absenta. Absinth (without the final e) is a spelling variant most commonly applied to absinthes produced in central and eastern Europe, and is specifically associated with Bohemian-style absinthes.
The precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt, and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, c. 1550 BC. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. Moreover, there is evidence of the existence of a wormwood-flavoured wine, absinthites oinos, in ancient Greece.
The first clear evidence of absinthe in the modern sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel, however, dates to the 18th century. According to popular legend, absinthe began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland, around 1792 (the exact date varies by account). Ordinaire's recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold absinthe as a medicinal elixir. By other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have been making the elixir before Ordinaire's arrival. In either case, a certain Major Dubied acquired the formula from the sisters and in 1797, and with his son Marcellin and son-in-law Henry-Louis Pernod, opened the first absinthe distillery, Dubied Père et Fils, in Couvet. In 1805, they built a second distillery in Pontarlier, France, under the new company name Maison Pernod Fils. Pernod Fils remained one of the most popular brands of absinthe up until the drink was banned in France in 1914.
Rapid growth of French consumption
Absinthe's popularity grew steadily through the 1840s, when absinthe was given to French troops as a malaria preventive. When the troops returned home, they brought their taste for absinthe home with them. The custom of drinking absinthe gradually became so popular in bars, bistros, cafés, and cabarets that, by the 1860s, the hour of 5 p.m. was called l'heure verte ("the green hour"). Absinthe was favoured by all social classes, from the wealthy bourgeoisie, to poor artists and ordinary working-class people. By the 1880s, mass production had caused the price of absinthe to drop sharply. By 1910, the French were drinking 36 million litres of absinthe per year, as compared to their annual consumption of almost 5 billion litres of wine.
Absinthe was exported widely from its native France and Switzerland, and attained some degree of popularity in other countries, including Spain, Great Britain, USA, and the Czech Republic. Absinthe was never banned in Spain or Portugal, and its production and consumption have never ceased. It gained a temporary spike in popularity there during the early 20th century, corresponding with the French influenced Art Nouveau and Modernism aesthetic movements.
New Orleans has a profound cultural association with absinthe, and is credited as the birthplace of the Sazerac, perhaps the earliest absinthe cocktail. The Old Absinthe House bar, located on Bourbon Street, sold absinthe since the first half of the 19th century. Its Catalan lease-holder, Cayetano Ferrer, named it the Absinthe Room in 1874 because of the popularity of the drink, which was served in the Parisian style. The building was frequented by many famous people, including Mark Twain, Oscar Wilde, Franklin Roosevelt, Aleister Crowley and Frank Sinatra.
Absinthe has been consumed in the Czech countries (then part of Austria-Hungary) since at least 1888, notably by Czech artists, some of whom had an affinity for Paris, frequenting Prague's famous Café Slavia. Its wider appeal in Bohemia itself is uncertain, though it was sold in and around Prague. It is claimed that at least one local liquor distillery in Bohemia was producing absinthe at the turn of the 20th century.[unreliable source?]
Spurred by the temperance movement and the winemakers' associations, absinthe was publicly associated with violent crimes and social disorder.
One critic claimed:
Absinthe makes you crazy and criminal, provokes epilepsy and tuberculosis, and has killed thousands of French people. It makes a ferocious beast of man, a martyr of woman, and a degenerate of the infant, it disorganizes and ruins the family and menaces the future of the country.
Edgar Degas' 1876 painting L'Absinthe, which can be seen at the Musée d'Orsay, epitomised the popular view of absinthe addicts as sodden and benumbed. Although Émile Zola mentioned absinthe only once by name, he described its effects in his novel L'Assommoir.
In 1905, it was reported that Jean Lanfray, a Swiss farmer, murdered his family and attempted to take his own life after drinking absinthe. The fact that Lanfray was an alcoholic who had consumed considerable quantities of wine and brandy prior to drinking two glasses of absinthe was overlooked or ignored, therefore placing the blame for the murders solely on absinthe. The Lanfray murders were the tipping point in this hotly debated topic, and a subsequent petition to ban absinthe in Switzerland collected more than 82,000 signatures. A referendum was subsequently held on banning the drink on 5 July 1908. After it was approved by voters, the prohibition of absinthe was then written into the Swiss constitution.
In 1906, both Belgium and Brazil banned the sale and distribution of absinthe, although these were not the first countries to take such action. Absinthe had been banned as early as 1898 in the colony of the Congo Free State. The Netherlands banned absinthe in 1909, Switzerland in 1910, the United States in 1912, and France in 1914.
The prohibition of absinthe in France would eventually lead to the popularity of pastis, and to a lesser extent, ouzo, and other anise-flavoured spirits that do not contain wormwood. Following the conclusion of the First World War, production of the Pernod Fils brand was resumed at the Banus distillery in Catalonia, Spain (where absinthe was still legal), but gradually declining sales saw the cessation of production in the 1960s. In Switzerland, the ban served only to drive the production of absinthe underground. Clandestine home distillers produced colourless absinthe (la Bleue), which was easier to conceal from the authorities. Many countries never banned absinthe, notably Britain, where it had never been as popular as in continental Europe.
In the 1990s, realising the UK had never formally banned absinthe, British importer BBH Spirits began to import Hill's Absinth from the Czech Republic, which sparked a modern resurgence in absinthe's popularity. In countries where absinthe was never banned or truly popular, absinthe began to reappear during the revival in the 1990s.
Absinthes available during that time consisted almost exclusively of Czech, Spanish, and Portuguese brands that were of recent origin, typically consisting of Bohemian-style products. Absinthe connoisseurs considered these of inferior quality and not representative of the 19th century spirit.
In 2000, La Fée Absinthe became the first commercial absinthe distilled and bottled in France since the 1914 ban. Originally produced for export, it is now one of dozens of French absinthes that are produced and sold within France.
In the Netherlands, the restrictions on the manufacture and sale of absinthe were successfully challenged by the Amsterdam wine seller, Menno Boorsma, in July 2004, thus confirming the legality of absinthe once again. Similarly, Belgium lifted its longstanding absinthe ban on January 1, 2005, citing a conflict with the adopted food and beverage regulations of the Single European Market. In Switzerland, the constitutional ban on absinthe was repealed in 2000 during an overhaul of the national constitution, although the prohibition was simultaneously rewritten into ordinary law instead. That law was later repealed such that as of March 1, 2005, absinthe was made again legal in its country of origin. Absinthe is once again distilled and sold in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe among the first new brands to emerge.
