Abstract particulars are metaphysical entities which are both abstract objects and particulars. Individual numbers are often classified as abstract particulars because they are neither concrete objects nor universals – they are particular things which do not themselves occur in space or time. Tropes are another example of entities cited as abstract particulars.
- Campbell, Keith, 1981. “The Metaphysic of Abstract Particulars,” Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6: 477-488.
- Stout, G. F., 1921. “The Nature of Universals and Propositions,” The Problem of Universals, ed. Charles Landesman, New York: Basic Books, 1971: 154-166.
- Stout, G. F., 1923 “Are the Characteristics of Particular Things Universal or Particular?,” The Problem of Universals, ed. Charles Landesman, New York: Basic Books, 1971: 178-183.
- Rosen, Gideon (2001-07-19). "Abstract objects". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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