Abu Hurairah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Abu Hurairah
أبو هريرة

Abd ar-Rahman ibn Sakhr
عبد الرحمن بن صخر
أبو هريرة.png
Personal
Bornc. 603 CE
Al Jabour, Arabia
Died680 CE
Resting placeAl-Baqi'
ReligionIslam
EraEarly Islam
Rashidun caliphate
Umayyad caliphate
DenominationSalaf as-Salih
JurisprudenceMadhhab al-Sahabi (opinions and though of Companions of the prophet)
MovementCompanionship of the prophet
Notable idea(s)Hadiths
Notable work(s)Most numerous Chain of narrators of Hadiths
Major Fatwas of Tafsir
Major Fatwas of Fiqh
Major Fatwas of Biographical evaluation
Occupationshepherd
Sahabah
Hadith narrator
Ulama
Rashidun soldier
Rashidun governor of Bahrayn
Rashidun judge
Umayyad Hadith auditor
Relatives
Senior posting
Disciple ofMuhammad
Influenced
  • Virtually all Islamic scholars
AwardsAshabus-Suffa

Abdur-Rahman ibn Sakhr Al-Dawsri Al-Zahrani (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن صخر الدوسري‎; c. 603 – 680), better known as Abu Hurayrah[1] (or Hurairah; Arabic: أبو هريرة, translates to the father of the kitten), was one of the companions of Islamic prophet Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.

He was known by the kunyah Abu Hurayrah "Father of a Kitten", in reference to his attachment to cats, and he was a member of Suffah. Later during caliphate era, Abu Hurairah served as Ulama teacher, governor, soldier, and Hadith auditor. Among his other epithets is ذو الوينسين or "Possessor of the Two Elbows", as his own narrations claim Prophet Muhammad praised him for his sturdy elbows and righteous character.

Abu Hurairah acknowledged by Muslim scholars for his extraordinary photographic memory which allowed him to memorize massive numbers of over 5,000 hadiths which later produced more than 500,000 chain narrations, or Isnad which make Abu Hurairah an exemplar role model for Hadith studies scholars. It is said by Abu Hurairah himself the only one who surpassed him regarding hadith were Abd Allah ibn Amr ibn al-As, another companion who serve as writer assistant of Muhammad and author of "Al-Sahifah al-Sadiqah", the first Hadith book in history.[2]

Abu Hurairah hadiths has been used by most, if not all scholars of Islam across the ages for Islamic learning about Aqidah, Islamic eschatology, Tafsir, Fiqh, Biographical evaluation, Prophetic biography, and Fatwa verdicts.

Biography[edit]

According to al-Dhahabi, Abu Hurairah hailed from the Arab tribe of Zahran of the prominent clan of Banu Daws and was born in the region of Al-Baha which was in Asir at that time.[3] It is unclear as to what his real name is, the most popular opinion being that it was 'Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Ṣakhr (عبد الرحمن بن صخر).[4]

Life as Muslim[edit]

Abu Hurairah embraced Islam through Tufayl ibn Amr, the chieftain of his tribe, as Tufayl had returned to his village after meeting Muhammad and became a Muslim in the early years of his mission.[3] Abu Hurairah was one of the first to respond to his call, unlike the majority of Tufayl's tribesmen, who embraced Islam later. Abu Hurairah accompanied Tufayl to Mecca to meet Muhammad who renamed him Abd al-Rahman ("servant of the Merciful") from Abd al Sham, or some said Abd al Ghanm.[5] It was said that he found a stray kitten, so he took it in his sleeve, which is the reason he was named Abu Hurairah (father of the kitten).[3][5]

During his early years embracing Islam in Medina, Abu Hurairah became disciple of Suffah.[6]: 129  Abu Hurayrah spent 2 years 3 months approximately in the company of Muhammad[7] and went on expeditions and journeys with him.[8] However, according to Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri in his The Sealed Nectar, the Dhat ar-Riqa' campaign took place after the fall of Khaybar and not as part of the invasion of the Najd. This is supported by the fact that Abu Hurairah and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari witnessed the battle as Abu Hurairah embraced Islam only some days before Khaybar, and Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari came back from Abyssinia and joined Muhammad at Khaybar. The rules relating to the prayer of fear which Muhammad observed at Dhat Ar-Riqa' campaign, were revealed at the Invasion of the 'Asfan and this, scholars such as al-Dhahabi,[3] has recorded the invasion were took place after the Battle of the Trench, which nodded by Mubarakpuri.[9] Nevertheless, consensus of Muslim historians has placed that Abu Hurairah came into historical record after the battle of khaybar.[10] Then he afterwards participated in battle of Mu'tah, conquest of Mecca, battle of Hunayn, and Expedition of Tabuk.[10]

Abu Hurairah were recorded has participated during the Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa'which took place in the Najd, a large area of tableland in the Arabian Peninsula in Rabi' al-Thani or Jumada al-awwal, 4 AH (or the beginning of 5 AH), as Muhammad received the news that certain tribes of the Ghatafan were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa' with suspicious purposes.[11] The Muslim fighters penetrated deep into their land until they reached a spot called Nakhla, where they came across some bedouins of Ghatafan.[11][9]

Later, Abu Hurairah were sent as Muezzin to al-Ala al-Hadhrami.[3] And Muhammad entrusted him with some works such as preserving Ramadan zakat funds.

Caliphate[edit]

According to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, after the death of Muhammad, Abu Hurairah participated in quelling the rebellions in Ridda wars under Abu Bakr al Siddiq.[12]

Later, after Abu Bakar passed away, in the era of Umar reign, Abu Hurairah actively participated in the Muslim conquest of Persia.[13] Later, he became governor of medieval Bahrayn province, or Eastern Arabia encompassing the modern day Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Arabian gulf, and UEA.[3][14] One day, Abu Hurairah brought his personal wealth, amounted to 10,000 gold dinar, to Medina, which he managed to amass such wealth through horse breedings, and spoils of war.[15] However, such massive amount of Dinar caused Umar to be suspicious and not immediately believe it was Abu Hurairah pure personal wealth, and accusing him to engage in Bayt al-mal corruption.[15] Thus, Umar had his wealth confiscated before engaging thorough examinations and reverse inspection towards Abu Hurairah treasury whether he is lying or not.[15] However, Abu Hurairah found innocent of all accusation and Umar asked him again to govern Bahrayn, which was turned down by Abu Hurairah.[15]

After the tenure of his governorship, Abu Hurairah return to Medina and worked as Qadhi judge and passing down Fatwa verdicts during his career.[3][6]: 357 

During the siege of Uthman, Abu Hurairah were trying to defend Uthman ibn Affan, although he was, like other who trying to save Uthman, were powerless to stop the protesters that surrounded Uthman's house.[5] Nevertheless, Abu Hurairah continued to work as Mufti after the death of Uthman.[3]

Later, during the reign of Marwan ibn Hakam, the caliph once testing Abu Hurairah about his hadiths memory, and one year later, he tasked Abu Hurairah to help the caliphate secretary to audit any hadiths circulated within the caliphate realm.[6] During this time, Abu Hurairah and Zayd ibn Thabit warned caliph Marwan against the practice in Yanbu of using Sukuk (financial certificate) as commodity of transaction, as according to the two Sahabah, as trading Sukuk as commodity were disallowed in Sharia.[16]

Death[edit]

Al Baqi cemetery, the place where Abu Hurairah was buried

Abu Hurairah spent the rest of his life teaching hadith in Medina, except for a short period as governor of Eastern Arabia (then called "Bahrayn") during the reign of Umar, and when he was the governor of Medina during the early Umayyad Caliphate. Abu Hurairah died in 681 CE (59AH) at the age of 78 and was buried at al-Baqi'.[17] After his death, Abu Hurairah was credited with narrating at least 5,374 Ahadith.[18][19]

His funeral prayer were attended by Abdullah ibn Umar, Abu Sa'id al Khudri and the prayer was led by Walid ibn Utbah, governor of Medina at the time.[3] Walid ibn Utbah wrote to Mu'awiyah about his death, who in turn brought ten thousand dirhams to heirs of Abu Hurairah and commanding the governor to take care the family of Abu Hurairah.[5][3]

In 1274 CE (673 AH) the Mausoleum of Abu Huraira was constructed in Yibna, at the order of the Mamluk Sultan Baibars. It has been described as "one of the finest domed mausoleums in Palestine."[20][21] After 1948, the Israelis have converted it into the ‘Raban Gamaliel tomb’.

