Abu Hamza al-Masri
Abu Hamza al-Masri
أبو حمزة المصري
Mustafa Kamel Mustafa
مصطفى كامل مصطفى
15 April 1958
|Criminal status||Imprisoned at ADX Florence, Colorado, United States|
Mustafa Kamel Mustafa (Arabic: مصطفى كامل مصطفى; born 15 April 1958), also known as Abu Hamza al-Masri (/ / (listen); أبو حمزة المصري, Abū Ḥamzah al-Maṣrī – literally, the Egyptian father of Hamza), or simply Abu Hamza, is an Egyptian cleric who was the imam of Finsbury Park Mosque in London, England, where he preached Islamic fundamentalist views. In 2004, Hamza was arrested by British police after the United States requested he be extradited to face charges. He was later charged by British authorities with sixteen offences for inciting violence and racial hatred. In 2006, a British court found him guilty of inciting violence, and sentenced him to seven years' imprisonment. On 5 October 2012, after an eight-year legal battle, he was extradited from the UK to the United States to face terrorism charges and on 14 April 2014 his trial began in New York. On 19 May 2014, Hamza was found guilty of eleven terrorism charges by a jury in Manhattan. On 9 January 2015, he was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.
His initial reaction to life in Britain was to describe it as "a paradise, where you could do anything you wanted." He studied civil engineering at Brighton Polytechnic. Prior to his conversion to Islamism in Malta, 1999, Hamza was known as a "gentle giant" and a "womaniser". Hamza gained employment as a bouncer in the strip bars of Soho under his original name from 1980 until 1983, when club baron Jean Agius was arrested and charged for conspiring to be a pimp. Agius alleges that Hamza may have also co-owned a club during this time.
Hamza, who has one eye and no hands, once claimed he lost them fighting Soviet forces in Afghanistan. CNN reported they were "injuries he says he sustained while tackling a landmine in Afghanistan." Among several accounts that take issue with Hamza's story, BBC security correspondent Gordon Corera's introduction to Omar Nasiri's memoir Inside the Jihad: My Life with Al Qaeda says Hamza "boosted his credibility" with rumours he sustained the injuries fighting jihad; also that Nasiri knew they resulted from "an accident during experiments in a training camp", and Hamza asked Nasiri "to keep this secret in order to avoid undermining his reputation." During his trial in the United States, Hamza stated that his injuries occurred whilst working with explosives with the Pakistani military in Lahore. The UK tabloid press have nicknamed him "Hook" in allusion to the fictional pirate Captain Hook.
On 16 May 1980, Hamza married British citizen Valerie Fleming, a Roman Catholic convert to Islam, and soon after they had a son, Mohammed Mustafa Kamel born in October 1981. In 1984, their relationship came under increasing strain and later in that year Hamza took three-year-old Mohammed with him to Egypt, effectively breaking contact with Valerie. Eventually they divorced and he married Najat Mustafa, with whom he has seven children: five sons followed by two daughters. Hamza's stepdaughter, Donna Traverso, told The Times in 2006 that she was convinced Hamza had duped her mother, Valerie, into marrying him in order to gain the right to stay in the UK (see "Arrests, charges and imprisonment" below).
In 1999, Hamza's son Mohammed, then 17 years old, was arrested in Yemen with Hamza's stepson Mohssin Ghalain and eight other men. All were tried and convicted of planning a terrorist bombing campaign that the prosecution alleged Hamza had sent the men to carry out. Mohammed and Mohssin received prison sentences of three and seven years, respectively.
Mohammed, Mohssin, and Hamza's oldest son with Najat, Hamza Mustafa Kamel, were convicted of fraud by a London court in 2009, and sentenced to prison terms.
Hamza's third son with Najat, Yasser Kamel, was sentenced to 12 months in youth detention in 2010, for violent disorder at anti-Israel protests in 2009. In 2012, Hamza's second youngest son, Imran Mustafa Kamel, was convicted of armed robbery and illegal possession of a firearm with intent to commit an offence and was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment. In 2013, the Evening Standard reported that Hamza's second-oldest son with Najat, Uthman Mustafa Kamal, delivered sermons at An-Noor mosque in Acton, west London, that were allegedly 'in support of holy war', videos of which were uploaded online but have since been taken down. In 2017, Hamza's youngest son, Sufiyan Mustafa Kamel, was stripped of his UK passport after travelling to Syria in 2013 to fight alongside rebel groups against Bashar al-Assad.
