‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Ṣakhr ad-Dawsī al-Azdī (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن صخر الدوسي الأزدي; 603–681), born ‘Abd ash-Shams (Arabic: عبد الشمس), but better known by the kunyah Abu Hureyrah (Arabic: أبو هريرة, Abū Hureyrah, "Father of the Kitten"), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the most prolific narrator of hadith in Sunni hadith compilations. Abu Hureyrah spent 2 years in the company of Muhammad and went on expeditions and journeys with him. It is estimated that he narrated around 5,374 ahadiths. This has driven people to criticize him due to most of his hadiths being Aahad (the sermon was only witnessed by one person, or one region).
Abu Hureyrah was born in Baha, Yemen into the Banu Daws tribe from the region of Tihamah on the coast of the Red Sea. His father had died, leaving him with only his mother and no other relatives. His name at birth was Abd al-Shams ("Servant of the Sun"). However, as a child, he had a cat and became known as "Abu Hureyrah" (which literally means "Father of the Kitten" or more idiomatically "Of the kitten").
Abu Hureyrah embraced Islam through Tufayl ibn Amr the chieftain of his tribe. Tufayl had returned to his village after meeting Muhammad and become a Muslim in the early years of his mission. Abu Hureyrah was one of the first to respond to his call, unlike the majority of Tufayl's tribesmen. Abu Hureyrah accepted Islam after the battle of Kheyber, nearly 2.5 years before the death of Muhammad. Abu Hureyrah accompanied Tufayl to Mecca to meet Muhammad who renamed him Abd al-Rahman (servant of the Merciful, one of the 99 Names of God). Abu Hureyrah then returned to his tribe for many years.
Military campaigns during Muhammad's era
He was present during the Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa. Some scholars claim, the expedition took place in Nejd (a large area of tableland in the Arabian Peninsula) in Rabi‘ Ath-Thani or Jumada Al-Ula, 4 A.H (or beginning of 5AH). They substantiate their claim by saying that it was strategically necessary to carry out this campaign in order to quell the rebellious bedouins in order to meet the exigencies of the agreed upon encounter with the polytheists, i.e. minor Badr Battle in Sha‘ban, 4 A.H. Muhammed received the news that certain tribes of Banu Ghatafan were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with suspicious purposes.
Muhammad proceeded towards Nejd at the head of 400 or 700 men, after he had mandated Abu Dhar - in the Umayyad version, the Umayyad chief who killed Abu Dhar is given this honor: Uthman bin Affan - to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence. The Muslim fighters penetrated deep into their land until they reached a spot called Nakhlah where they came across some bedouins of Ghatfan.
The opinion according to Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, however, is that Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign took place after the fall of Khaibar (and not as part of the Invasion of Nejd). This is supported by the fact that Abu Hureyrah and Abu Musa Ashaari witnessed the battle. Abu Hureyrah embraced Islam only some days before Khaibar, and Abu Musa Al-Ash‘ari came back from Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and joined Muhammad at Khaibar. The rules relating to the prayer of fear which Muhammad observed at Dhat Ar-Riqa‘ campaign, were revealed at the Asfan Invasion and this scholars say, took place after Al-Khandaq (the Battle of the Trench).
Medina and Mecca
In 629 (7 AH) he went to Medina with some others from his tribe. Since Muhammad was absent due to the Battle of Khaybar, he stayed in the masjid. He had a wife, Bushra, according to Fadi'l Aa'mal.
His mother, Maymouna Bint Subaih, who was still a polytheist, was with him. He prayed for her to become a Muslim, but she refused.
