Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei
|Born||November 19, 1899|
|Died||August 8, 1992(aged 92)|
Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei pronunciation (help·info) AH-boo al KAH-sihm al HOO-EEE[needs IPA] (November 19, 1899 – August 8, 1992) was one of the most influential Twelver Shia Islamic scholars (marja'), and the predecessor to Ali al-Sistani. He was the spiritual leader of much of the Shia world until his death in 1992. He was succeeded by Ali al-Sistani, his former student, whereby many of his followers became followers of Al Sistani and foundations previously headed by Khoei were handed to Al Sistani.
Born in the Iranian city of Khoy, West Azerbaijan in 1899, Khoei grew up in Iran. Around the age of 13, he moved to Iraq and took up residence in the holy city of Najaf where he began studying Shia theology with the scholars of that city. He eventually attained the rank of Ayatollah and was subsequently made a marja. Khoei would continue to live in Najaf, becoming a teacher for the remainder of his life, and overseeing the studies of scholars who would be qualified to issue fatwas based on Shia theology.
Due to his prominent position as a teacher and scholar in Najaf, he became an important leader of worldwide Shias. He was made the most prominent Grand Ayatollah in 1971 after the death of Muhsin al-Hakim. In this position, he became a patron of numerous institutions across the globe that sought to provide welfare, and also provided scholarships to theological students from across the Muslim world.
He is considered as the architect of a distinct school of thought in the principles of jurisprudence and Islamic law, and one of the leading exponents of 'kalam'-scholastic theology- and 'rijal'- study of the biographies of transmitters of ahadith, the prophetic traditions, 'fiqh'- jurisprudence- and 'tafseer'- exegesis of the Qur'an. His interests included astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy.
Al-Khoei's status as the pre-eminent scholar of his age did not go unchallenged. In the 1970s, Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Al-Shirazi, a radical theologian based in Karbala had a long running feud with Al Khoei and his fellow clerics in Najaf over the legitimacy of theocratic rule. The dispute resulted in Al-Khoei seeking to dismiss Al Shirazi's status as a religious scholar.
After the Persian Gulf War, Khoei was arrested by Saddam Hussein during the mass Shia uprising that followed the defeat of Iraqi forces. While under arrest, he was taken to Baghdad and forced to make public appearances with Saddam Hussein. Hussein eventually allowed Khoei to return to Najaf, but he was placed under house arrest, and died in 1992 (1413 AH).
Ayatollah Al Khoei had 7 sons. The elder was Ayatollah Seyed Jamalodiin Al Khoei, then Seyad Abbas Al Khoei, then Sayed Ali Al Khoei, then Sayed Abdul Saheb Al Khoei, then Sayed Mohammed Taqi Al Khoei, then Sayed Abdul Majid Al Khoei and Sayed Ibrahim Al Khoei.
Soon after the fall of Baghdad to US forces in 2003 another one of his sons, Sayyid Abdul Majid al-Khoei returned to Iraq with plans to revive Najaf to the glory and splendor it enjoyed under the patronage of his father. Sayyid Abdul Majid al-Khoei was then the head of Al-Khoei Foundation, the organization responsible for the trusts of his father. He was assassinated on April 10, 2003, near the Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf.
He was fervently dedicated to establishing welfare, social, cultural, and educational institutions for Muslims worldwide. The following are some of the institutions he established:
- Imam Al-Khoei Islamic Center in New York
- Al-Iman School, New York, U.S.A.
- Imam As-Sadiq Education Institute for Boys, London, UK
- Az-Zahra Education Institute for Girls, London, UK
- Imam Al-Khoei Islamic Center, London, U.K
- Ahlul-Bayt University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
- Darul Hikmah (House of Theosophy)
- Madinatul Ilm (City of Knowledge) in Qom, Iran, considered one of the biggest theology centres in the Shia world. The complex comprises the school building and living quarters capable of accommodating 500 families.
- As-Sayyid Al-Khoei Center in Bangkok, Thailand.
- As-Sayyid Al-Khoei Center in Dhakkah, Bangladesh.