Hamza's Moroccan daughter-in-law was jailed for attempting to smuggle a mobile phone sim card when visiting him in Belmarsh prison in 2012. She is now facing deportation but because she is the sole carer of her son, a British national, the European Court of Justice's advocate general has ruled she cannot automatically be deported despite her criminality unless she is deemed to pose a 'serious' threat to society.
Hamza was the imam of Finsbury Park Mosque from 1997, and a leader of the Supporters of Sharia, a group that believed in a strict interpretation of Islamic law. On 14 September 1999, he sent an article to Al-Hayat, one of the largest pan-Arab newspapers, supporting the Russian apartment bombings, claiming that, while "in a war, no one targets women and children in a war", these attacks were necessary as "a Muslim revenge for the Russian criminal policies in Chechnya". In 2003, he addressed a rally in central London called by the Islamic al-Muhajiroun, where members spoke of their support for Islamist goals such as the creation of a new Islamic caliphate and replacing the Western-backed Middle Eastern regimes. On 4 February 2003 (after being suspended since April 2002), Hamza was dismissed from his position at the Finsbury Park Mosque by the Charity Commission, the government department that regulates charities in England and Wales. After his exclusion from the mosque, he preached outside the gates until May 2004, when he was arrested at the start of US extradition proceedings against him (see below).
Hamza publicly expressed support for Islamist goals such as creating a caliphate, and for Osama bin Laden. He wrote a paper entitled El Ansar (The Victor) in which he expressed support for the actions of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) in Algeria, but he later rejected them when they started killing civilians. In one sermon relating to the necessity of Jihad, he said: "Allah likes those who believe in Him who kill those who do not believe in Him. Allah likes that. So if you Muslims don't like that because you hate the blood, there is something wrong with you." He allegedly associated with Abdullah el-Faisal, a Jamaican Muslim convert cleric who preached in the UK until he was imprisoned for urging his followers to murder Jews, Hindus, Christians and Americans, subsequently being deported to Jamaica in 2007.
Arrests, charges and imprisonment
Hamza was arrested in December 1980, during a raid on a Soho strip club, for overstaying his tourist visa, which allowed him to stay in the UK for one month. He pleaded guilty to overstay but was allowed to remain in the UK as he was married to a British citizen, Valerie Fleming.
On 26 August 2004, Hamza was arrested by British police under section 41 of the Terrorism Act 2000, which covers the instigation of acts of terrorism. Charges against him were dropped on 31 August 2004, but he was kept in jail whilst a US extradition case was developed and British authorities drew up further criminal charges of their own. Almost two months later, on 19 October 2004, Hamza was charged with fifteen offences under the provisions of various British statutes, including encouraging the killing of non-Muslims, and intent to stir up racial hatred. The trial commenced on 5 July 2005, but was adjourned, and not resumed until 9 January 2006. On 7 February 2006, he was found guilty on eleven charges and not guilty on four:
- Guilty of six charges of soliciting murder under the Offences Against the Person Act 1861; not guilty on three further such charges.
- Guilty of three charges related to "using threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour with intent to stir up racial hatred, contrary to section 18 (1) of the Public Order Act 1986", not guilty on one further such charge.
- Guilty of one charge of "possession of threatening, abusive or insulting recordings of sound, with intent to stir up racial hatred, contrary to section 23 of the Public Order Act 1986".
- Guilty of one charge of "possessing a document containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism", under the Terrorism Act 2000, s58. This charge under the Terrorism Act of 2000 related to his possession of an Encyclopedia of Afghan Jihad, an Al Qaeda Handbook and other propaganda materials produced by Abu Hamza.
In sentencing, Mr Justice Hughes said Hamza had "helped to create an atmosphere in which to kill has become regarded by some as not only a legitimate course but a moral and religious duty in pursuit of perceived justice." Abu Hamza was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment.