One day, he again invited his mother to believe in the One God and His Prophet. She answered with some bad words about the Prophet. Abu Hureyrah went to the Prophet with tears in his eyes. “Why are you crying, Abu Hureyrah?” asked the Prophet. “I always invite my mother to Islam, and she always refuses,” said Abu Hureyrah. “I asked her again today. But she said some things about you that made me sad. Can you pray to Allah for her to turn to Islam?” The Prophet prayed for Abu Hureyrah’s mother to accept Islam. When Abu Hureyrah went home, he found the door closed. He heard the splashing of water. He tried to enter the house, but his mother said, “Wait a minute. Don’t come in yet.” Then she got dressed and said, “You can come in now.” When Abu Hureyrah went inside, his mother said, “I declare that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.” Abu Hureyrah again went to the Prophet crying. But this time his tears were tears of joy. “I have good news, Rasul'Allah ... Allah has answered your prayer and guided my mother to Islam.”
Abu Hureyrah wrote:
When I was afflicted with severe hunger, I would go to a companion of the Prophet and asked him about an ayah of the Qur'an and (stay with him) learning it so that he would take me with him to his house and give food. One day, my hunger became so severe that I placed a stone on my stomach. I then sat down in the path of the companions. Abu Bakr passed by and I asked him about an ayah of the Book of God. I only asked him so that he would invite me but he didn't. Then Umar ibn al-Khattab passed by me and I asked him about an ayah but he also did not invite me. Then the Messenger of Allah passed by and realized that I was hungry and said: "Abu Hureyrah!" "At your command" I replied and followed him until we entered his house. He found a bowl of milk and asked his family: "From where did you get this?" "Someone sent it to you" they replied. He then said to me: "O Abu Hureyrah, go to the Ahl as-Suffah and invite them." Abu Hureyrah did as he was told and they all drank from the milk. Abu Hureyrah then spent one year and ten months with Muhammad in Medina, before the Prophet's death on 8 June 632 in Medina.
Abu Hureyra helped pass and teach the religion of Islam on through narrating the traditions of the Prophet to the early Muslims.
While on the road to Makka for pilgrimage the wind blew so hard that ‘Umar asked: “Can anyone narrate to us something [from the Prophet] about the wind?” None of those present could answer. When news of this reached Abû Hureyrah, he rode up to ‘Umar and said: “Commander of the Believers! I was told that you asked about the wind, and I myself heard the Prophet say: ‘The wind is a spirit from Allâh. It brings mercy and it brings torment. Therefore, when you experience it, do not curse it but ask Allâh for its goodness and seek refuge in Him from its harm.’”
Death and legacy
Following the passing of Muhammad, Abu Hureyrah spent the rest of his life teaching hadith in Medina, except for a short period as governor of Bahrain during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. He was also governor of Medina during the rule of the early Umayyad caliphs. Abu Hureyrah died in 681 or 59 AH at the age of 78 and was buried at Al-Baqi'.
||This article possibly contains original research. (September 2007)|
They believe that he was blessed with an unfailing memory, a miracle from God, bestowed upon him after Muhammad prayed for him. They depict him as a man living an ascetic and humble life, cherishing knowledge and worship.
Sunnis perceive it as amazing how he had such a strong memory for hadith. They quote him, explain it as such:
- "I was a poor man, and used to stick to Allah's Apostle contented with what will fill my stomach, and the Muhajirin (emigrants) used to be busy trading in the markets, and the Ansar used to be busy looking after their properties. One day I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'Who will spread his Rida' (a garment covering the upper body) till I finished my speech and then fold it, (i.e. wear it), in which case he will never forget anything he had heard from me?" So I spread my garment which I was wearing; and by Him Who sent Muhammad with the Truth, ever since, I have never forgotten whatever I heard from him (the Prophet)."
Friendship with Muhammad
Sunni's portray Abu Hureyrah as one who loved the prophet a great deal and found favor with him. He was never tired of looking at the Prophet whose face appeared to him as having all the radiance of the sun and he was never tired of listening to him. Often he would praise God for his good fortune and say: "Praise be to God Who has guided Abu Hureyrah to Islam. Praise be to God Who has taught Abu Hureyrah the Quran. Praise be to God who has bestowed on Abu Hureyrah the companionship of Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace."