Personal info[edit]

His name is disputed among Muslim scholars. His name is said to be "Abd al-Rahman Ibn Sakhr", "Abul Rahman Ibn Ghnam", "Abd Ibn Ghnam.[3] "Abd Nahm Ibn 'Amir", "Abd Shams Ibn 'Amir", "'Omir Ibn 'Amir", "Abd Shams Ibn Sakhr", "'Amir Ibn Abd Ghnam",[22] "Sikin Ibn Mal", "Sikin Ibn Hana'", "'Amr Ibn Abd Shams", "Amr Ibd Abd Nihm", "Sikin Ibn Jabir", "Yazid Ibn 'Ashrqah", "Abdullah Ibn 'Aith", "Sikin Ibn Wathmah", "Borir Ibn 'Ashraqah" or "Saeed Ibn Al-Haryth".[23] His birth name is also disputed among Muslim scholars, his birth name is said to be "Abd Shams", "Abdallah", "Sikin", "'Amir", "Borir", "Amr", "Saeed", "Abd Amr", "Abd Ghnam", "Abd Yalil" or "Abd Tim".[24]

The reason for the agnomen Abu Hurairah has been narrated by him personally:

"I was called Abu Hurairah because I would tend to the goats of my family, and one day I found a stray kitten which I placed in my sleeve. When I returned to my people they heard the kitten purr in my sleeve and they asked, "What is that, O 'Abd Shams?" I replied, "A kitten I found." "So you are Abu Hurairah (Father of cats)," they responded and the name stuck thereafter."

Abu Hurairah were father in law of prominent Tabi'un Said ibn al-Musayyib, as he confess that Said married Abu Hurairah daughter in order to get closer with her father and learn the Hadiths possessed by Abu Hurairah.[6]

Hammam ibn Munabbih, another prominent Tabi'un and disciple of Abu Hurairah compilled the Hadiths he learn from Abu Hurairah in a book Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih and was became one of the earliest Hadith book in history.[25]

Seyed Mostafa Azmayesh noted that Abu Hurairah possessed rare ability of photographic memory, which are his greatest attribute that allowing him to memorize massive number of Hadiths.[26]

There was little mention of the family of Abu Huraira from historians records more than that he had a wife named Basra bint Ghazwan.[3]

Tribal background[edit]

The clan of Daws, which Abu Hurairah and Tufail ibn 'Amr hailed from, was a sub branch of Zahran tribe, as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani recorded the linking line between Daws with Zahran were Daws ibn Udthan ibn Abdullah son of Zahran,[27] thus deemd by Awtabi as evidence for chroniclers that Daws clan were belonged to Azd, a Nabatean southern Arabs ancestor, through Zahran.[28] Al-Qalqashandi recorded Zahran is a great-great-great grandson Khalid ibn Nasr.[27] While Ibn Hazm reported Zahran is a descendant of Malik ibn Nasr al Azd al-Saba (Sabaeans) al-Qahtani.[29]

Regarding the Daws tribe, there are Hadiths from records of Al-Tirmidhi, Bukhari, and Muslim regarding the praise of Daws clan were on par with Quraysh, Ansar, and Banu Thaqif in the view of Muhammad.[30]

Scholarship legacy[edit]

Some regions have a dominant or official madhhab; others recognize a variety.[31]

The influence of Abu Hurairah memorial and narration has prompted prominent Quran exegesis experts across the ages, such as Tabari in his Tafsir al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir Ibn Kathir,[32][33] Al-Mahalli and al-Suyuti their collaborative work of Tafsir al-Jalalayn,[32] al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir al-Qurtubi, and Wahbah al-Zuhayli in his Tafsir al Munir[34] has used Abu Hurairah hadiths, Ijtihad, traditions, and Fatwa as their resources.[32][35] On local scale, Hamka Indonesian Muslim lecturer, journalist, and philosopher also listed Abu Hurairah as one of his major resources in Tafsir al-Azhar.[36] In his book, Evolution of Fiqh, Bilal Philips further highlighted the necessity of referring Abu Hurairah generation about the observance of Islam by quoting the Hadith from Abu Hurairah and several other Sahabah about Muhammad appraisal towards the generation of Sahabah, Tabi'un, and Tabi' al-Tabi'in, pertaining with the necessity for Muslims to refer the Islam interpretation and ruling to those three earliest generations observance.[37] Bilal Philips viewed that the younger Muslim generations fanatically follow certain school of thoughs without referring to those "three best generations of Islam" as the cause of the stagnation of Taqlid in Fiqh fundamentals according to Philips.[37] While Bilal Philips also reflected this phenomenon were partly due to the inaccessibility of a Muslim to obtain the whole Hadiths perfectly if they followed one Madhhab blindly, while fabricated Hadiths also circulated on the later era, unlike the earliest generation who had access directly to Muhammad as their major guideline.[37]

Creed & eschatology[edit]

Regarding Aqidah (core creed of Islamic belief), The Book of Faith(Arabic: Kitab al Iman, كتاب الإيمان) a book observing the segment of faith on Islam which written by the 13th century Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyyah, were also observing the Hadith narrations and the explanation from Abu Hurairah about the Hadiths as construction source of the Iman beliefs according to Salaf teaching, which characterize Ibn Taymiyyah thinking about reformation and Ijtihad.[38] In his other book, Ibn Taymiyyah also cited the Hadith of Abu Hurairah regarding the exaltation of the Muslim community as a whole, as they are the chosen Ummah by God to enforce the Al-Wala' wal-Bara'(commanding the rightness and forbidding the evilness an unjusts) doctrine.[39] While Ibn Taymiyyah also using the traditions of Abu Hurairah in the same book for the study of Tawheed.[40]

Meanwhile, Ibn Kathir has delved Islamic eschatology of his Tafsir in his booklet, Al- Nihayah fi al-Fitan wa al-Malahim, regarding the Day of Resurrection and Day of Judgment based by many hadith sources from the narrations of Abu Hurairah, including the emergence of Al-Masih ad-Dajjal and the heralds of "thirty liars" at the end of eras, and the descent of the prophet Jesus as savior who will help Muslims against Dajjal.[41]

Ethics & manners[edit]

Muhammad al-Bukhari has listed Abu Hurairah as one of his main sources in his book, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, addressing the question of perfecting Muslim manners such as filial piety, hospitality, good will, shukr (gratitude to God), and many others ethical section of Islamic belief.[42]

Islamic jurisprudence[edit]

Based on the historical role of Abu Hurairah as among the few companions of the prophet who were allowed to issue fatwa verdicts,[43] Ibn Abbas also recorded personally asking Abu Hurairah to issue Fatwa.[3]

As the examination of Sunni Madhhabs thoughts as a whole were structurally based on Madhhab Sahabi or Qawl Sahabi (Hadiths which spoke and translated by Sahabah) such as Madhhab or Qawl Abu Hurairah,[44] The ruling jurisprudence for the four main Sunni Madhhabs heavily relied on the traditions of Abu Hurairah Hadiths and by extend, his Fatwa.[44] Fatwas issued by Abu Hurairah were compiled by 13 AD Shafiite scholar Taqi al-Din al-Subki has compilled the Fatwa from Abu Hurairah law verdicts in his book, Fatawa Abu Hurairah.[25] Abu Hurairah was involved in several traditional rulings regarding jurisprudence during the era of Rashidun, such as there are independent Athar tradition, which were called "Athar pledge of six Sahabah" consisted the collective traditional ruling from six prominent companions of the prophet: Ali, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Abu Darda, Saʽid al-Khudri, Abu Hurairah, and Abu Shafiah to deny and forbid the using of Rosary or Prayer beads for Muslims, the six Sahabah ruling were supported by Abdullah ibn Masud and his disciples, as Ibn Masud argued the usage of beads for prayer were a Bidʻah (heretical unislamic ritual) that practiced by Kharijites.[45]

Abd al-Rahman Jaziri, professor at Al-Azhar University and chief inspector for the Ministry of Religious Endowment's Department of Mosques, has conclude that certain cases, each four Madhhabs sometimes even have Ijma (consensus) of same ruling which they taken from Abu Hurairah, such as the flogging of adulterers who has not married yet.[46]

Maliki[edit]