While the drink was never officially banned in Spain, it began to fall out of favour in the 1940s, and almost vanished into obscurity. The Catalan region has seen significant resurgence since 2007, when one producer established operations there.
Absinthe has never been illegal to import or manufacture in Australia. Importation requires a permit under the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulation 1956 due to a restriction on importing any product containing "oil of wormwood". In 2000, an amendment proposed by Foods Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) as part of a new consolidation of the Food Code across Australia and New Zealand, made all wormwood species prohibited herbs for food purposes under Food Standard 1.4.4. Prohibited and Restricted Plants and Fungi. However, this amendment was found inconsistent with other parts of the preexisting Food Code. The proposed amendment was withdrawn in 2002 during the transition between the two codes, thereby continuing to allow absinthe manufacture and importation through the existing permit-based system. These events were erroneously reported by the media as Australia having reclassified it from a prohibited product to a restricted product. Since this clarification was made, what is claimed to be the first Australian-produced brand of absinthe (Moulin Rooz) was released in 2007.
In 2007, the French Lucid brand became the first genuine absinthe to receive a COLA (Certificate of Label Approval) for importation into the United States since 1912, following independent efforts by representatives from Lucid and Kübler to overturn the long-standing US ban. In December 2007, St. George Absinthe Verte, produced by St. George Spirits of Alameda, California, became the first brand of American-made absinthe produced in the United States since the ban. Since that time, other micro-distilleries have started producing small batch artisanal absinthes in the US.
In May 2011, the French Absinthe Ban of 1915 was repealed following petitions by the Fédération Française des Spiritueux, who represent French distillers.
Most countries have no legal definition for absinthe, whereas the method of production and content of spirits such as whisky, brandy, and gin are globally defined and regulated. As such, producers are at liberty to label a product as "absinthe" or "absinth" without regard to any specific legal definition or quality standards.
Producers of legitimate absinthes employ one of two historically defined processes to create the finished spirit: distillation, or cold mixing. In the sole country (Switzerland) that does possess a legal definition of absinthe, distillation is the only permitted method of production.
Distilled absinthe employs a method of production similar to that of high quality gin. Botanicals are initially macerated in distilled base alcohol before being redistilled to exclude bitter principles, and impart the desired complexity and texture to the spirit.
The distillation of absinthe first yields a colourless distillate that leaves the alembic at around 72% ABV. The distillate may be reduced and bottled clear, to produce a Blanche or la Bleue absinthe, or it may be coloured to create a verte using natural or artificial colouring.
Traditional absinthes obtain their green colour strictly from the chlorophyll of whole herbs, which is extracted from the plants during the secondary maceration. This step involves steeping plants such as petite wormwood, hyssop, and melissa (among other herbs) in the distillate. Chlorophyll from these herbs is extracted in the process, giving the drink its famous green colour.
This step also provides a herbal complexity that is typical of high quality absinthe. The natural colouring process is considered critical for absinthe ageing, since the chlorophyll remains chemically active. The chlorophyll serves a similar role in absinthe that tannins do in wine or brown liquors.[unreliable source?]
After the colouring process, the resulting product is diluted with water to the desired percentage of alcohol. The flavour of absinthe is said to improve materially with storage, and many pre-ban distilleries aged their absinthe in settling tanks before bottling.
Cold mixed absinthe
Many modern absinthes are produced using a cold mix process. This inexpensive method of production does not involve distillation, and is regarded as inferior in the same way that cheaper compound gin is regarded as inferior to distilled gin. The cold mixing process involves the simple blending of flavouring essences and artificial colouring in commercial alcohol, in similar fashion to most flavoured vodkas and inexpensive liqueurs and cordials. Some modern cold mixed absinthes have been bottled at strengths approaching 90% ABV. Others are presented simply as a bottle of plain alcohol with a small amount of powdered herbs suspended within it.
The lack of a formal legal definition for absinthe in most countries enables some cold mixing producers to falsify advertising claims, such as referring to their products as "distilled", since the base alcohol itself was created at some point through distillation. This is used as justification to sell these inexpensively produced absinthes at prices comparable to more authentic absinthes that are distilled directly from whole herbs. In the only country that possesses a formal legal definition of absinthe (Switzerland), anything made via the cold mixed process cannot be sold as absinthe.
Absinthe is traditionally prepared from a distillation of neutral alcohol, various herbs, spices and water. Traditional absinthes were redistilled from a white grape spirit (or eau de vie), while lesser absinthes were more commonly made from alcohol from grain, beets, or potatoes. The principal botanicals are grande wormwood, green anise, and florence fennel, which are often called "the holy trinity." Many other herbs may be used as well, such as petite wormwood (Artemisia pontica or Roman wormwood), hyssop, melissa, star anise, angelica, peppermint, coriander, and veronica.
Adding to absinthe's negative reputation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, unscrupulous makers of the drink omitted the traditional colouring phase of production in favour of adding toxic copper salts to artificially induce a green tint. This practice may be responsible for some of the alleged toxicity historically associated with this beverage. Many modern day producers resort to similar (but non-deadly) shortcuts, including the use of artificial food colouring to create the green colour. Additionally, at least some cheap absinthes produced before the ban were reportedly adulterated with poisonous antimony trichloride, reputed to enhance the louching effect.
Absinthe may also be naturally coloured pink or red using rose or hibiscus flowers. This was referred to as a rose (pink) or rouge (red) absinthe. Only one historical brand of rose absinthe has been documented.
Absinthe was historically bottled at 45-74% percent ABV. Some modern Franco–Suisse absinthes are bottled at up to 82.3% ABV, while some modern cold-mixed, bohemian-style absinthes are bottled at up to 89.9% ABV.