"On reaching Madinah, Abu Hureyrah set his heart on attaining knowledge. Zayd ibn Thabit, the notable companion of the Prophet reported: 'While Abu Hureyrah and I and another friend of mine were in the Masjid praying to God Almighty and performing dhikr to Him, the Messenger of God appeared. He came towards us and sat among us. We became silent and he said: "Carry on with what you were doing.'"
"So my friend and I made a supplication to God before Abu Hureyrah did and the Prophet began to say Ameen to our dua."
"Then Abu Hureyrah made a supplication saying: 'O Lord, I ask You for what my two companions have asked and I ask You for knowledge which will not be forgotten.'"
"The Prophet, peace be on him, said: 'Ameen.' "We then said: 'And we ask Allah for knowledge which will not be forgotten, and the Prophet replied: 'The Dawsi youth has asked for this before you.' With his formidable memory, Abu Hureyrah set out to memorize in the four years that he spent with the Prophet, the gems of wisdom that emanated from his lips. He realized that he had a great gift and he set about to use it to the full in the service of Islam."
He had free time at his disposal. Unlike many of the Muhajirin he did not busy himself in the market-places, with buying and selling. Unlike many of the Ansar, he had no land to cultivate nor crops to tend. He stayed with the Prophet in Madinah and went with him on journeys and expeditions.
- Narrated Abu Hureyrah: People say that I have narrated many Hadiths (The Prophet's narrations). Had it not been for two verses in the Qur'an, I would not have narrated a single Hadith, and the verses are: "Verily those who conceal the clear sign and the guidance which We have sent down ... (up to) Most Merciful." (al-Baqarah 2:159-160). And no doubt our Muhajir (emigrant) brothers used to be busy in the market with their business (bargains) and our Ansari brothers used to be busy with their property (agriculture). But I (Abu Hureyrah) used to stick to Allah's Apostle contented with what will fill my stomach and I used to attend that which they used not to attend and I used to memorize that which they used not to memorize. (Sahih Bukhari 1.118)
- Narrated Abu Hureyrah:
I said to Allah's Apostle "I hear many narrations (Hadiths) from you but I forget them." Allah's Apostle said, "Spread your Rida' (garment)." I did accordingly and then he moved his hands as if filling them with something (and emptied them in my Rida') and then said, "Take and wrap this sheet over your body." I did it and after that I never forgot any thing. (Sahih Bukhari 1.119, Sahih Bukhari 1.120)
Shi'a tradition rejects the authenticity of Abu Hureyrah's hadith, seldom accepting only when there are similar hadith narrated by Sahabah (companions) and family of Muhammad who are considered reliable by Shi'a. Abu Hureyrah only accepted Islam two years before prophet's death thousands of traditions from Mohammad. The Shi'a consider him an enemy of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain, due to having been in favour of Mu'awiya according to Shia sources, and thus hold him in low regard.
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 001, Book 003, Hadith Number 118
- El-Esabah Fi Tamyyz El Sahabah. P.7 p. 436.
- Shorter Urdu Encyclopedia of Islam, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1997, pg. 65.
- An Introduction To The Science Of Hadith, Islamic Awareness
- Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 224
- Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 240
- Siar Alam El Nubla, pp. 2, 578-79.
- Narrated by Ah.mad in his Musnad with two sound chains. The narration from the Prophet is also narrated from Abu Hurayra by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, while Muslim and al-Tirmidhi (h.asan) narrate from Aisha the wording of the Prophet’s invocation in case of strong wind.
- Abgad Elulm, pp.2, 179.
- Sunni links
- In defence of Abu Hureyrah (RA) - A Reply to some erroneous claims - islamicweb.com
- Narrations of Abu Hureyrah from Sunan Abu Dawud - ahadith.co.uk
- Narrations cited by Sahih Bukhari
- Narrations cited by Sahih Muslim
- ABU HUREYRA THE PARAGON OF THE PROPHETIC SUNNA by Shiekh G. F. Haddad
- Abu Hureyrah the Great Hadith Narrator - Twelvershia.net
- Shi'a links
- Abu Hureyrah - al-Islam.org
- Non-Muslim links
- Mausoleum of Abu Hureyrah - archnet.org