Maliki Madhhab opus jurisprudence, Muwatta Imam Malik, also containing various hadiths that narrated by Abu Hurairah as the ruling cases basis.[47][48] It is due to Abu Hurairah narration regarding the punishment of flogging towards those who addicted with alcoholic and intoxicating substances, or drunkards, that Averroes, 12th AD Malikite scholar had ruled so in his book, Bidayat.[49] Averroes's Bidayat also giving reconciliatory explanation about a hadith of Abu Hurairah regarding the cleansing and washing the dead before Salat al-Janazah.[50]

Hanafi[edit]

Abu Hanifa of Hanafi Madhhab had taken the Marfu' Hadith from Abu Hurairah as obligatory for doing Sujud Tilawa prostration.[44]

Hanbali[edit]

Ahmad ibn Hanbal of Hanbali were also taken Abu Hurairah authentic Hadith which recorded by Abu Dawud al-Sijistani the allowance of Friday prayer to be done if the day were accidentally on the same day with Eid prayers, while Abu Hanifa even ruled the Friday prayer are still obligatory even if it happened in the same day with Eid.[44] On the fundamental scale, Hanbalite also using the consensus of the companions of the prophet, Abu Hurairah generation, as one of their source of law, while viewing the consensus of later generation scholars were diffused and prone to flaw.[51] The individual views of companions opinion were also given credence at certain degree by Hanbalite scholars.[51]

Shafii[edit]

Shafiite also using the ruling of Abu Hurairah the allowance to recite Basmala loud and clear during Salah prayer.[52] This ruling found in Abu Hurairah hadith were also used by Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen, Hanbalite scholar and Saudi jurist who considered by David Commins to be one of the greatest Faqīh of the modern era,[53] In his fatwa for the similar question asked regarding the Basmala recitation matter.[54]

Meanwhile Bulugh al-Maram, collection of hadith pertaining specifically to Shafi'i jurisprudence work by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani also listed many Abu Hurairah hadith as his resource.[55] Meanwhile, the book of Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, more known as Arba'in Nawawi which authored by Shafiite medieval scholar Al-Nawawi which regarded as one of the most eminent and revered authorities in Islamic jurisprudence, of the foundations of Islamic sacred law or Sharīʿah, also delved the selective hadith regarding core of Iman (Islam) and jurisprudential ruling from Abu Hurairah.[56] According to Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen in his commentary towards The Meadows of the Righteous book authored by al-Nawawi, Ijtihad (reasoning) of Abu Hurairah were taken by al-Nawawi for the rulings of Wudu (ablution ritual).[57]

Modern scholars' views[edit]

Wahbah al-Zuhayli, 20th Syrian Shafiite scholar, said the Fatwa ruling from Abu Hurairah had it is own normative legality to be implemented.[58]

According to Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani in his book,Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Da'ifah the Madhhab of Abu Hurairah method were taken as guideline for Hadith studies scholars to evaluate Hadith validity, if they found a hadith with doubtful chain.[59] This method has been highlighted by Albani when evaluate the hadith regarding the rule about Tahharah or cleansing the body part which licked by a dog seven times.[59]

Bilal Philips, a Salafi preacher from Canada who was known for his preaching activity to three thousand US army veteran of the first Gulf War after the successful victory of Saudi-US coalition,[60] also listed several quotations from Abu Hurairah in his earlier work, Salvation Through of Repentance , regarding various matters of Islamic teaching, included Qadr Night and Friday prayers.[61]

Meanwhile, Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia) and Indonesian Ulema Council has issued a ruling for the cleansing protocol to manage COVID-19 pandemic Muslim victims dead bodies based on the fatwa verdict of Abu Hurairah when managing dead bodies.[62] The same council worked together with Ministry of Health to issue formal decree of the obligation for Hajj pilgrims to undergo Meningitis vaccination,[63] on the basis of their ruling from Hadith of Abu Hurairah.[64]

Saleh Al-Fawzan, member of Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia) and Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta and one of the most senior scholar Has listed most of his thoughts regarding Fiqh jurisprudence based on hadiths narrated by Abu Hurairah.[65]

Hadith[edit]

Abu Hurairah were credited with over 5000 hadith (A. Kevin Reinhart states that 5,374 hadith have been attributed to Abu Hurairah),[66] that are attributed to Sunni hadith studies.[67] While regarding the chain (Sanad), according to Ali Ahmad as-Salus, the rough estimation if all accounts compiled, Abu Hurairah has possessed 500,374 chains of hadith, far much more than chains from Ibn Abbas, Aisha, Abdullah ibn Umar, and Abdullah ibn Masud.[68] Ibn Kathir has recorded the narration from Bukhari and Muslim regarding the law of a wife whose husband just passed away 40 days to Abu Hurairah.[35] His Hadiths hunting were not stopped after death of Muhammad, since Abu Hurairah were further searching Hadiths that possessed by Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, Fadl ibn Abbas, Basra ibn Abi Basra, Usama ibn Zayd, Ubayy ibn Ka'b, and also Ka'b al-Ahbar who collects Hadith from other sahabah.[3][5][69]

However, according to his own admission, Abu Hurairah said that Abd Allah ibn Amr ibn al-As had more Hadith than himself, since Ibn Amr diligently written every Hadith he heard, while Abu Hurairah admit he depends only to his extraordinary memory.[70]

Scholarship position of Abu Hurairah among Muslim community of his era contemporary were highlighted by Muhammad Sa'id Mursi, who recorded around 800 of his fellow Sahabah and Tabi'un disciples were taking Hadith from Abu Hurairah.[6]

According to the records from Ibn Hajjar and ad-Dhahabi, Abu Hurairah fellow Sahabah and Tabi'un who narrated hadiths from him were:[3][5]

