|Artemisia absinthium growing wild in the Caucasus|
Artemisia absinthium (absinthe, absinthium, absinthe wormwood, wormwood) is a species of Artemisia, native to temperate regions of Eurasia and Northern Africa and widely naturalized in Canada and the northern United States. It is grown as an ornamental plant and is used as an ingredient in the spirit absinthe as well as some other alcoholic drinks.
Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (2 ft 7 in–3 ft 11 in) (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole). Its flowers are pale yellow, tubular, and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula), which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn; pollination is anemophilous. The fruit is a small achene; seed dispersal is by gravity.
It grows naturally on uncultivated, arid ground, on rocky slopes, and at the edge of footpaths and fields.
The plant can easily be cultivated in dry soil. It should be planted under bright exposure in fertile, mid-weight soil. It prefers soil rich in nitrogen. It can be propagated by ripened cuttings taken in Spring or Autumn in temperate climates, or by seeds in nursery beds. Artemisia absinthium also self-seeds generously. It is naturalised in some areas away from its native range, including much of North America and Kashmir Valley of India.
It is an ingredient in the spirit absinthe, and is used for flavouring in some other spirits and wines, including bitters, vermouth and pelinkovac. In the Middle Ages, it was used to spice mead, and in Morocco it is used as tea. In 18th century England, wormwood was sometimes used instead of hops in beer.
Artemisia comes from Ancient Greek ἀρτεμισία, from Ἄρτεμις (Artemis). In Hellenistic culture, Artemis was a goddess of the hunt, and protector of the forest and children. absinthum comes from the Ancient Greek ἀψίνθιον.
The word "wormwood" comes from Middle English wormwode or wermode. The form "wormwood" is attributable to its traditional use as a vermifuge. Webster's Third New International Dictionary attributes the etymology to Old English wermōd (compare with German Wermut and the derived drink vermouth), which the OED (s.v.) marks as "of obscure origin".
Nicholas Culpeper insisted that wormwood was the key to understanding his 1651 book The English Physitian. Richard Mabey describes Culpeper's entry on this bitter-tasting plant as "stream-of-consciousness" and "unlike anything else in the herbal", and states that it reads "like the ramblings of a drunk". Culpeper biographer Benjamin Woolley suggests the piece may be an allegory about bitterness, as Culpeper had spent his life fighting the Establishment, and had been imprisoned and seriously wounded in battle as a result.
William Shakespeare referred to Wormwood in his famous play Romeo and Juliet: Act 1, Scene 3. Juliet's childhood nurse said, "For I had then laid wormwood to my dug" meaning that the nurse had weaned Juliet, then aged three, by using the bitter taste of Wormwood on her nipple.
John Locke, in his 1689 book titled An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, used wormwood as an example of bitterness, writing that "For a child knows as certainly before it can speak the difference between the ideas of sweet and bitter (i.e. that sweet is not bitter), as it knows afterwards (when it comes to speak) that wormwood and sugarplums are not the same thing."
Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used medicinally in Europe, and is believed to stimulate the appetite and relieve indigestion.
- Linnaeus, Carolus (1753). Species plantarum:exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas... 2. Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p. 848. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
- Christian Rätsch (25 April 2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Inner Traditions/Bear. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-89281-978-2. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of all Plant Species".
- USDA GRIN Taxonomy, retrieved 12 May 2016
- Altervista Flora Italiana, Assenzio vero, Artemisia absinthium L.
- Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 519 Common wormwood, armoise absinthe, Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 848. 1753.
- Olsen RW (April 2000). "Absinthe and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors" . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (9): 4417–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.9.4417 . PMC 34311 . PMID 10781032
- Shafi et al., 2012
- "Artemisia absinthium 'Lambrook Mist' AGM". APPS.RHS.org.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "Artemisia absinthium 'Lambrook Silver' AGM". APPS.RHS.org.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Grieves, M. (1931). "Wormwood, Common". Botanical.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- Hartley, Dorothy (1985) . Food in England. Futura Publications. p. 456. ISBN 0-7088-2696-2.
- "Wormwood". NYU Langone Medical Center. EBSCO Publishing. July 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Richard Mabey (2010). Weeds. The Story of Outlaw Plants. Profile Books Ltd. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978 1 84668 081 6.
- Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (2009). "Community Herbal Monograph on Artemisia absinthium L., Herba" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Artemisia absinthium.|
- Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Artemisia absinthium
- Erowid Wormwood Vault- information on the use and preparation of wormwood, along with user experiences.
- Shafi G, Hasan TN, Syed NA, Al-Hazzani AA, Alshatwi AA, Jyothi A, Munshi A (2012). "Artemisia absinthium (AA): a novel potential complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer". Molecular Biology Reports. 39 (7): 7373–7379. doi:10.1007/s11033-012-1569-0. PMID 22311047.