‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Ṣakhr ad-Dawsī al-Azdī (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن صخر الدوسي الأزدي; 603–681), born ‘Abd ash-Shams (Arabic: عبد الشمس), but better known by the kunyah Abu Hurairah (Arabic: أبو هريرة, Abū Hurayrah, "Father of the Kitten"), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the most prolific narrator of hadith in Sunni hadith compilations. Abu Hurairah spent 2 years in the company of Muhammad and went on expeditions and journeys with him. It is estimated that he narrated around 5,375 ahadiths.
Abu Hurairah was born in Baha, Yemen into the Banu Daws tribe from the region of Tihamah on the coast of the Red Sea. His father had died, leaving him with only his mother and no other relatives. His name at birth was Abd al-Shams ("Servant of the Sun"). However, as a child, he had a cat and became known as "Abu Hurairah" (which literally means "Father of the Kitten" or more idiomatically "Of the kitten").
Abu Hurairah embraced Islam through Tufayl ibn Amr the chieftain of his tribe. Tufayl had returned to his village after meeting Muhammad and become a Muslim in the early years of his mission. Abu Hurairah was one of the first to respond to his call, unlike the majority of Tufayl's tribesmen. Abu Hurairah accepted Islam after the battle of Kheyber, nearly 2.5 years before the death of Muhammad. Abu Hurairah accompanied Tufayl to Mecca to meet Muhammad who renamed him Abd al-Rahman (servant of the Merciful, one of the 99 Names of God). Abu Hurairah then returned to his tribe for many years.
Military campaigns during Muhammad's era
He was present during the Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa. Some scholars claim, the expedition took place in Nejd (a large area of tableland in the Arabian Peninsula) in Rabi‘ Ath-Thani or Jumada Al-Ula, 4 A.H (or beginning of 5AH). They substantiate their claim by saying that it was strategically necessary to carry out this campaign in order to quell the rebellious bedouins in order to meet the exigencies of the agreed upon encounter with the polytheists, i.e. minor Badr Battle in Sha‘ban, 4 A.H. Muhammed received the news that certain tribes of Banu Ghatafan were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with suspicious purposes.
Muhammad proceeded towards Nejd at the head of 400 or 700 men, after he had mandated Abu Dhar - in the Umayyad version, the Umayyad chief who killed Abu Dhar is given this honor: Uthman bin Affan - to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence. The Muslim fighters penetrated deep into their land until they reached a spot called Nakhlah where they came across some bedouins of Ghatfan.
The opinion according to Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, however, is that Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign took place after the fall of Khaibar (and not as part of the Invasion of Nejd). This is supported by the fact that Abu Hurairah and Abu Musa Ashaari witnessed the battle. Abu Hurairah embraced Islam only some days before Khaibar, and Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari came back from Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and joined Muhammad at Khaibar. The rules relating to the prayer of fear which Muhammad observed at Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign, were revealed at the Asfan Invasion and this scholars say, took place after Al-Khandaq (the Battle of the Trench).
Medina and Mecca
In 629 (7 AH) he went to Medina with some others from his tribe. Since Muhammad was absent due to the Battle of Khaybar, he stayed in the masjid. He had a wife, Bushra, according to Fadi'l Aa'mal.
His mother, Maymouna Bint Subaih, who was still a polytheist, was with him. He prayed for her to become a Muslim, but she refused.
One day, he again invited his mother to believe in the One God and His Prophet. She answered with some bad words about the Prophet. Abu Hurairah went to the Prophet with tears in his eyes. “Why are you crying, Abu Hurairah?” asked the Prophet. “I always invite my mother to Islam, and she always refuses,” said Abu Hurairah. “I asked her again today. But she said some things about you that made me sad. Can you pray to Allah for her to turn to Islam?” The Prophet prayed for Abu Hurairah’s mother to accept Islam. When Abu Hurairah went home, he found the door closed. He heard the splashing of water. He tried to enter the house, but his mother said, “Wait a minute. Don’t come in yet.” Then she got dressed and said, “You can come in now.” When Abu Hurairah went inside, his mother said, “I declare that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.” Abu Hurairah again went to the Prophet crying. But this time his tears were tears of joy. “I have good news, Rasul'Allah ... Allah has answered your prayer and guided my mother to Islam.”