In September 2012, Frank Gardner revealed that Queen Elizabeth II had been upset some years earlier that Abu Hamza al-Masri could not be arrested. The BBC apologised later that day for the revelation.
On 18 January 2007, Lord Justice Hughes made an order for the recovery of the full costs of the court-appointed defence of the race-hate charges, estimated in excess of £1 million. This judgement was based on his view that "the story I have been told today (by Abu Hamza) is simply not true" that he [Abu Hamza] had no share in a £220,000 house in Greenford, west London. Hamza had claimed it belonged to his sister. The court also found that Abu Hamza was contributing £9,000 a year for private education for his children.
Extradition to the United States
On 27 May 2004, Hamza was detained on remand by British authorities and appeared before magistrates at the start of a process to try to extradite him to the United States. Yemen also requested his extradition. The United States wanted Hamza to stand trial for eleven counts relating to the taking of sixteen hostages in Yemen in 1998, advocating jihad in Afghanistan in 2001, supporting James Ujaama in an alleged attempt to establish a "terrorist training camp" in late 1999 and early 2000 near Bly, Oregon, and of providing aid to al-Qaeda. Ujaama is a US citizen who had met Abu Hamza in England in 1999 and was indicted in the US for providing aid to al-Qaeda, attempting to establish a terrorist training camp, and for running a website advocating global jihad. Abu Hamza was in Britain throughout the relevant period.
Hamza could not face the death penalty if extradited to the United States because the UK is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). On 15 November 2007, British courts gave permission for Hamza's extradition to the US. Abu Hamza appealed against this decision to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). In the meantime, Hamza was kept in prison after the completion of his sentence.
On 8 July 2010, the ECtHR temporarily blocked Hamza's extradition to the United States to face terrorism charges until the court was satisfied that he would not be treated inhumanely. The court based its judgement on ECHR, which applies to British law. It is an absolute prohibition for a signatory to the ECHR to remove anyone to a place where they would be subject to inhumane or degrading treatment. In past cases, the ECtHR has prevented the UK from deporting suspected foreign terrorists to places where they might be tortured. In Hamza's case, this has been extended to refusing extradition to a country where he might be jailed for life, and where the prison regime is judged too harsh. The court said there should be further legal argument on whether life without parole would be a breach of human rights. The court asked for fresh submissions on whether Hamza, and other prisoners awaiting extradition, would face inhumane treatment in the US if they were sent there to stand trial.
On 24 September 2012, the court agreed Hamza could be extradited to the US to face terrorism charges. After considering all evidence, statements by officials at ADX Florence, the court held that "conditions at ADX would not amount to ill-treatment" and also stated that "not all inmates convicted of international terrorism were housed at ADX and, even if they were, sufficient procedural safeguards were in place, such as holding a hearing before deciding on such a transfer" and that "if the transfer process had been unsatisfactory, there was the possibility of bringing a claim to both the Federal Bureau of Prisons' administrative remedy programme and the US federal courts", referring to the 28 CFR 542 Administrative Remedy Program. On 26 September 2012, a High Court judge halted the extradition of Hamza to the US on terror charges after the cleric launched a last-ditch appeal. On 5 October 2012, the High Court granted the UK's government's request to extradite Hamza to the US. The removal process took place that same evening, when Hamza was taken from Long Lartin jail to RAF Mildenhall in Suffolk, where he was placed into the hands of the US Marshals.
Abu Hamza arrived in the US on the morning of 6 October 2012 to face eleven charges relating to hostage taking, conspiracy to establish a militant training camp and calling for holy war in Afghanistan. He appeared in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on 6 October and was then taken into custody. He appeared in court again on 9 October and pleaded not guilty to eleven charges.
On 14 April 2014, his trial opened with jury selection. His lawyer, Joshua Dratel, claimed Abu Hamza cooperated with MI5 and the police to help interact with the British Muslim community. On 19 May 2014, he was found guilty of the terror charges. British Home Secretary Theresa May said that she was "pleased" that Abu Hamza had "finally faced justice". On 9 January 2015, Hamza was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole, and the entire sentence would be served at ADX Florence in Colorado. In U.S. confinement, his hook devices were confiscated and replaced with a prosthetic spork.