  • Muharrar Ibn Abi Hurairah [ar]
  • Abdullah ibn Umar
  • Abdullah ibn Abbas
  • Jabir ibn Abdullah bin Amr bin Haram
  • Anas ibn Malik
  • Wathila bin al-Asqa Al-Laythi [ar]
  • Marwan ibn al-Hakam
  • Qabisah ibn Dhu'ayb [ar]
  • Abdullah ibn Tha`labah bin Sa`ir Al-Athari
  • Said ibn Al-Musayyib
  • Urwah ibn Zubayr
  • Salman al-Aghar
  • Al-Aghar Abu Muslim
  • Shuraih ibn Hani Al Harthi [ar]
  • Khabaab Shahab al-Maqsurah
  • Abu Said Al-Maqbari
  • Suleiman ibn Yasar
  • Sinan ibn Abi Sinan Al-Du'ali
  • Abdullah ibn Shaqiq
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Amra
  • 'Arak ibn Malik
  • Abu Razeen Al-Asadi
  • Abdullah ibn Qariz
  • Bisr ibn Said
  • Bashir ibn Nahik
  • Baja ibn Abdullah bin Badr Al-Juhani
  • Handhala Aslami
  • Thabit ibn Ayyad Al-Ahnaf
  • Hafs ibn Asim ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab
  • Salim ibn Abdullah bin Omar bin Al-Khattab
  • Abu Salamah ibn Abdul Rahman bin Auf
  • Hamid ibn Abdul Rahman bin Auf
  • Humaid ibn Abdul Rahman Al Himyari
  • Khalas ibn Amr Al-Hijri
  • Zurara ibn Aufa
  • Salim Abu Al-Ghaith, Mawla of Mut'i
  • Salim Mawla Shaddad
  • 'Amar ibn Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas
  • Sa'id ibn Amr ibn Sa'id ibn Al-Aas
  • Abu al-Habbab Sa'id ibn Yasar
  • Abdullah ibn Al-Harith Al-Basri
  • Muhammad ibn Sirin
  • Said ibn Marjana
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Hormuzan
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Sa'id Al-Maqd
  • Abdul Rahman ion Abi Na'am Al-Bajali
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Yaqub Al-Harqi
  • Abu Salih Al-Saman
  • Ubaidah ibn Sufyan Al-Hadrami
  • Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utbah
  • 'Atha ibn Mina' Mawla Ibn Abi Dhibab
  • Ata ibn Abi Rabah
  • Ata ibn Yazid Al-Laithi
  • Ata ibn Yasar
  • Ubayd bin Hunayn
  • Ajlan Mawali of Fatima bint Utbah
  • Ubaydullah ibn Abi Rafi
  • Anbasa ibn Sa'id ibn Al-Aas al-Umayyah
  • Musa ibn Yasar al-Muttalib Mawla Qais bin Makhrama
  • Nafi' bin Jubayr ibn al-Muth'im
  • Abdullah ibn Rabah
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahran Maw'la of Abu Hurairah
  • Amr ibn Abi Sufyan ibn Usayd ibn Jariyah Al-Thaqafi
  • Muhammad bin Ziyad Al-Jumahi
  • Isa ibn Talha ibn Ubaydullah
  • Muhammad ibn Qais ibn Makhrama Al-Qurashi
  • Muhammad ibn Abbad ibn Jaafar Al-Makhzumi
  • Muhammad abi Abi Aisha Al-Madani
  • Al-Haytham abi Abi Sinan
  • Abu Hazim Al Ashja'i
  • Abu Bakr ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Al-Harith ibn Hisham
  • Abu as-Sha'ta al-Mahrabi
  • Yazid ibn al-Asham
  • Na'im al-Majmur
  • Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir
  • Hammam ibn Munabbih
  • Abu Uthman al-Tanabi
  • Abu Qais Mawla Abu Hurairah
  • Ibrahim bin Ismail
  • Ibrahim ibn Abdullah bin Hunayn
  • Ibrahim ibn Abdullah bin Qarith al-Zuhri
  • Ishaq ibn Abdullah Mawla Zaida
  • Al-Aswad ibn Hilal Al-Muharibi
  • Al-Aghar ibn Sulaik
  • Anas ibn Hakim Al-Dhabi
  • Aws ibn Khalid
  • Bashir ibn Ka'b Al-Adawi
  • Bakir ibn Fairuz Al-Rahawi
  • Thabit ibn Qais Al-Zarqi
  • Thawr bin Afir Al-Sadosi
  • Jabr ibn Ubaidah
  • Ja'far ibn Iyadh
  • Jamhan Al-Aslami
  • Al-Harith ibn Makhlid Al-Zarqi
  • Harith ibn Qubaisa
  • Hasan al-Basri
  • Husayn ibn Mus'ab
  • Hafs ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Anas bin Malik
  • Al-Hakam ibn Mina
  • Abu Tahya Hakim ibn Sa'd al-Kufi
  • Humaid ibn Malik ibn Khatiim
  • Handhala ibn Ali Al-Aslami
  • Hayyan ibn Bustam Al-Hudhali
  • Khalid ibn Abdullah ibn Hussein Al-Dimashqi
  • Abu Hassan Khalid ibn Ghalaq
  • Khaithamah bin Abdul Rahman
  • Dhuhail ibn Awf ibn Shamakh Al-Tahawi
  • Rabia Al-Jarashi
  • Rumiyah al-Judhami
  • Ziyad ibn Thuwaib
  • Abu Qais Ziyad ibn Rayah Al-Qaisi
  • Ziyad ibn Qais Al-Madani
  • Ziyad Al-Tayy
  • Zaid ibn Abi Atab
  • Salim ibn Abi Al-Ja'd
  • Salem Mawla Nasreen
  • Suhaim Mawla Zahra
  • Sa'd ibn Hisham ibn Amir Al-Ansari
  • Sa'id Al-Harith Al-Ansari
  • Sa'id ibn Abi Al-Hasan Al-Basri
  • Sa'id ibn Hayyan Al-Taymi
  • Sa'id ibn Abi Sa'id Al-Maqbari
  • Sa'id ibn Sam'an Al-Madani
  • Sa'id bin Abi Hind
  • Salamah ibn Azraq
  • Salamah Al Laithi
  • Sulaiman ibn Habib al-Muharibi, judge of Damascus
  • Suleiman ibn Sinan Al-Madani
  • Shaddad Abu Ammar Al-Dimashqi
  • Shifa ibn Ma'ati Al Asbahi
  • Shaqiq ibn Salamah
  • Shahr ibn Hawshab
  • Salih ibn Dirham Al-Bahili
  • Salih ibn Abi Saleh Mawla Amr bin Harith
  • Salih ibn Nabhan Mawla Taw'amah
  • Sha'sha'ah ibn Malik
  • Suhaib Al-Atwari
  • Ad-Dahhak ibn Shurahbil
  • Ad-Dahhak ibn Abdul Rahman bin Arzab
  • Adham ibn Juus Al-Hafani Al-Yamami
  • Tariq ibn Mukhashin
  • Tawus ibn Kaysan
  • Amir ibn Sa'd Al-Bajali
  • Amir Al Sha'bi
  • Abbad ibn Abi Sa'id Al-Maqbari
  • Abbas Al Jashmi
  • Abdullah ibn Rafi Mawla Umm Salamah
  • Abu Salamah Abdullah ibn Rafi Al Hadrami
  • Abdullah ibn Rabah Al-Ansari
  • Abdullah ibn Sa'd Mawla Aisha
  • Abdullah ibn Abi Sulayman
  • Abdullah ibn Dhamra Al-Saluli
  • Abdullah ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Al-Harith ad-Dawsi
  • Abdullah ibn Utbah ibn Mas'ud Al-Hudhali
  • Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Abdul Qari
  • Abdullah ibn Farrukh Mawla Aisha
  • Abdullah ibn Yamin at-Ta'ifi
  • Abdul Hamid ibn Salim
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Adam, the owner of the watering plant and Mawla (ex-slave) of Umm Barthan
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Uthaina Al-Abdi, judge of Basra
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Al-Harith ibn Hisham
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Hujairah Al Khawlani
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hadrad al-Aslami
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Khalid ibn Maisarah
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Sa'd Mawla al-Aswad bin Sufyan
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Al-Samit
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Ka'b ibn Malik
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Ghanm
  • Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Karimah
  • Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Yasar Mawla Maimunah bint al-Harith
  • Abi Yahya Ubaid Allah ibn Abdullah bin Mawhab at-Taymi
  • Ubayd ibn Salman at-Thabkhi
  • Ubayd ibn Abi Ubayd Mawla Abi Rahm
  • Ubayd ibn Umair Al-Laithi
  • Uthman ibn Abi Saudah Al-Shami
  • Uthman ibn Abdullah ibn Mawhab Al-Taymi
  • Ajlan Mawla al-Mashail
  • Uzair ibn Tamim
  • Ata ibn Abi Alqamah ibn Al-Harith ibn Nawfal
  • Ata Mawla Ibn Abi Ahmad
  • Ata Mawla Umm Sabiya al-Juhaniya
  • Ikrima Mawla Ibn Abbas
  • Alqamah ibn Bajlah ibn Zabarqan
  • Ali ibn Al-Husain
  • Ali ibn Rabah Al-Lakhmi
  • Ammar bin Abi Ammar Mawla Bani Hashem
  • 'Amarah ibn Akimah Al-Laithi
  • Umar ibn al-Hakam ibn Thawban
  • Umar ibn al-Hakam ibn Rafi' al-Ansari
  • Umar ibn Khaldah Al-Zarqi, judge of the Medina
  • Amr ibn Dinar
  • Amr ibn Salim al-Zarqi
  • Amr ibn Asim ibn Sufyan ibn Abdullah at-Thaqafi
  • Amr ibn Umair
  • Amr ibn Qahid ibn Muthrif
  • Amr ibn Maimun
  • Umair ibn Al-Aswad al-Ansi
  • Umair ibn Hani al-Ansi
  • Awf ibn Al-Harith ibn Al-Tufail, foster child of Aisha
  • Al-Ala ibn Ziyad al-Adawi
  • Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
  • Qasama bin Zuhair al-Mazni
  • Qais ibn Abi Hazim al-Bajali
  • Kathir ibn Murrah al-Hadrami
  • Ka'b al-Madni
  • Kulaib ibn Shahab al-Jarmi
  • Kamil ibn Ziyad al-Nakh'i
  • Kinana Mawla Safiya bint Hayyi
  • Malik ibn Abi Amer al-Asbahi
  • Mujahid ibn Jabr
  • Muhammad ibn Iyas ibn al-Bukair al-Laithi
  • Muhammad ibn Thabit
  • Muhammad ibn Shurhabil al-Abdari
  • Muhammad ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Thawban
  • Muhammad ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Dhibab
  • Muhammad ibn Ammar ibn Sa'd al-Qurd
  • Mohammed ibn Umair
  • Muhammad ibn Ka`b al-Quradhi
  • Mudharib ibn Hazn al-Tamimi
  • Muttalib ibn Abdullah ibn Hanthab al-Makhzumi
  • Ma'bud ibn Abdullah ibn Hisham al-Qurashi
  • Mughirah ibn Abi Burdah al-Abdari
  • Musa ibn Talha bin Ubayd Allah
  • Musa ibn Wardan
  • Maimun ibn Mahran
  • Mina ibn Abi Mina Mawla Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf
  • Nafi' ibn Abbas Mawla Abu Qatadah
  • Nafi' ibn Abi Nafi' Mawla Abi Ahmad
  • Nafi Mawla Ibn Umar
  • Nadr ibn Sufyan al-Du'ali
  • Hilal ibn Abu Hilal al-Madani
  • Walid ibn Rabah
  • Yahya ibn Ja'dah ibn Hubayrah al-Makhzumi
  • Abu al-Habbab Yahya bin Abi Salih
  • Yahya ibn al-Nadr al-Ansari
  • Yahya ibn Yamar
  • Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn al-Shakhir
  • Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn Qasith
  • Yazid ibn Abdul Rahman al-Awdi
  • Yazid ibn Hormuzan
  • Yazid Mawla al-Manbu'ah
  • Ya'la ibn Uqba
  • Ya'la ibn Murrah al-Kufi
  • Yusuf ibn Mahik
  • Abu Idris al-Khawlani
  • Abu Ishaq Mawla Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Nawfal
  • Abu Umamah ibn Sahl ibn Hanif
  • Abu Ayyub al-Maraghi
  • Abu Bakr ibn Sulaiman ibn Abi Hathmah
  • Abu Tamimah al-Hujaimi
  • Abu Thawr al-Azdi
  • Abu al-Jawza'i al-Arba'i
  • Abul Hakam al-Bajali
  • Abul Hakam Mawla Banu Laith
  • Abu Hayy Ma'zun
  • Abu Khalid al-Bajali
  • Abu Khalid al-Walbi
  • Abu Khalid Mawla al-Ja'dah ibn Hubayrah
  • Abu Rafi' Al-Sha'igh
  • Abu Rabi' Al-Madani
  • Abu Zar'a ibn Amr ibn Jarir al-Bajali
  • Abu al-Sa'ib Mawla Hisham ibn Zahra
  • Abu Sa'd al-Khair al-Homsi
  • Abu Sa'id ibn Abi al-Ma'ali al-Madani
  • Abu Sa'id al-Azdi al-Shana'i
  • Abu Sa'id Mawla Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Kariz
  • Abu Sufyan Mawla Ibn Abi Ahmad
  • Abu al-Salil Al-Qaysi
  • Abu Salih al-Ash'ari
  • Abu Salih al-Hanafi
  • Abu Salih al-Khouzi
  • Abu Salih Mawla Dhab'ah
  • Abu Shalt
  • Abu ad-Dahhak
  • Abu al-Aliyah ar-Riyahi
  • Abu Abdullah ad-Dossi
  • Abu Abdullah al-Qaraz
  • Abu Abdullah al-Madani Mawla al-Janda'ayin
  • Abu Abd al-Malik Mawla Umm al-Maskin bint Asim ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab
  • Abu Ubayd Mawla Ibn Azhar
  • Abu Uthman Tabban
  • Abu Uthman al-Nahdi
  • Abu Alqamah Mawla Banu Hashim
  • Abu Umar Al-Ghadani
  • Abu Ghatafan ibn Tarif al-Marri
  • Abu Kabash al-Aishi
  • Abu Kathir as-Suhaimi
  • Abu Al-Mutawakil Al-Naji
  • Abu Mudalah Mawla Aisha
  • Abu Murah Mawla Aqil bin Abi Talib
  • Abu Maryam al-Ansari
  • Abu Muzrad
  • Abu al-Muhazam al-Basri
  • Abu Hashim ad-Dawsi
  • Abu Walid Mawla Amr ibn Harith
  • Abu Yahya Mawla al-Ja'dah ibn Hubayrah
  • Abu Yahya al-Aslami
  • Abu Yunus Mawla Abu Hurairah
  • Ibn Hasanah al-Juhani
  • Ibn Sayl'an
  • Ibn Makraz Shami
  • Ibn Wathima al-Nasri
  • Karimah Bint al-Hashas Mazniyah
  • Umm Darda as-Saghir
  • Hurayth Al-Athri
  • Shatir Bin Nahar al-Abdi
  • Ata ibn Abi Muslim Al-Khurasani
  • Ibn Hasna al-Juhani
  • Ikrimah ibn Khalid al-Makhzumi
  • Abu Qilabah al-Jarmi
  • Abu Muzahim al-Madani
  • Abu Maimunah al-Madani