The modern day interest in absinthe has spawned a rash of absinthe kits from companies that claim they produce homemade absinthe. Kits often call for soaking herbs in vodka or alcohol, or adding a liquid concentrate to vodka or alcohol to create an ersatz absinthe. Such practices usually yield a harsh substance that bears little resemblance to the genuine article, and are considered inauthentic by any practical standard. Some concoctions may even be dangerous, especially if they call for supplementation with potentially poisonous herbs, oils and/or extracts. In at least one documented case, a person suffered acute kidney injury after drinking 10 ml of pure wormwood oil—a dose much higher than that found in absinthe.
In baking, Pernod Anise is often used as a substitute if absinthe is unavailable. In preparing the classic New Orleans-style Sazerac cocktail, various substitutes such as Pastis, Pernod, Ricard, and Herbsaint have been used to replace absinthe.
The traditional French preparation involves placing a sugar cube on top of a specially designed slotted spoon, and placing the spoon on a glass filled with a measure of absinthe. Iced water is poured or dripped over the sugar cube to mix the water into the absinthe. The final preparation contains 1 part absinthe and 3-5 parts water. As water dilutes the spirit, those components with poor water solubility (mainly those from anise, fennel, and star anise) come out of solution and cloud the drink. The resulting milky opalescence is called the louche (Fr. opaque or shady, IPA [luʃ]). The release of these dissolved essences coincides with a perfuming of herbal aromas and flavours that "blossom" or "bloom," and brings out subtleties that are otherwise muted within the neat spirit. This reflects what is perhaps the oldest and purest method of preparation, and is often referred to as the French Method.
The Bohemian Method is a recent invention that involves fire, and was not performed during absinthe's peak of popularity in the Belle Époque. Like the French method, a sugar cube is placed on a slotted spoon over a glass containing one shot of absinthe. The sugar is pre-soaked in alcohol (usually more absinthe), then set ablaze. The flaming sugar cube is then dropped into the glass, thus igniting the absinthe. Finally, a shot glass of water is added to douse the flames. This method tends to produce a stronger drink than the French method. A variant of the Bohemian Method involves allowing the fire to extinguish on its own. This variant is sometimes referred to as "Cooking the Absinthe" or "The Flaming Green Fairy." The origin of this burning ritual may borrow from a coffee and brandy drink that was served at Café Brûlot, in which a sugar cube soaked in brandy was set aflame. Most experienced absintheurs do not recommend the Bohemian Method and consider it a modern gimmick, as it can destroy the absinthe flavour and present a fire hazard due to the unusually high alcohol content present in absinthe.
In 19th century Parisian cafés, upon receiving an order for an absinthe, a waiter would present the patron with a dose of absinthe in a suitable glass, sugar, absinthe spoon, and a carafe of iced water. It was up to the patron to prepare the drink, as the inclusion or omission of sugar was strictly an individual preference, as was the amount of water used. As the popularity of the drink increased, additional accoutrements of preparation appeared, including the absinthe fountain, which was effectively a large jar of iced water with spigots, mounted on a lamp base. This let drinkers prepare a number of drinks at once—and with a hands-free drip, patrons could socialise while louching a glass.
Although many bars served absinthe in standard glassware, a number of glasses were specifically designed for the French absinthe preparation ritual. Absinthe glasses were typically fashioned with a dose line, bulge, or bubble in the lower portion denoting how much absinthe should be poured. One "dose" of absinthe ranged anywhere from around 2-2.5 fluid ounces (60-75 ml).
In addition to being prepared with sugar and water, absinthe emerged as a popular cocktail ingredient in both the United Kingdom and the United States. By 1930, dozens of fancy cocktails that called for absinthe had been published in numerous credible bartender guides. One of the most famous of these libations is Ernest Hemingway's "Death in the Afternoon" cocktail, a tongue-in-cheek concoction that contributed to a 1935 collection of celebrity recipes. The directions are as follows: "Pour one jigger absinthe into a Champagne glass. Add iced Champagne until it attains the proper opalescent milkiness. Drink three to five of these slowly."
Most categorical alcoholic beverages have regulations governing their classification and labelling, while those governing absinthe have always been conspicuously lacking. According to popular treatises from the 19th century, absinthe could be loosely categorised into several grades (ordinaire, demi-fine, fine, and Suisse—the latter does not denote origin), in order of increasing alcoholic strength and quality. Many contemporary absinthe critics simply classify absinthe as distilled or mixed, according to its production method. And while the former is generally considered far superior in quality to the latter, an absinthe's simple claim of being 'distilled' makes no guarantee as to the quality of its base ingredients or the skill of its maker.
- Blanche, or la Bleue: Blanche absinthe (also referred to as la Bleue in Switzerland) is bottled directly following distillation and reduction, and is uncoloured (clear). The name la Bleue was originally a term used for bootleg Swiss absinthe, but has become a popular term for post-ban-style Swiss absinthe in general.
- Verte ("green" in French) absinthe begins as a blanche. The blanche is altered by the colouring step, by which a separate mixture of herbs is steeped into the clear distillate. This confers a peridot green hue and an intense flavour. Vertes represent the prevailing type of absinthe that was found in the 19th century. Artificially coloured green absinthes may also claimed to be verte, though they lack the characteristic herbal flavours that result from the colouring process.
- Absenta ("absinthe" in Spanish) is sometimes associated with a regional style that often differed slightly from its French cousin. Traditional absentas may taste slightly different due to their use of Alicante anise,[unreliable source?] and often exhibit a characteristic citrus flavour.[unreliable source?]
- Hausgemacht (German for home-made, often abbreviated as HG) refers to clandestine absinthe (not be confused with the Swiss La Clandestine brand) that is home-distilled by hobbyists. It should not be confused with absinthe kits. Hausgemacht absinthe is produced in tiny quantities for personal use and not for the commercial market. Clandestine production increased after absinthe was banned, when small producers went underground, most notably in Switzerland. Although the ban has been lifted in Switzerland, some clandestine distillers have not legitimised their production. Authorities believe that high taxes on alcohol and the mystique of being underground are likely reasons.