In late August 2020, The Times reported that Abu Hamza had filed a lawsuit against the US Attorney General William Barr over what he described as "inhumane and degrading" conditions at ADX Florence. Hamza's complaints included solitary confinement, the removal of his prosthetic hooks despite his lack of forearms, sustaining rotten teeth from opening food packages, and encountering "religious stress" from eating kosher food.
Books and booklets
He wrote the following books and booklets:
- Be Aware of Takfir Np, nd.
- Ruling by Man Made Law, is it Major or Minor Kufr? Explaining the Words of ibn Abbas (Supporters of Shariah, 1996).
- Allah’s Governance on Earth. Np, 1999.
- "Britain: Citizenship Restored to Cleric Wanted on Terrorism Charges in U.S." The New York Times. 6 November 2010.
- Inmate Locator search for register number 67495-054. Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Cowan, Rosie (20 October 2004). "Abu Hamza charged with inciting murders". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Neumeister, Larry; Christofferson, John (6 October 2012). "5 terror suspects from UK appear in US courts". The Age. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.
- FP Staff. "Abu Hamza to appear in US court". The First Post. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- McVeigh, Karen (14 April 2014). "Abu Hamza to testify in New York terrorism trial as jury selection begins". The Guardian.
- "Radical cleric Abu Hamza jailed for life by US court". BBC. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Brooks, Libby (1 May 2003). "5 tough questions about asylum-part 2". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- "BBC Four – Storyville". BBC. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Lawson, Tracy (21 January 2003). "As a fundamentalist cleric reviled and revered for his preaches of hate". The Scotsman. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- Gadher, Dipesh (26 August 2018). "Ladies' man Abu Hamza plunged hook, line and sinker into Soho sleaze". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Nun, Jan (8 February 2006). "U.K.: Muslim Extremist Preacher Gets Seven Years in Jail". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- Naughton, Philippe (7 February 2006). "Profile: Abu Hamza". Times Online edition. London. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- McVeigh, Karenn (14 April 2014). "Abu Hamza to testify in New York terrorism trial as jury selection begins". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Abu Hamza: Controversial Muslim figure". CNN. 27 May 2004. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Horgan, John (15 May 2009). Walking Away from Terrorism: Accounts of Disengagement from Radical and Extremist Movements. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-87473-8. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- O'Neill, Sean; McGrory, Daniel (2006). The Suicide Factory: Abu Hamza and the Finsbury Park Mosque. HarperPerennial. pp. 21–29. ISBN 978-0-007-23469-1.
- "Nasiri, Omar" (2006). Inside the Jihad: My Life with Al Qaeda - A Spy's Story. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02388-2. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "Profile: Abu Hamza". BBC News. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Frost, Martin (2006). "Abu Hamza al-Masri". Martin Frost's former web site. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009.
- Holden, Michael (10 April 2012). "Hook-handed Hamza: much more than a James Bond villain". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 April 2012.
- Hume, Mick (28 April 2004). "So Captain 'Hamza' Hook is a threat? Oh no he isn't! (original), Hamza Hook: a panto villain (reprint)". The Times (via Spiked-online.com). Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. The original article in The Times is available by subscription.
- "Hamza's ex-wife life threatened". BBC. 8 February 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- Syal, Rajeev (18 February 2006). "Hooked on Hamza". The Times. London.
- Casciani, Dominic (7 February 2006). "Profile: Abu Hamza". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Syal, Rajeev (27 July 2006). "Dad is a coward, a hypocrite and he deserves to rot in jail". The Times. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Britons convicted of Yemen bomb plot". BBC News. 9 August 1999. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013.
- "Abu Hamza and the Islamic Army: Day by Day: A chronology of events surrounding the "bomb plot" and kidnapping". Albab. 11 March 2000. Archived from the original on 25 May 2000.
- "Mohammed Chiadmi, 31, from Maida Vale; his brother Abdul Chiadmi, 22, from Ladbroke Grove; Khalid Jebari, 22, from Pimlico; and Hamza Mrimou, 27, from Feltham admitted fraud, handling stolen goods and money laundering.""Abu Hamza's cat scam sons jailed". BBC News. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Harper, Tom (19 March 2013). "Abu Hamza's son Uthman Mustafa Kamel backs al-Qaeda suspect and prays in support of holy war at London mosque". Evening Standard. London.