According to ad-Dhahabi, the healthiest and authentic chain which end at Abu Hurairah were:[3]

  • Abu Hurairah, through Ibn Sirin, through Ayyub al-Sakhtiani
  • Abu Hurairah, through Ibn Sirin, through Abd Allah ibn Awn
  • Abu Hurairah, Abdul Rahman bin Hormuz, through Abdullah ibn dhakwan
  • Abu Hurairah, through Sa'id ibn ibn al-Musayyib, through Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri

According to Ali ibn al-Madini, ninth-century Hadith scholar, The most authentic chain that end in Abu Hurairah were:[71]

  • Abu Hurairah, through Ibn Sirin, through Ayyub al-Sakhtiani, through Hammad ibn Zaid

According to Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, 18 AD Hadith scholar from Al-Azhar University, the most precious Hadith chain of narrators that came from Abu Hurayrah were:[72]

  • Abu Hurairah, through Sa'id ibn ibn al-Musayyib, through Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, through Malik ibn Anas
  • Abu Hurairah, through Sa'id ibn ibn al-Musayyib, through Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, through Ma'mar ibn Rashid
  • Abu Hurairah, through Sa'id ibn ibn al-Musayyib, through Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, through Sufyan ibn ʽUyaynah
  • Abu Hurairah, through Ibn Sirin, through Ayyub al-Sakhtiani, through Hammad ibn Zaid
  • Abu Hurairah, through Ubaidah ibn sufyan al hadhrami, through Ismail ibn al hakim
  • Abu Hurairah, through Hammam ibn Munabbih, through Ma'mar ibn Rashid

Shia critics[edit]

According to Yasin Jibouri, several Shia scholars such as Ja'far al-Iskafi regarded Abu Hurayra as telling lies.[73] Same goes with Abu Rayyah, independent writer from Egypt who quoted medieval Shia source in his report regarding Abu Hurairah.[74] Certain Shia writers are known for doubting his authority as a narrator.[73] As Abdullah Saeed points out the writing from Abu Rayyah that Caliph Umar bin Khattab is recorded to repeatedly threaten Abu Hurayrah, noted at the time as a blatant self-promoter, with serious consequences due to his frequent misquote of the Prophet's words.[75]

However, researchers have found that the Sunni scholarly community unanimously regarded Abu Hurairah as trustworthy both classical medieval and modern contemporaries, and they though the allegation of the hadith falsification by Abu Hurairah were coming solely from Shia traditions, which not found in Kutub al-Sittah and other major Hadith works, as medieval scholars such as Dhahabi said that the criticism towards Abu Hurairah are not accepted even during the early times of Islam for several reasons, including because those who criticize Abu Hurairah themselves are known as Mudallis (defected or untrustworthy narrators) according to Jarh wa Ta'dil (biographical evaluation study) and Asbab wurud (chronological study of Hadith).[3] Which generally agreed by later era counterparts, which further adds that Jarh wa Ta'dil rulings only valid to evaluate Tabi'un or generations above them, while Sahabah generation are free and exempt from Jarh wa Ta'dil and accepted without exception, as long they are confirmed and identified by chroniclers as Sahabah.[76]

Safia Aoude and Ali al-Tamimi also highlighted, the narration of Umar threatening Abu Hurairaha, which quoted by Abdullah Saeed, were also came solely from a writer which influenced by Abu Rayyah,[77][78] Particularly from anonymous writer who has pen name "O. Hashem" who write his criticism towards Abu Hurairah in his book, Saqifah.[14] Several Sunni thinkers and scholars such as has been Mustafa al-Siba'i, Shuaib Al Arna'ut, along with director of Maktabah al-Haram al-Makki ash-Shariff(Library of the Great Mosque of Mecca) Abdur-Rahman al-Mu'allimee al-Yamani,[79] has criticized the sources which O. Hashem quoted only using falsified and inauthentic hadith according to standard of Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, and Al-Dhahabi criterion of biography evaluation, while also questioning O. Hashim scholarly credibility as they though O. Hashem were driven by Shiite biased view on his critics.[14] While Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen dismissing such criticism towards Abu Hurairah which came from Shia traditions as he said they are simply "a tradition of error collection".[80]