- Bohemian-style absinth is also referred to as Czech-style absinthe, anise-free absinthe, or just "absinth" (without the "e"), and is best described as a wormwood bitters. It is produced mainly in the Czech Republic, from which it gets its designation as Bohemian or Czech, although not all absinthes from the Czech Republic are Bohemian-style. Bohemian-style absinth typically contains little or none of the anise, fennel, and other herbal flavours associated with traditional absinthe, and thus bears very little resemblance to the absinthes made popular in the 19th century. Typical Bohemian-style absinth has only two similarities with its authentic, traditional counterpart: it contains wormwood and has a high alcohol content. The Czechs are credited with inventing the fire ritual in the 1990s, possibly because Czech absinth does not louche, which renders the traditional French preparation method useless. As such, this type of absinthe and the fire ritual associated with it are entirely modern fabrications, and have little to no relationship with the historical absinthe tradition.
Absinthe that is artificially coloured or clear is aesthetically stable, and can be bottled in clear glass. If naturally coloured absinthe is exposed to light or air for a prolonged period, the chlorophyll gradually becomes oxidised, which has the effect of gradually changing the colour from green to yellow green, and eventually to brown. The colour of absinthe that has completed this transition was historically referred to as feuille morte (dead leaf). In the preban era, this natural phenomenon was favourably viewed, for it confirmed the product in question was coloured naturally, and not artificially with potentially toxic chemicals. Predictably, vintage absinthes often emerge from sealed bottles as distinctly amber in tint due to decades of slow oxidation. Though this colour change presents no adverse impact to the flavour of absinthe, it is generally desired to preserve the original colour, which requires that naturally coloured absinthe be bottled in dark, light resistant bottles. Absinthe intended for decades of storage should be kept in a cool (room temperature), dry place, away from light and heat. Absinthe should not be stored in the refrigerator or freezer, as the anethole may polymerise inside the bottle, creating an irreversible precipitate, and adversely impacting the original flavour.
Absinthe has been frequently and improperly described in modern times as being hallucinogenic. No peer-reviewed scientific study has demonstrated absinthe to possess hallucinogenic properties. The belief that absinthe induces hallucinogenic effects is at least partly rooted in the fact that following some ten years of experiments with wormwood oil in the 19th century, the French psychiatrist Valentin Magnan studied 250 cases of alcoholism, and claimed that those who drank absinthe were worse off than those drinking ordinary alcohol, having experienced rapid-onset hallucinations. Such accounts by opponents of absinthe (like Magnan) were cheerfully embraced by famous absinthe drinkers, many of whom were bohemian artists or writers.
Two famous artists who helped popularise the notion that absinthe had powerful psychoactive properties were Toulouse-Lautrec and Vincent van Gogh. In one of the best-known written accounts of absinthe drinking, an inebriated Oscar Wilde described a phantom sensation of having tulips brush against his legs after leaving a bar at closing time.
Notions of absinthe's alleged hallucinogenic properties were again fuelled in the 1970s, when a scientific paper suggested that thujone's structural similarity to THC, the active chemical in cannabis, presented the possibility of THC receptor affinity. This theory was conclusively disproven in 1999.
The debate over whether absinthe produces effects on the human mind in addition to those of alcohol has not been conclusively resolved. The effects of absinthe have been described by some as mind opening. The most commonly reported experience is a "clear-headed" feeling of inebriation—a form of "lucid drunkenness". Chemist, historian and absinthe distiller Ted Breaux has claimed that the alleged secondary effects of absinthe may be caused by the fact that some of the herbal compounds in the drink act as stimulants, while others act as sedatives, creating an overall lucid effect of awakening. The long-term effects of moderate absinthe consumption in humans remain unknown, although herbs traditionally used in the production of absinthe are reported to have both painkilling and antiparasitic properties.
Today it is known that absinthe does not cause hallucinations. It is widely accepted that reports of hallucinogenic effects of absinthe were attributable to the poisonous adulterants being added to cheaper versions of the drink in the 19th century, such as oil of wormwood, impure alcohol, and poisonous colouring matter (e.g. copper salts).
It was once widely promoted that excessive absinthe drinking caused effects that were discernible from those associated with alcoholism, a belief that led to the coining of the term absinthism. One of the first vilifications of absinthe followed an 1864 experiment in which Magnan simultaneously exposed one guinea pig to large doses of pure wormwood vapour, and another to alcohol vapours. The guinea pig exposed to wormwood vapour experienced convulsive seizures, while the animal exposed to alcohol did not. Magnan would later blame the naturally occurring (in wormwood) chemical thujone for these effects.
Thujone, once widely believed to be an active chemical in absinthe, is a GABA antagonist; and while it can produce muscle spasms in large doses, there is no direct evidence to suggest it causes hallucinations. Past reports estimated thujone concentrations in absinthe as being up to 260 mg/kg. More recently, published scientific analyses of samples of various original absinthes have disproved previous estimates, and demonstrated that only a trace of the thujone present in wormwood actually makes it into a properly distilled absinthe when historical methods and materials are employed to create the spirit. As such, most traditionally crafted absinthes, both vintage and modern, fall within the current EU standards.
Tests conducted on mice to study toxicity showed an oral LD50 of about 45 mg thujone per kg of body weight, which represents far more absinthe than could be realistically consumed. The high percentage of alcohol in absinthe would result in mortality long before thujone could become a factor. In documented cases of acute thujone poisoning as a result of oral ingestion, the source of thujone was not commercial absinthe, but rather non-absinthe-related sources, such as common essential oils (which may contain as much as 50% thujone).
One study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol  concluded that high doses (0.28 mg/kg) of thujone in alcohol had negative effects on attention performance in a clinical setting. It delayed reaction time, and caused subjects to concentrate their attention into the central field of vision. Low doses (0.028 mg/kg) did not produce an effect noticeably different from the plain alcohol control. While the effects of the high dose samples were statistically significant in a double blind test, the test subjects themselves were unable to reliably identify which samples contained thujone. For the average 65 kg (143 lb) man, the high dose samples in the study would equate to 18.2 mg of thujone. The EU limit of 35 mg/L of thujone in absinthe means that given the highest permitted thujone content, that individual would need to consume approximately 0.5 litres of high proof (e.g. 50%+ ABV) spirit before the thujone could be metabolized in order to display effects detectable in a clinical setting, which would result in a potentially lethal BAC of >0.4%.
Most countries (except Switzerland) at present do not possess a legal definition of absinthe (unlike Scotch whisky or cognac). Accordingly, producers are free to label a product "absinthe" or "absinth", whether or not it bears any resemblance to the traditional spirit.