- Mendick, Robert (1 April 2017). "Abu Hamza's son stripped of British passport after waging jihad in Syria". The Telegraph.
- "Woman fighting deportation is Abu Hamza's daughter-in-law, says MP". The Guardian. 6 February 2016.
- "Mosque raid findings revealed". BBC News. 7 February 2006.
- Casciani, Dominic; Sakr, Sharif (7 February 2006). "The battle for the mosque". BBC News.
- Casciani, Dominic (27 May 2004). "Profile: Abu Hamza al-Masri". BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Oneill, Sean (13 January 2006). "Abu Hamzas video call to arms". The Times. London.
- "The Algerian Question", Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed, Yale University Press, John Phillips and Martin Evans, 2007, p. 222.
- Salafimedia.com "Join the Victorious Party (Part l)".
- Thackrah, John Richard (2004). Dictionary of terrorism. Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-415-29820-9. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "Muslim cleric Hamza de-arrested". BBC News. BBC. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Cleric faces trial on 16 charges". CNN. 1 August 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "Abu Hamza convicted of eleven charges". Crown Prosecution Service. 2 July 2006. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- Vikram Dodd (12 January 2006). "Islamic cleric had terror handbook, court told". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Campbell, Duncan (9 February 2006). "'Preacher of hate' jailed in Britain". The Age. Australia. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "BBC apology to Queen over Abu Hamza disclosure". BBC News. 25 September 2012.
- "Abu Hamza must pay £1m for trial". BBC. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Whitehead, Tom (24 September 2012). "Abu Hamza could be out of Britain in days after losing extradition appeal". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012.
- "Abu Hamza arrested in London on terrorism charges files in the United States". United States Department of Justice. 27 May 2004. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "From community activist to alleged terror conspirator". CNN. 29 August 2002.
- "Abu Hamza could face extradition". BBC. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Dodd, Vikram (8 July 2010). "Abu Hamza extradition to US blocked by European court". The Guardian. London.
- "Abu Hamza extradition to US blocked on human rights grounds". The Daily Telegraph. London. 8 July 2010.
- "Yemen seeks Abu Hamza's extradition.(UPI Top Stories)". UPI News. 29 May 2004.
- Hue, Sylvia. "UK TO EXTRADITE RADICAL MUSLIM CLERIC TO US". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Hall, John (10 April 2012). "Court rejects claims that extraditing Abu Hamza to the US would breach his human rights". The Independent. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Abu Hamza: High Court judge halts extradition to the US". BBC. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Casciani, Dominic (5 October 2012). "Abu Hamza to be extradited to US". BBC News.
- Roth, Richard; Smith, Olivia (9 October 2012). "Radical Islamist Abu Hamza al-Masri pleads not guilty". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.
- "Abu Hamza due in US court following extradition". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.
- Leithead, Alastair (7 October 2012). "Abu Hamza extradition: US court hears terror suspects". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013.
- "Abu Hamza 'secretly worked for MI5' to 'keep streets of London safe'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014.
- "Abu Hamza: Home Secretary Theresa May hails guilty verdict". BBC News. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Ax, Joseph (19 May 2014). "London imam Abu Hamza convicted of US terrorism charges". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014.
- Woolf, Nicky (9 January 2015). "Abu Hamza sentenced to life in prison on US terrorism conviction". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- "Hook-handed hate preacher isn't happy being spork-handed in prison". The New York Post. 8 January 2015.
- "Abu Hamza sues US over 'degrading' jail and his rotting teeth". The Times. 29 August 2020. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "UK radical preacher Abu Hamza reportedly sues US over 'Inhuman and Degrading' prison conditions". The Nation. 30 August 2020. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Shiraz Maher, Salafi-Jihadism: The History of an Idea, Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 256
Media related to Abu Hamza al-Masri at Wikimedia Commons
- ECtHR judgment in the case of Abu Hamza and others v. UK
- "Hamza organisation site". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Retrieved 12 April 2018. (Takes a few moments to retrieve from archive.)