According to Burhanuddin from Ministry of Religious Affairs, the scholars observation from Siba'i, Abdul Mun'im Shalih Al-'Ali, Dhiya'urrahman Al A'Dzamy, Muhammad Abu Syahbah, Shalahuddin Maqbul Ahmad, and Abdullah ibn Abdil Aziz An-Nashir, has found out the reason Abu Rayyah, has such inorganized method in his writing were because the background of Abu Rayyah though not came from proper academic learning, instead he was just influenced by the writings of Goldziher.[81]

Badri Khairuman from Kalijaga Islamic University, on the other side, has pointed out that Abu Rayyah critic towards Abu Hurairah were flawed according to the main principles of Biographical evaluation traditions and accusing Abu Rayyah relying on single source of 12th AD twelver Shia scholar, Allamah Al-Hilli.[76] Furthermore, the case of accusation of Abu Hurairah were nullified according to Badri, as Badri reasons it is impossible if Umar does not trust Abu Hurairah, while on the fact Umar were nominating Abu Hurairah twice as governor of Bahrayn and entrusting him to produce Fatwa in eastern Arabia, while on the last years of Umar, the caliph appoint Abu Hurairah as judge in Medina, the citadel of caliphate.[82] Badri concludes his thesis that the phenomena of Abu Rayyah writing came from the elementary and very small Abu Rayyah knowledge regarding the structural Hadith studies with proper methodology.[76] While scholar, Abdur-Rahman al-Mu'allimee al-Yamani gave short remarks that Abu Rayyah assessment towards Abu Hurairah came from biased view, not proper methodology of Hadith study.[83][84]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stowasser, Barbara Freyer (22 August 1996). Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976183-8.
  2. ^ Abdul Hakim, Luqman. ""Al-Sahifa al-Sadiqah" the oldest book in the hadith of the Prophet". Islam Online (in Arabic). Islam Online. Retrieved 17 December 2021. Musnad Ahmad: 202 hadiths out of 632 hadiths. Sunan Abi Dawud: 81 hadiths out of 232 hadiths. Sunan an-Nasa'i: 53 hadiths out of 128 hadiths. Sunan Ibn Majah : 65 hadiths out of 117. Jami' al-Tirmidhi: 35 hadiths out of 89 hadiths. [12] Abdul Razzaq's work: 69 hadiths Ibn Abi Shaybah's workbook: 122 hadiths Sunan al- Daraqutni : 127 hadiths Al-Mustadrak of the Ruler: 90 Hadiths Al-Muhalla by Ibn Hazm: 115 hadiths [13]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ad-Dhahabi, Shams ad-Din. "Sahabah". Siyar A'lam Nubala. Islamweb. Islamweb. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  4. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. pp. 102. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.
  5. ^ a b c d e f al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (1994). al-Ishabah fi Tamyiz as Shahabah. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al Ilmiyya. pp. 348–362. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e Sa'id Mursi, Muhammad (2007). Ihsan, Muhammad (ed.). Tokoh-Tokoh Besar Islam Sepanjang Sejarah (in Indonesian). Translated by Khoirul Amru Harahap; Ahmad Faozan (First ed.). Cipinang Muara, East Jakarta, Indonesia: Pustaka Al-Kautsar. p. 129. ISBN 978-979-592-900-0. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  7. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 001, Book 003, Hadith Number 118
  8. ^ El-Esabah Fi Tamyyz El Sahabah. P.7 p. 436.
  9. ^ a b Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 240, ISBN 979-8-6941-4592-3
  10. ^ a b Al-Dhafiri, Aisha (2021). Shatnawi, Bushra (ed.). معلومات عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه (in Arabic). Mawdoo3. Retrieved 13 December 2021. A group of authors, Archives of the Ahl al-Hadith Forum , pg. 49. At the disposal إقرأ المزيد على موضوع.كوم
  11. ^ a b Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 224
  12. ^ ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. "Musnad Abu Bakar as-Siddiq". Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Islamweb. Islamweb. p. hadith no. 68. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  13. ^ bin Yusuf bin Ibrahim al-Sahmi al-Qurashi al-Jurjani, Abu al-Qasim Hamza (1987). Abd al-Mu`id Khan, Muhammad (ed.). كتاب تاريخ جرجان [Kitab at Tarikh al Jurjani] (in Arabic) (Fourth ed.). Beirut: Dar al 'Alam. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  14. ^ a b c Kholid Syamhudi, Abu Asma (2004). "Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu Anhu Teraniaya (1)". Almanhaj (in Indonesian). Surakarta, Indonesia: As Sunnah Magazine. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  15. ^ a b c d Tarmizi 2017, p. 125
  16. ^ Tarmizi 2017, p. 355
  17. ^ Abgad Elulm, pp.2, 179.
  18. ^ Shorter Urdu Encyclopedia of Islam, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1997, pg. 65.
  19. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 118 - Knowledge - كتاب العلم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  20. ^ Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 553.
  21. ^ Petersen, 2001, p. 313
  22. ^ Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani. "al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba". shamela.ws (in Arabic). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  23. ^ al-Mizzi, Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman. "Tahdhib al-Kamal fi asma' al-rijal". library.islamweb.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  24. ^ الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة • الموقع الرسمي للمكتبة الشاملة. shamela.ws. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  25. ^ a b Munandar Riswanto, Arif (2010). Khazanah Buku Pintar Islam 1 (in Indonesian). Mizan Pustaka. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  26. ^ Mostafa Azmayesh, Seyed (2016). New Researches on the Quran Why and How Two Versions of Islam Entered the History of Mankind. Mehraby Publishing House. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-9558117-6-0. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  27. ^ a b Luthfi bin Muhammad Yasin, Abu Firas (2017). "Kedatangan Utusan Bani Daus" [The Arrival of the Messenger of Bani Daus]. Almanhaj (in Indonesian). Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. Retrieved 17 December 2021. Daus dinisbahkan kepada Daus bin Udtsan (عُدثان) bin Abdullah bin Zahran. Nasabnya bersambung ke Azad[1]. Qalqasyandi menyebut nasab lengkapnya dengan Daus bin Udtsan bin Abdullah bin Zahran bin Ka'b bin Harits bin Ka'b bin Abdullah bin Khalid bin Nashr.[2]. Bani ini adalah kaum Abu Hurairah[3]. Tidak dijelaskan tempat asal kaum ini, hanya disebutkan bahwa mereka berasal dari Yaman[4]. KEISLAMAN DAUS Tokoh penting yang berperan penting dalam keislaman Bani Daus adalah Tufail bin Amru ad-Dausi. Tufail dijuluki sebagai Dzun-Nur (pemilik cahaya, pen.). Julukan itu karena ketika ia datang kepada Rasûlullâh di Makkah dan kemudian masuk Islam, Rasululah mengutusnya kepada kaumnya sendiri. Tufail mengatakan: " Wahai Rasûlullâh, jadikan pada diriku ayat (karamah, pen.)". Rasûlullâh mengatakan: "Ya Allah, jadikan baginya cahaya." Maka muncullah cahaya diantara kedua matanya. Amru mengatakan: "Wahai Rabbku, aku takut kaumku mengatakan bahwa cahaya itu musibah bagiku, maka cahaya itu berpindah ke tepi cambuknya dan cahaya itu meneranginya di malam yang gelap gulita