Absinthe is readily available in many bottle shops. Bitters may contain a maximum 35 mg/kg thujone, while other alcoholic beverages can contain a maximum 10 mg/kg. The domestic production and sale of absinthe is regulated by state licensing laws.
Until July 13, 2013, the import and sale of absinthe technically required a special permit, since "oil of wormwood, being an essential oil obtained from plants of the genus Artemisia, and preparations containing oil of wormwood" were listed as item 12A, Schedule 8, Regulation 5H of the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956 (Cth). These controls have now been repealed, and permission is no longer required.
Absinthe was prohibited in Brazil until 1999 and was brought by entrepreneur Lalo Zanini and legalised in the same year. Presently, absinthe sold in Brazil must abide by the national law that restricts all spirits to a maximum of 54.0% ABV. While this regulation is enforced throughout channels of legal distribution, it may be possible to find absinthe containing alcohol in excess of the legal limit in some restaurants or food fairs.
In Canada, liquor laws concerning the production, distribution, and sale of spirits are written and enforced by individual provincial government monopolies. Each product is subject to the approval of a respective individual provincial liquor board before it can be sold in that province. Importation is a federal matter, and is enforced by the Canada Border Services Agency. The importation of a nominal amount of liquor by individuals for personal use is permitted, provided that conditions for the individual's duration of stay outside the country are satisfied.
- British Columbia, New Brunswick: no established limits on thujone content
- Alberta, Ontario: 10 mg/kg
- Manitoba: 6–8 mg
- Quebec: 15 mg/kg
- Newfoundland and Labrador: absinthe sold in provincial liquor store outlets
- Nova Scotia: absinthe sold in provincial liquor store outlets
- Prince Edward Island: absinthe is not sold in provincial liquor store outlets, but one brand (Deep Roots) produced on the island can be procured locally.
- Saskatchewan: Only one brand listed in privincial liquor stores, although an individual is permitted to import one case (usually twelve 750 ml bottles or eight one-litre bottles) of any liquor.
In 2007, Canada's first genuine absinthe (Taboo Absinthe) was created by Okanagan Spirits Craft Distillery in British Columbia.
The European Union permits a maximum thujone level of 35 mg/kg in alcoholic beverages where Artemisia species is a listed ingredient, and 10 mg/kg in other alcoholic beverages. Member countries regulate absinthe production within this framework. The sale of absinthe is permitted in all EU countries unless they further regulate it.
The sale and production of absinthe was prohibited in Finland from 1919 to 1932; no current prohibitions exist. The government-owned chain of liquor stores (Alko) is the only outlet that may sell alcoholic beverages containing over 5.5% ABV, although national law bans the sale of alcoholic beverages containing over 60% ABV.
Despite adopting sweeping EU food and beverage regulations in 1988 that effectively re-legalised absinthe, a decree was passed that same year that preserved the prohibition on products explicitly labelled as "absinthe", while placing strict limits on fenchone (fennel) and pinocamphone (hyssop) in an obvious, but failed, attempt to thwart a possible return of absinthe-like products. French producers circumvented this regulatory obstacle by labelling absinthe as spiritueux à base de plantes d'absinthe ('wormwood-based spirits'), with many either reducing or omitting fennel and hyssop altogether from their products. A legal challenge to the scientific basis of this decree resulted in its repeal (2009), which opened the door for the official French re-legalisation of absinthe for the first time since 1915. The French Senate voted to repeal the prohibition in mid-April 2011.
It is legal to produce and sell absinthe in the Republic of Georgia, which has claimed to possess several producers of absinthe.
A ban on absinthe was enacted in Germany on 27 March 1923. In addition to banning the production of and commercial trade in absinthe, the law went so far as to prohibit the distribution of printed matter that provided details of its production. The original ban was lifted in 1981, but the use of Artemisia absinthium as a flavouring agent remained prohibited. On 27 September 1991, Germany adopted the European Union's standards of 1988, which effectively re-legalised absinthe. Unlike Switzerland and France, there are no further restrictions.
The Fascist regime in 1926 banned the production, import, transport and sale of any liquor named "Assenzio". The ban was reinforced in 1931 with harsher penalties for transgressors, and remained in force until 1992 when the Italian government amended its laws to comply with the EU directive 88/388/EEC.
Although absinthe is not prohibited at national level, some local authorities have banned it. The latest is Mataura in Southland. The ban came in August 2008 after several issues of misuse drew public and police attention. One incident resulted in breathing difficulties and hospitalisation of a 17-year-old for alcohol poisoning. The particular brand of absinthe that caused these effects was bottled at an unusually high 89.9% ABV.
Sweden and Norway
The sale and production of absinthe has never been prohibited in Sweden or Norway. However, the only outlet that may sell alcoholic beverages containing more than 3.5% ABV in Sweden and 4.75% ABV in Norway, is the government-owned chain of liquor stores known as Systembolaget in Sweden and Vinmonopolet in Norway. Systembolaget and Vinmonopolet did not import or sell absinthe for many years after the ban in France; however, today several absinthes are available for purchase in Systembolaget stores, including Swedish made distilled absinthe. In Norway, on the other hand, one is less likely to find many absinthes since Norwegian alcohol law prohibits the sale and importation of alcoholic beverages above 60% abv, which eliminates most absinthes.
In Switzerland, the sale and production of absinthe was prohibited from 1910 to March 1, 2005. This was based on a vote in 1908. To be legally made or sold in Switzerland, absinthe must be distilled, must not contain certain additives, and must be either naturally coloured or left uncoloured.
In 2014, the Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland invalidated a governmental decision of 2010 which allowed only absinthe made in the Val-de-Travers region to be labeled as absinthe in Switzerland. The court found that absinthe was a label for a product and was not tied to a geographic origin.
In 2007, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) effectively lifted the long-standing absinthe ban, and it has since approved many brands for sale in the US market. This was made possible partly through the TTB's clarification of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) thujone content regulations, which specify that finished food and beverages that contain Artemisia species must be thujone-free. In this context, the TTB considers a product thujone-free if the thujone content is less than 10 ppm (equal to 10 mg/kg). This is verified through the use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The brands Kubler and Lucid and their lawyers did most of the work to get absinthe legalized in the U.S., over the 2004-2007 time period.In the U.S., March 5 sometimes is referred to as "National Absinthe Day" as it was the day the 95 year ban on absinthe was finally lifted.