Abu Hurairah wrote:
When I was afflicted with severe hunger, I would go to a companion of the Prophet and asked him about an ayah of the Qur'an and (stay with him) learning it so that he would take me with him to his house and give food. One day, my hunger became so severe that I placed a stone on my stomach. I then sat down in the path of the companions. Abu Bakr passed by and I asked him about an ayah of the Book of God. I only asked him so that he would invite me but he didn't. Then Umar ibn al-Khattab passed by me and I asked him about an ayah but he also did not invite me. Then the Messenger of Allah passed by and realized that I was hungry and said: "Abu Hurairah!" "At your command" I replied and followed him until we entered his house. He found a bowl of milk and asked his family: "From where did you get this?" "Someone sent it to you" they replied. He then said to me: "O Abu Hurairah, go to the Ahl as-Suffah and invite them." Abu Hurairah did as he was told and they all drank from the milk. Abu Hurairah then spent one year and ten months with Muhammad in Medina, before the Prophet's death on 8 June 632 in Medina.
Abu Huraira helped pass and teach the religion of Islam on through narrating the traditions of the Prophet to the early Muslims.
While on the road to Makka for pilgrimage the wind blew so hard that ‘Umar asked: “Can anyone narrate to us something [from the Prophet] about the wind?” None of those present could answer. When news of this reached Abû Hurayra, he rode up to ‘Umar and said: “Commander of the Believers! I was told that you asked about the wind, and I myself heard the Prophet say: ‘The wind is a spirit from Allâh. It brings mercy and it brings torment. Therefore, when you experience it, do not curse it but ask Allâh for its goodness and seek refuge in Him from its harm.’”
Death and legacy
Following the passing of Muhammad, Abu Hurairah spent the rest of his life teaching hadith in Medina, except for a short period as governor of Bahrain during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He was also governor of Medina during the rule of the early Umayyad caliphs. Abu Hurairah died in 681 or 59 AH at the age of 78 and was buried at Al-Baqi'.
A majority of the Sunni scholars consider Abu Hurairah to be one of the major trustworthy narrators of Hadith. They believe that he was blessed with an unfailing memory, a miracle from God that was bestowed upon him after Muhammad prayed for him. They depict him as a man living an ascetic and humble life, cherishing knowledge and worship. They also disagree with the Shia belief that he harbored any ill will against the Ahl al-Bayt.
Shi'a tradition rejects the authenticity of Abu Hurairah's hadith, seldom accepting only when there are similar hadith narrated by Sahabah (companions) and family of Muhammad who are considered reliable by Shi'a. Abu Hurairah only accepted Islam two years before prophet's death and He narrated more than 30 thousand traditions from Mohammad. The Shi'a consider him an enemy of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain, due to having been in favour of Mu'awiya according to Shia sources, and thus hold him in low regard.
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 001, Book 003, Hadith Number 118
- El-Esabah Fi Tamyyz El Sahabah. P.7 p. 436.
- Shorter Urdu Encyclopedia of Islam, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1997, pg. 65.
- Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 224
- Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 240
- Siar Alam El Nubla, pp. 2, 578-79.
- Narrated by Ah.mad in his Musnad with two sound chains. The narration from the Prophet is also narrated from Abu Hurayra by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, while Muslim and al-Tirmidhi (h.asan) narrate from Aisha the wording of the Prophet’s invocation in case of strong wind.
- Abgad Elulm, pp.2, 179.
- Sunni links
- In defence of Abu Huraira (RA) - A Reply to some erroneous claims - islamicweb.com
- Narrations of Abu Huraira from Sunan Abu Dawud - ahadith.co.uk
- Narrations cited by Sahih Bukhari
- Narrations cited by Sahih Muslim
- ABU HURAYRA THE PARAGON OF THE PROPHETIC SUNNA by Shiekh G. F. Haddad
- Non-Muslim links
- Mausoleum of Abu Huraira - archnet.org