  28. ^ Bin Muslim Bin Ibrahim Al-Sahari Al-Awtabi, Salamah. kitab al'ansab li al-sahari [genealogical book of desert] (in Arabic). Maktaba Shamila. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  29. ^ n Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm, ʿAlī ib. ibn al-Uthaymeen, Muhammad (ed.). Arab population lineages Ibn Hazm (in Arabic). Noor Library. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  30. ^ Luthfi bin Muhammad Yasin, Abu Firas (2017). "Kedatangan Utusan Bani Daus-Bab keutamaan Banu Daws" [The Arrival of the Messenger of Bani Daus-the appraisal for Banu Daws]. Almanhaj (in Indonesian and Arabic). Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. Retrieved 17 December 2021. 1. Sabda Rasûlullâh Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ جَاءَ الطُّفَيْلُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ دَوْسًا قَدْ هَلَكَتْ عَصَتْ وَأَبَتْ فَادْعُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ دَوْسًا وَأْتِ بِهِم Dari shahabat Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu anhu ia berkata: Tufail dan shahabatnya dari Kabilah Daus datang kepada Rasûlullâh dan mereka mengatakan: Wahai Rasûlullâh sesungguhnya Kabilah Daus telah kufur dan enggan (menerima Islam) maka berdoalah agar mereka celaka. Abu Hurairah mengatakan: binasalah Daus[9], maka Rasûlullâh mengatakan: Ya Allah, berilah hidayah kepada Kabilah Daus dan datangkanlah mereka (kepada Rasûlullâh)[10]. 2. Sabda Rasûlullâh Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam : عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ أَعْرَابِيًّا أَهْدَى لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَكْرَةً فَعَوَّضَهُ مِنْهَا سِتَّ بَكَرَاتٍ فَتَسَخَّطَهَا، فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: إِنَّ فُلَانًا أَهْدَى إِلَيَّ نَاقَةً فَعَوَّضْتُهُ مِنْهَا سِتَّ بَكَرَاتٍ فَظَلَّ سَاخِطًا، لَقَدْ هَمَمْتُ أَنْ لَا أَقْبَلَ هَدِيَّةً إِلَّا مِنْ قُرَشِيٍّ أَوْ أَنْصَارِيٍّ أَوْ ثَقَفِيٍّ أَوْ دَوْسِيٍّ Dari Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu anhu : seorang badui menghadiahkan pada Rasûlullâh Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam seekor unta betina kecil, Rasûlullâh Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam kemudian ganti memberinya enam ekor unta betina kecil. Namun badui tadi malah tidak rela dengan pemberian tersebut. Kabar tersebut sampai pada Rasûlullâh Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam maka Nabi n membaca tahmid dan memuji-Nya kemudian bersabda: Sesungguhnya fulan memberiku hadiah seekor unta betina dan aku ganti memberinya enam ekor unta betina kecil namun ia tetap tidak rela dengan pemberian itu. Aku berharap untuk tidak menerima hadiah kecuali dia tidak tamak dengan balasan sebesar itu kecuali[11] dari seorang Qurays, atau Anshar, atau Tsaqif, atau Daus[12]. Hadist setelahnya di Sunan Tirmidzi (3946) menyebut bahwa orang tersebut berasal dari Bani Fazarah[13].
  31. ^ Jurisprudence and Law – Islam Reorienting the Veil, University of North Carolina (2009)
  32. ^ a b c Ibn Kathir, Imad ad Din; al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din; ibn Shihāb al-Dīn Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī, Abū 'Abd Allāh Muḥammad (2016). Ayat Kursi dan Ayat Cahaya di Atas Cahaya Tafsir Ibnu Katsir dan Jalalain. Shahih. pp. 19–57. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  33. ^ Ibn Kathir, Imad ad Din (2018). P. RATU BANGSAWAN, IRWAN (ed.). Tafsir Surah an Nas (in Indonesian). Kedai Pustaka. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  34. ^ az-Zuhayli, Wahbah (2021). Tafsir al-Munir Jilid 13 Aqidah, Syariah, Manhaj (Juz 25-26 Fushshilat - Qaaf) (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Gema Insani. pp. 15–517. ISBN 978-602-250-907-3. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  35. ^ a b ibn 'Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī, Imād Ad-Din Ismā'īl (2005). Harun, Yusuf (ed.). Tafsir Ibnu Katsir. Translated by Abdurrahman Mu'ti; Abu Ihsan al Atsary. Pustaka Imam Syafii. p. 216. ISBN 978-979-3536-12-5. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  36. ^ Abdul Karim Amrullah, Haji (2020). Tafsir al-Azhar Jilid 2 Diperkaya dengan Pendekatan Sejarah, Sosiologi, Tasawuf, Ilmu Kalam, Sastra, dan Psikologi. Prestasi. pp. 10–622. ISBN 978-602-250-858-8. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  37. ^ a b c Philips, Bilal (1990). The Evolution of Fiqh. International Islamic Publishing House. pp. 44–45, 103–104, 114–117. ISBN 81-7231-355-1. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  38. ^ ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥalīm Ibn Taymīyah, Aḥmad (2009). Kitab al Iman (Paperback). Islamic Book Trust. pp. 19, 20, 27, 50, 60, 89, 197, 232, 268–423. ISBN 978-967-5062-29-2. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  39. ^ ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥalīm Ibn Taymīyah, Ahmad (1982). Public Duties in Islam The Institution of the Hisba. Translated by Muhtar Holland; Khurshid Ahmad. Islamic Foundation. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-86037-114-4. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  40. ^ ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥalīm Ibn Taymīyah, Aḥmad (2009). Hassan Al-Ani, Salman; Ahmad Tel, Shadia (eds.). Kitab Al-Iman [Book of Faith] (Paperback). Islamic Book Trust. pp. 50, 197, 232. ISBN 978-967-5062-29-2. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  41. ^ Ibn Kathir, Imad ad-Din (2016). as-Shababithi, Imad ad-Din; Hikmatiar, Ikhlas (eds.). Dahsyatnya Hari Kiamat Rujukan Lengkap Hari Kiamat dan Tanda-Tandanya Berdasarkan Al-Qur'an dan As-Sunnah (in Indonesian). Translated by Ali Nurdin. Duren Sawit, Jakarta, Indonesia: Qisthi Press; IKAPI; Indonesian Republic National Library. pp. 8–619. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  42. ^ al-Bukhari, Muhammad (2019). S. Ag., Abdul Bakir (ed.). Shahih Adabul Mufrad (Hard Cover) (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Translated by Abu Ahsan. Elex Media Komputindo. pp. 6–604. ISBN 978-623-00-0847-4. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  43. ^ bin Mat Saad, Hasbollah (2020). THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF SHARIAH. PENA HIJRAH RESOURCES. p. 205. ISBN 9789675523168. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  44. ^ a b c d Singgih, Muhammad (2018). "HUJJAH QAUL SHAHABAT DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM ISLAM HUJJAH QAUL SAHABAT". An Naba (in Indonesian). An Nab. 1 (1): 40–41. Retrieved 15 December 2021. ( HR. Abu Daud); ( HR. Muslim)
  45. ^ bin Abdullah ibn Zaid, Bakr (2014). Abud Bawasier, Rosyad (ed.). Koreksi Doa dan Zikir antara yang Sunnah dan Bid'ah (Tashih ad Dua) (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Translated by Abdul Rosyad Shiddik (first ed.). Saudi Arabia: Darul Falah, Dar al Ashimah. p. 150. ISBN 978-602-9208-20-7. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  46. ^ Al-Juzairi, Abdurrahman (2015). Fikih Empat Madzhab Jilid 6 [Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools] (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Translated by Saefuddin Zuhri; Rasyid Satari. Pustaka al Kautsar. p. 119. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  47. ^ ibn Anas, Malik (2007). AL MUWATTA' (THE APPROVED) 1-2 Ibn Malek VOL 1 الموطأ للامام مالك بن انس 1/2 [انكليزي/عربي]. Dar al Kotob Ilmiyah. pp. 8–506. ISBN 9782745155719. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  48. ^ Siddiqui, Mona (2012). "Drinking and Drunkenness in Ibn Rushd". The Good Muslim Reflections on Classical Islamic Law and Theology (Hardcover). Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-521-51864-2. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  49. ^ bn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd, Muḥammad I (2016). Zirzis, Achmad (ed.). Bidayatul Mujtahid Wa Nihayatul Muqtashid : Jilid 1 Referensi Lengkap Fikih Perbandingan Madzhab. Translated by Al-Mas'udah (first ed.). Cipinang Muara Raya, east Jakarta, Indonesia: Pustaka Al-Kautsar. p. 389. ISBN 978-979-592-757-0. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  50. ^ a b Philips 1990, p. 93