The import, distribution, and sale of absinthe is permitted subject to the following restrictions:
- The product must be thujone-free as per TTB guidelines,
- The word "absinthe" can neither be the brand name nor stand alone on the label, and
- The packaging cannot "project images of hallucinogenic, psychotropic, or mind-altering effects."
Beginning in 2000, a product called Absente was sold legally in the United States under the marketing tagline "Absinthe Refined," but as the product contained sugar, and was made with southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and not grande wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) (prior to 2009), the TTB classified it as a liqueur.
The Absinthe (Prohibition) Act 1915, passed in the New Hebrides, has never been repealed, is included in the 2006 Vanuatu consolidated legislation, and contains the following all-encompassing restriction: "The manufacture, importation, circulation and sale wholesale or by retail of absinthe or similar liquors in Vanuatu shall be prohibited."
Numerous artists and writers living in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were noted absinthe drinkers, and featured absinthe in their work. Some of these included Édouard Manet, Guy de Maupassant, Amedeo Modigliani, Arthur Rimbaud, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Verlaine, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, and Émile Zola. Many other renowned artists and writers similarly drew from this cultural well, including Aleister Crowley, Ernest Hemingway, Pablo Picasso, and August Strindberg.
The aura of illicitness and mystery surrounding absinthe has played into literature, movies, music, and television, where it is often portrayed as a mysterious, addictive, and mind-altering drink. Absinthe has served as the subject of numerous works of fine art, films, video, music, and literature since the mid-19th-century. Some of the earliest film references include The Hasher's Delirium (1910) by Émile Cohl, an early pioneer in the art of animation, as well as two different silent films, each entitled Absinthe, from 1913 and 1914 respectively.
- Purl – an infusion of wormwood in ale
- Vermouth – based upon a German wormwood wine
- Piołunówka - Polish wormwood spirit
- Pelinkovac - a Slavic wormwood spirit
- Pelin wine - a traditional Romanian wine
- "Traite de la Fabrication de Liqueurs et de la Distillation des Alcools", P. Duplais (1882 3rd Ed, pp 375–381)
- "Nouveau Traité de la Fabrication des Liqueurs", J. Fritsch (1926, pp 385–401)
- "La Fabrication des Liqueurs", J. De Brevans (1908, pp 251–262)
- "Nouveau Manuel Complet du Distillateur Liquoriste", Lebead, de Fontenelle, & Malepeyre (1888, pp 221–224)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Absinthe". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 75.
- 'Traite de la Fabrication de Liqueurs et de la Distillation des Alcools' Duplais (1882 3rd Ed, Pg 249)
- "The Appeal of 'The Green Fairy'"., Sarasota Herald-Tribune, September 18, 2008
- Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U (2006). "Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact". Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 1: 14. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-1-14.
- ἀρτεμισία. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- ἀψίνθιον in Liddell and Scott.
- Lucretius. "Titi lvcreti cari de rervm natvra liber qvartvs". Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Absinthe etymology". Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Absinth: Short explanation of the adoption of the absinth spelling by Bohemian producers". La Fee Verte Absinthe. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott (1940). "ἀψινθίτης". A Greek–English Lexicon. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- Absinthe FAQ III Archived 2014-08-21 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved Aug. 20, 2014.
- Lemons, Stephen (2005-04-07). "Behind the green door". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "High Price of Wines due to Short Crops". New York Times. 1911-11-05. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
"1910, was no less than 1,089 millions of gallons." ... "162 bottles per head" (gallons assumed to be Imperial, despite the American source, because 162 times population at 1901 census of 40,681,415 times a 75cl bottle equals 1087 million Imperial gallons, or 4942 million litres. Wine consumption dropped markedly in 1911 to about 111 bottles per person due to a 30% drop in the 1910 vintage yield)
- Verte, Peter. "The Fine Spirits Corner". Absinthe Buyers Guide. Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- "The Virtual Absinthe Museum: Absinthe in America—New Orleans". Oxygenee Ltd. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "History - Old Absinthe House". Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- [unreliable source?]"History of Absinth(e)". Oliva Absinth's History of Absinthe. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- Barnaby, Conrad III (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle Books. p. 116. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8.
- Page 411 of the 1970 Penguin Classics English edition.
- Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 1–4
- Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1906 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
- Carvajal, Doreen (2004-11-27). "Fans of absinthe party like it's 1899". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- United States Brewers' Association. The 1916 Year Book of the United States Brewers' Association. Published 1916. Page 82 (Google Books link). Accessed Nov-23-2009.
- The Absinthe Buyer's Guide—La Fée Verte
- "Absinthe S.A. Pernod Tarragona". Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-02-24
- Verte, Peter. "The Fine Spirits Corner". Absinthe Buyer's Guide. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "Modern Revival of Absinthe". Absinthe.se. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Absinthe History and FAQ VI". Thujone.info. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Unmasking the green fairy". Praguepost.com. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "The search for real absinthe: like Tinkerbell, the Green Fairy lives only if we believe in her". Reason.org. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Strong stuff". London: Telegraph. 2001-07-27. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- Anna Pursglove (4 August 2000). "What's your poison?". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Cellar Trends". Cellar Trends. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- The Dedalus Book of Absinthe, Baker, Phil (2001, p.165, ISBN 1873982941)
- "Absinthe Tale", Difford, Simmon, Class Magazine (May/June 2009, pp. 88-93).
- "Absinthe Laws". Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Schedule 8 Commonwealth of Australia Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956, Schedule 8. Retrieved 29 December 2006.
- "Australian Food Standards PDF" (PDF). Australia New Zealand Food Authority. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "STANDARD 1.4.4 - PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED PLANTS AND FUNGI" (PDF). Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Just add water Sydney Morning Herald 22 October 2003. Retrieved 12 May 2006
- "TTB Online—COLAs Online—Application Detail". Retrieved 2009-02-24.
Brand Name: LUCID ... Approval Date: 03/05/2007
- "TTB Online—COLAs Online—Application Detail". Retrieved 2009-02-24.