- Imam Al-Khoei Orphanage Beirut, Lebanon
- Imam-e-Zamana Mission Hyderabad, India (Madrasa, Orphanage, etc.)
- Najafi House Mumbai, India
He was also the patron of about 1,000 grant-maintained students of theology from Iraq and other countries like Lebanon, Syria, Persian Gulf States, India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, South East Asia. He provided financial support for maintaining the schools including boarding expenses, teachers' salaries and lodging costs.
Former student Ayatullah Seyyid Ali al-Sistani is currently the most senior Shia cleric in Iraq and widely regarded as "wield[ing] enormous power over Iraq's Shia majority." The degree of success of his articulation of moderate Shia politics in Iraq have been said to be "in no small part traceable to the legacy of his mentor and teacher", Khoei.
Khoei's post-graduate institute normally accommodated some 150 students, at any given time. Among the other students who attended classes and were personally supervised by Khoei included
- Ayatullah Seyyid Ali al-Sistani, Iraq
- Ayatullah Mirza Jawad Al Tabrizi
- Ayatullah Moslem Malakouti, Iran
- Ayatullah Al-Shaheed As-Sayyid Mohammad Baqir As-Sadr, Iraq
- As-Sayyid Mahdi Al-Hakim
- Sayyid Muhammad Hussein Fadlullah (Lebanon)
- Mohammad Mahdi Shamsuddin (Lebanon)
- Imam Mousa As-Sadr (Lebanon)
- Ayatullah Seyyid Mohammad sadiq Al-Rohani (Iran)
- Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili, former Chief Justice of Iran
- As-Sayyid Mohammad Ali Makki (Syria)
- As-Sayyid Mohammad Ali Bahrul 'Uloom (UK)
- Poet Mustafa Jamaluddin (Syria)
- Muhammad al-Tijani — a student
- Agha Syed Hamid Ali Shah al-Moosavi Pakistani shiites leader, Head of TNFJ
- Publishing House - Translation, printing and distribution of books worldwide, Karachi, Pakistan.
- Cultural Complex, Bombay, India. Considered among the biggest Shi' ite Muslims cultural centre-under construction.
- Representative Offices catering for the religious, social, educational, and cultural needs of Muslims all over the world, with the Headquarters in London, U. K. and branches in the United States, Canada, India, Pakistan, U.A. E., Oman, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, North Africa, Syria, Lebanon, Malaysia.
Khoei wrote on various topics, ranging from Islamic jurisprudence to mathematics and astronomy and was a prolific writer in these disciplines. He wrote 37 books and treatises, most of which have been published. His works include:
- Lectures in the Principles of Jurisprudence - 10 volumes
- Biographies of Narrators of Tradition - 24 volumes.
- Islamic Law - 18 volumes.
- Al-Bayan Fi Tafsir al-Quran (The Elucidation of the Exegesis of The Qur'an and sometimes entitled The Prolegomena to the Quran)
- Minhaju-us-Saliheen (The Path of the Righteous) - 2 volumes, reprinted 78 times (guide book on religious practice and law) .
- Anthology of Religious Questions - Concise version of the Path of the Righteous - in Arabic, Urdu, Persian, English, Turkish, * * Thai, Malay, Indonesian, and Gujarati.
- Mabani al-Istinbat (Edifices of Deduction) Principles of Jurisprudence.
- Ajwad-at-Taqrirat (The Best of Regulations) Principles of Jurisprudence.
- Sharh-el-Urwatul-Wuthqa (Commentary on The Steadfast Handle) - Jurisprudence.
- Treatise on Suspected Attire - Risala fil Libas Al-Mashkok, Evidential Jurisprudence.
- Nafahat-ul Ijaz (the Fragrance of Miracles), in defence of the Qur'an.
References and notes
- Has Kuwait reached the sectarian tipping point?, American Enterprise Institute, August 14, 2013
- Who's who in Iraq: Ayatollah Sistani, 26 August, 2004
- Nasr, Vali (2006). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam will shape the Future. Norton. p. 145. ISBN 0-393-06211-2.
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