  51. ^ Adam, Sulthan (2019). Sifat Wudu dan Shalat Nabi ala Mazhab Syafi'i (Ebook) (Sq) (in Indonesian). Elex Media Komputindo. p. 55. ISBN 978-623-00-0241-0. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  52. ^ Caryle Murphy (15 July 2010). "A Kingdom Divided". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014. First, there is the void created by the 1999 death of the elder Bin Baz and that of another senior scholar, Muhammad Salih al Uthaymin, two years later. Both were regarded as giants in conservative Salafi Islam and are still revered by its adherents. Since their passing, no one "has emerged with that degree of authority in the Saudi religious establishment," said David Dean Commins, history professor at Dickinson College and author of "The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia."
  53. ^ ibn al-Uthaymeen, Muhammad. "الجهر بقراءة البسملة في الصلاة والخلاف فيه". binothaimeen.net. Sheikh Mohammed bin Saleh Al-Othaimeen Charitable Foundation. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  54. ^ al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar (2015). Terjemahan Paling Lengkap Bulughul Maram Jilid 1 Bulughul Maram Jilid 1 (in Indonesian). bisakimia. pp. 8–304. ISBN 978-602-7649-49-1. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  55. ^ ibn Sharaf an-Nawawī, Yaḥyā (2015). Syarah Hadits Arba'in An-Nawawi Dilengkapi TABEL Ringkasan Hafalan Hadits Arba'in (in Indonesian). Shahih. pp. IX-189. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  56. ^ ibn al-Uthaymeen, Muhammad (2020). Syarah Riyadh as Shalihin [commentary of The Meadows of the Righteous] (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Darul Falah. p. 360. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  57. ^ az-Zuhayli, Wahbah (2021). "Ihtizam Madhzab al-Mu'ayyan?". In Permadi, Budi (ed.). Fiqih Islam wa Adilatuhu Jilid 1 Pengantar Ilmu Fiqih; Tokoh-Tokoh Madzhab Fiqih; Niat; Thaharah; Shalat (al Fiqhu al Islamituhu wal Adilatuhu) (Ebook) (in Indonesian). Translated by Abdul Hayyie al-Kattani. Juanda Depok, West Java, Indonesia: Gema Insani. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-602-250-884-7. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  58. ^ a b Nāṣir al-Dīn Albānī, Muḥammad (1995). Silsilah hadits dha'if dan maudhu' Volume 3 (in Indonesian). Translated by A. M. Basalamah. Gema Insani Press. p. 205. ISBN 979-561-288-3. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  59. ^ Berger, J.M. (19 April 2011). "A Conversation About Jihad With Controversial Preacher Bilal Philips". news.intelwire.com. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  60. ^ Philips 1990, pp. 20–77
  61. ^ Subandi, Ayyub; bin Anshor, Saifullah (2020). "Fatwa MUI Tentang Pengurusan Jenazah Muslim yang Terinfeksi Covid-19 Ditinjau dari Perspektif Mazhab Syafi'i". BUSTANUL FUQAHA: Jurnal Bidang Hukum Islam. STIBA Makassar Institute. 1 (2): 235–250. doi:10.36701/bustanul.v1i2.149. S2CID 225894961. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  62. ^ Rahayu Sedyaningsih, Endang (2009). "JAMAAH HAJI 2010 GUNAKAN VAKSIN MENINGITIS HALAL". kemkes.go.id. Indonesian health ministry. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  63. ^ TIARA DEWI, AZEL; PUTRI HADIANINGSIH, NURBADLINA ANGGITA; RAHMA, FIRDHA; MILLATI ISLAMI, FETI; ZAENAL ABIDIN, MUHAMAD (2020). "HUKUM VAKSIN MININGITIS (Kelompok 9)". Politeknik Kesehatan Semarang. Retrieved 14 December 2021 – via Scribd.
  64. ^ Al-Fawzan, Saleh (2020). Ringkasan Fikih Lengkap Volume 1 (in Indonesian). Darul Falah. pp. 11–477. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  65. ^ REINHART, A. KEVIN (2010). "Juynbolliana, Graduahsm, the Big Bang, and Hadîth Study in the Twenty-First Century" (PDF). Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130 (3): 417. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  66. ^ "ON THE TRUTHFULNESS OF ABU HURAYRAH IN NARRATING HADITH". University of Malaya. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  67. ^ Ahmad Salus, Ali (2001). Ensiklopedi Sunnah dan Syiah Jilid 1 (Ebook) (Prof. Dr) (in Indonesian). Translated by Bisri Abdus Samad; Asmun Solihan Zamakhsyari (First ed.). Pustaka Al-Kautsar/Dar at Taqwa. p. 269. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  68. ^ al-Mizzi, Jamal ad-Din (1980). Tahzib al Kamal fi al Rijal (in Arabic). al-Maktabah at-Tijariyah Musthafa Ahmad al-Baz. p. 34. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  69. ^ Anas Fakhruddin, Mohammad. "Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-Ash, Sahabat yang Gemar Menulis Hadis". hadispedia.id (in Indonesian). El-Bukhari Institute. Retrieved 17 December 2021. أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ يَقُوْلُ: لَمْ يَكُنْ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَكْثَرَ حَدِيْثاً مِنِّي، إِلاَّ مَا كَانَ مِنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بنِ عَمْرٍو، فَإِنَّهُ يَكْتُبُ وَلاَ أَكْتُبُ "Abu Hurairah berkata, "Tidak ada salah seorang sahabat Rasulullah saw yang lebih banyak meriwayatkan hadis dibanding diriku kecuali Abdullah bin 'Amr, ia menulis hadis sedangkan aku tidak melakukannya".
  70. ^ al-Baghdadi, Al-Khatib. الكفاية في علم الرواية للخطيب البغدادي (in Arabic). Medina: Maktaba al Ilmiyyah. p. 398. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  71. ^ Ajaj al-Khatib, Muhammad (1982). Ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi, Tawfiq (ed.). كتاب أبو هريرة راوية الإسلام [The book of Abu Huraira, the narrator of Islam]. Cairo: Maktabah al Wahbah. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  72. ^ a b "Abu Hurayra and the Falsification of Hadith". al-islam.org. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  73. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2019). The Lost Art of Scripture. Random House. pp. 390–391. ISBN 978-1-4735-4727-8.
  74. ^ Saeed, Abdullah (2013). Reading the Qur'an in the Twenty-First Century: A Contextualist Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-97414-7.
  75. ^ a b c Khairuman, Badri (2021). "Kontroversi sahabat Nabi: Studi kritis pemikiran Abu Rayyah mengenai Abu Hurairah dan peranannya dalam periwayatan Hadis". Islam > Sahabat, Comapnions (in Indonesian). 1: 71–154. ISBN 9786236070949. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  76. ^ al-Tamimi, Ali. "Defense of Abu Hurayrah A Reply to some erroneous claims". Islam Web. Islam Web. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  77. ^ Aoude, Safia. "An overview of Muslim polemics on the muḥadith Abû Huraîrah and the question of his authenticity". Academia. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  78. ^ "دفاع عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه (عرض كتاب) رابط الموضوع". خاص شبكة الألوكة. خاص شبكة الألوكة. 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  79. ^ ibn al-Uthaymeen, Muhammad. "الرد على دعوى التقارب مع الرافضة". binothaimeen.net. Sheikh Mohammed bin Saleh Al-Othaimeen Charitable Foundation. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  80. ^ Burhanuddin Ubaidillah, Muhammad (2018). Kritik Maḥmūd Abū Rayyah terhadap Ḥadith dalam perspektif sosiologi pengetahuan (Doctorate thesis) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia). Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  81. ^ Khaeruman, Badri (2007). "On the Truthfulness of Abu Hurayrah in Narrating Hadith". Jurnal Usuluddin. Bandung, Indonesia: University Sunan Gunung Djati. 26. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  82. ^ Sochimin, Sochimin (2012). "TELAAH PEMIKIRAN HADIS MAHMUD ABU RAYYAH DALAM BUKU "AḌWA' 'ALA AL-SUNNAH AL-MUHAMMADIYAH"". HUNAFA Jurnal Studia Islamika. Hunafa. 9 (2): 271 (1–18). doi:10.24239/jsi.v9i2.77.271-300. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  83. ^ Hasrul (2016). "PEMIKIRAN HADIS MAHMUD ABU RAYYAH". UIN Syarif Hidayatullah (Thesis). Hunafa Syarif Hidayatullah Islamic University Jakarta. Retrieved 17 December 2021.

Bibliography[edit]