Brand Name: KUBLER ... Approval Date: 05/17/2007
- Cindy Skrzycki (16 October 2007). "A Notorious Spirit Finds Its Way Back to Bars" (PDF). Washington Post. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
- Stacy Finz, "Alameda distiller helps make absinthe legitimate again", San Francisco Chronicle, 5 December 2007
- Pete Wells, "A Liquor of Legend Makes a Comeback", New York Times, 5 December 2007
- Contact Brent Rose (2012-06-08). "Absinthe Pops: The Frozen Treat That Will Melt Your Face". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- "Ice lolly made from holy water and absinthe goes on sale - Weird News". Digital Spy. 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- Ross, Ellie (2012-05-30). "Vice lolly | The Sun |News". London: The Sun. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- Campion, Vikki (2012-06-08). "Sydney's small bar revolution is teaching people a new way to drink | thetelegraph.com.au". DailyTelegraph.com.au. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- "Official FFS Press Release confirming the repeal of the 1915 French Absinthe Ban: Article 175; point 20" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24.
- "Aide-Mémoire: production d'absinthe" (PDF).
- [unreliable source?]Kallisti. "Historical Recipes". Feeverte.net. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
- "La Maison Pernod Fils a Pontarlier", E. Dentu (1896, p 10)
- Chu, Louisa (2008-03-12). "Crazy for absinthe". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14.
- Duplais, MM. "A TREATISE on the MANUFACTURE AND DISTILLATION of ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS" (PDF). Distiller's Manual. The Wormwood Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- "Class Mag May/June 2009 La Fee - Buy alcoholic liquor online". Lafeeabsinthe.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Absinthe - the Green (or pink or red) Fairy". Distillique. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- "Rosinette Absinthe Rose Oxygénée". Musée Virtuel de l'Absinthe. Oxygenee (France) Ltd. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Absinth-Guide.de". Archived from the original on May 9, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "About absinthe kits". wormwoodsociety. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Evolution in Action! Gumbo Pages. Dangers of drinking wormwood extract. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
- Laura Halpin Rinsky; Glenn Rinsky (2009). The Pastry Chef's Companion: A Comprehensive Resource Guide for the Baking and Pastry Professional. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. ISBN 0-470-00955-1. OCLC 173182689.
- Simon, Kate (2010). Absinthe Cocktails: 50 Ways to Mix with the Green Fairy. Chronicle Books. p. 33. ISBN 1-4521-0030-6.
- "How to buy and drink good quality absinthe". Wormwoodsociety.org. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
- "Professors of Absinthe Historic account of preparation at a bar". Oxygenee Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- Dorelli, Peter (1999). Savoy Cocktail Book. Anova Books. ISBN 1-86205-296-4.[page needed]
- McGee, Harold (2008-01-03). "Trying to Clear Absinthe's Reputation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- Shenton, Will (2016-02-24). "Everything You Need to Know About Absinthe". Bevvy. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- [unreliable source?]Verte, Peter. "Fine Spirits Corner". absinthe buyers guide. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- [unreliable source?]"The Absinthe Buyer's Guide: Modern & Vintage Absinthe Reference: Spain Archives". La Fee Verte. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Absinthe bootleggers refuse to go straight". Swiss info. 2006-03-11. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Worthy of their name". The Prague Post. 2006-04-26. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-05-20.
- Rosen, Jennifer (2007-09-07). "Absinthe Without Leave". Feature Article. Novus Vinum. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
- The Lancet 1874, ON THE COMPARATIVE ACTION OF ALCOHOL AND ABSINTHE Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. By Dr. Magnan Retrieved 29 November 2006
- Salleh, Anna. Absinthe's Mystique Cops a Blow, ABC Science, May 1, 2008.
- Baker, Phil; (2001). The Book of Absinthe: A Cultural History". Grove Press books. ISBN 0-8021-3993-0 Pg. 32
- Castillo, J. Del; Anderson, M.; Rubottom, G.M. (1975). "Letters to Nature: Marijuana, absinthe and the central nervous system". Nature. 253 (5490): 365–366. doi:10.1038/253365a0.
- Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe History in a Bottle. Chronicle books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 152
- Meschler JP, Howlett AC (March 1999). "Thujone exhibits low affinity for cannabinoid receptors but fails to evoke cannabimimetic responses". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 62 (3): 473–80. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(98)00195-6. PMID 10080239.
- The Appeal of 'The Green Fairy', Sarasota Herald-Tribune, September 18, 2008. Citing Absinthe: History in a Bottle, Biomed Central, The Book of Absinthe, and Thujone.info
- "The Mystery of the Green Menace—Wired Magazine (see page 3 of article)". Wired-vig.wired.com. 2009-01-04. Archived from the original on 2010-08-23. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
- K.C. Rice and R.S. Wilson, 1976 J. Med. Chem. 19: 1054–1057. Cited by Patočka, Jiří; Plucar, Bohumil (2003). "Pharmacology and toxicology of absinthe" (PDF). Journal of Applied Biomedicine. 1: 199–205. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-05.
- A study of plants in central Italy reported some veterinary use of wormwood as an anthelmintic for cows. Guarrera, P.M. (1999). "Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in central Italy". J Ethnopharmacol. 68 (1–3): 183–192. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(99)00089-6.
- Ian Hutton: Myth, Reality and Absinthe, Current Drug Discovery, 2002, 9, page 63 "Common adulterants were cupric acetate (to provide the valued green color)"
- [The Effects of Absinthe; Emma S. Walker, M.D., Medical Record 1906] "...the alcohol employed in this liquor is frequently very impure...the bitter principle of absinthium, absinthin (from oil of wormwood), is a narcotic poison...not infrequently copper salts have been used in order to produce the green color."
- [The Mixicologist; C.F. Lawler, 1895] "The distillers of Bensaçon, Pontarlier, and Couvet hit on the idea of distilling the Absinthe herb (wormwood), adding annis [sic], fennel, and coriander seeds, etc., ad lib., these making an agreeable beverage. Absinthe so made soon had considerable success, which had the usual effect of bringing out the injurious trash made from oils, essences, etc. "
- Conrad III, Barnaby; (1988). Absinthe: History in a Bottle. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-1650-8 Pg. 101
- Ian Hutton, page 62, "quoted by Arnold"..."Arnold WN (1989) Absinthe: Scientific American 260(6):112–117"
- Ian Hutton, pages 62–63
- Joachim Emmert; Günter Sartor; Frank Sporer; Joachim Gummersbach (2004). "Determination of α-/β-Thujone and Related Terpenes in Absinthe using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography" (PDF). Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau. Germany: Gabriele Lauser, Ingrid Steiner. 9 (100): 352–356. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
Tab. 1 Concentrations of thujone and anethole in different absinthe samples
- Determination of a/β Thujone and Related Terpenes in Absinthe using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
- Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Nathan-Maister, David; Breaux, Theodore A.; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Schoeberl, Kerstin; Kuballa, Thomas (2008). "Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (9): 3073–3081. doi:10.1021/jf703568f. PMID 18419128.
- Hold, K. M. (2000). "alpha -Thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma -Aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (8): 3826–3831. doi:10.1073/pnas.070042397. PMC . PMID 10725394.
- Weisbord, S. D.; Soule, J. B.; Kimmel, P. L. (1997). "Poison on Line – Acute Renal Failure Caused by Oil of Wormwood Purchased through the Internet". N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 825–827. doi:10.1056/nejm199709183371205.
- Essential oils from Dalmatian Sage. J. Agric. Food Chem 29 April 1999. Retrieved 12 May 2006.
- Absinthe: Attention Performance and Mood under the Influence of Thujone Journal of Studies on Alcohol, DETTLING, A. et al. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Calculate Your Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)". clevelandclinic.org. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- Schedule 19 - Maximum levels of contaminants and natural toxicants Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Prohibited / Restricted Goods - Frequently asked questions". Australian Customs and Border Protection Service. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Absinthe now available at P.E.I. distillery for adventurous drinkers". CBC News. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- McDowell, Adam. "Happy Hour's Guide to Absinthe: What can I buy in Canada?". National Post. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 of the European Parliament and Council of 16 December 2008, European Commission.
- Décret n°88–1024 du 2 novembre 1988. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
- Aggelos (2010-11-05). "French decree on fenchone and pinocamphone repealed". Gazetteabsinthe.com. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- "Absinthe in France: Legalising the 'green fairy'". BBC News. 2011-05-04.
- "European Union PDF document" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18. see thujon in table on page 11.
- Gerken, Sonia (2008-08-30). "Liquor ban after teen's near death". The Southland Times. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "Absint—"Den gröna feen"" (in Swedish). Systembolaget. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "Ordonnance du DFI sur les boissons alcooliques : Art. 80 Absinth". Confédération Suisse. 2008-04-01. Archived from the original on 2009-02-23. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "Download from Confédération Suisse Website: see pages 3–4" (PDF). Confédération Suisse. 2005-02-07. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- Bosley, Catherine (13 August 2014). "Absinthe Loses Battle for Swiss Brand Protection Like Emmentaler". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter I, Part 172, Section 172.510—Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption". US Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Alcohol Tax and Trade Bureau Industry Circular Number 2007-5". Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Rediscovering Absinthe: Removing The Green Fairy From The Banned List". Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "Alcohol Tax and Trade Bureau "Screening of Distilled Spirits for Thujone by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry". Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "The Virtual Absinthe Museum: US Legalization in 2007 after 95 years of prohibition". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- V. Navarro "It's National Absinthe Day!" "LA Speakeasy", March 5, 2018
- "Know Before You Go" (PDF). U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- "Prohibited and Restricted Items". US Customs and Border Protection. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "TTB Online". Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Absente FAQ". Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Absinthe (Prohibition) Act 4, Laws of the Republic of Vanuatu Revised Edition". 1988. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- ""The Hasher's Delirium" (1910) - film". Archive.org. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- ""Absinthe" (1913) - A silent film". Progressive Silent Film List. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- ""Absinthe" (1914) - A silent film". Progressive Silent Film List. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- Adams, Jad (2004) Hideous absinthe : a history of the devil in a bottle, London : I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1860649203
- Arnold, Wilfred Niels (June 1989). "Absinthe". Scientific American. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Blumer, D. (2002). "The Illness of Vincent van Gogh". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (4): 519–526. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.519. PMID 11925286.
- Conrad, Barnaby (1996). Absinthe: History in a Bottle. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-1650-2.
- Crowley, Aleister (1918). "Absinthe: The Green Goddess" (PDF). “The International”. XII (2).
- Eadie, MJ (2009). "Absinthe, epileptic seizures and Valentin Magnan". The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 39 (1): 73–8. PMID 19831287.
- Guthrie, R. Winston (2010). A Taste for Absinthe. New York: Clarkson Potter. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-3075-8753-4.
- Huisman, M.; Brug, J.; MacKenbach, J. (2007). "Absinthe is its history relevant for current public health?". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (4): 738–744. doi:10.1093/ije/dym068. PMID 17982755.
- Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Nathan-Maister, David; Breaux, Theodore A.; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Schoeberl, Kerstin; Kuballa, Thomas (2008). "Chemical Composition of Vintage Preban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (9): 3073–3081. doi:10.1021/jf703568f. PMID 18419128.
- Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Walch, Stephan G.; Padosch, Stephan A.; Kröner, Lars U. (2006). "Absinthe - A Review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46 (5): 365–377. doi:10.1080/10408690590957322. PMID 16891209.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Absinthe.|
|Look up absinthe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Absinthe's second coming—An April 2001 article in Cigar Aficionado about the first absinthe commercially produced in France since the 1915 ban.
- Swiss face sobering future after legalizing absinthe—A March 2005 Reuters article about the legalisation of absinthe in Switzerland.
- The Mystery of the Green Menace—A November 2005 Wired magazine article about a New Orleans man who has researched the chemical content of Absinthe and now distills it in France.
- The Return of the Green Faerie—A wine and spirit journal article about the history, ritual, and artistic cult of Absinthe.
- The Wormwood Society—An independent organisation supporting changes to the US laws and regulations concerning absinthe. Provides articles, a forum and legal information.
- What is Absinthe- Article that discusses about absinthe and its effect over mind and body.