Acacia mearnsii

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Black wattle
Acacia mearnsii blossoms.jpg
Acacia mearnsii on Maui
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Clade: Mimosoideae
Genus: Acacia
Species:
A. mearnsii
Binomial name
Acacia mearnsii
Acacia mearnsiiDistMap582.png
Occurrence data from AVH
Synonyms[1]
  • Acacia mearnsi De Wild. orth. var.
  • Racosperma mearnsii (De Wild.) Pedley
  • Racosperma mearnsii (De Wild.) Pedley isonym
  • Acacia decurrens var. mollis auct. non Lindl.: Black, J.M. (1924)
  • Acacia mollissima auct. non Willd.: Bentham, G. in Hooker, W.J. (1842)
  • Acacia mollissima auct. non Willd.: Black, J.M. (1924)

Acacia mearnsii, commonly known as black wattle, late black wattle or green wattle,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae and is endemic to south-eastern Australia. It is usually an erect tree with smooth bark, bipinnate leaves and spherical heads of pale yellow or cream-coloured flowers followed by black to reddish brown pods. In some other parts of the world, it is regarded as an invasive species.

Description[edit]

Acacis mearnsii is a spreading shrub or erect ree that typically grows to a height of 10 m (33 ft) and has smooth bark, sometimes corrugated at the base of old specimens. The leaves are bipinnate with 7 to 31 pairs of pinnae, each with 25 to 78 pairs of pinnules. There is a spherical gland up to 8 mm (0.31 in) below the lowest pair of pinnae. The flowers are arranged in spherical heads of twenty to forty and are pale yellow or cream-coloured, the heads on hairy peduncles 2–8 mm (0.079–0.315 in) long. Flowering mainly occurs from October to December and black to reddish-brown pods, 30–150 mm (1.2–5.9 in) long and 4.5–8 mm (0.18–0.31 in) wide develop from October to February.[2][3][4]

Taxonomy[edit]

Belgian naturalist Émile Auguste Joseph De Wildeman described the black wattle in 1925 in his book Plantae Bequaertianae.[5] The species is named after American naturalist Edgar Alexander Mearns, who collected the type from a cultivated specimen in East Africa.[6] Along with other bipinnate wattles, it is classified in the section Botrycephalae within the subgenus Phyllodineae in the genus Acacia. An analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA along with morphological characters found that the section is polyphyletic, though the close relationships of many species were unable to be resolved. Acacia mearnsii appears to be most closely related to A. dealbata, A. nanodealbata and A. baileyana.[7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

A. mearnsii is native to south-eastern Australia and Tasmania, but has been introduced to North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, Africa, and New Zealand.[8][9][10][11][12] In these areas it is often used as a commercial source of tannin or a source of firewood for local communities.

In some regions, introduced plants of this species are considered a weed. This is because they threaten native habitats by competing with indigenous vegetation, replacing grass communities, reducing native biodiversity and increasing water loss from riparian zones. In Africa, A. mearnsii competes with local vegetation for nitrogen and water resources, which are particularly scarce in certain regions, endangering the livelihoods of millions of people. [13]

In its native range A. mearnsii is a tree of tall woodland and forests in subtropical and warm temperate regions. In Africa the species grows in disturbed areas, range/grasslands, riparian zones, urban areas, water courses, and mesic habitats at an altitude of between 600-1700m. In Africa it grows in a range of climates including warm temperate dry climates and moist tropical climates. A. mearnsii is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of between 66 to 228 centimetres (26 to 90 in), an annual mean temperature of 14.7 to 27.8 °C (58.5 to 82.0 °F), and a pH of 5.0 – 7.2.[14] A. mearnsii does not grow well on very dry and poor soils.[15]

Ecology in Australia[edit]

A. mearnsii plays an important role in the ecosystem in its native Australia. As a pioneer plant it quickly binds the erosion-prone soil following the bushfires that are common in its Australian habitats. Like other leguminous plants, it fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. Other woodland species can rapidly use these increased nitrogen levels provided by the nodules of bacteria present in their expansive root systems. Hence they play a critical part in the natural regeneration of Australian bushland after fires.

Acacia mearnsii seed pods
  • Consumption and excretion: The seeds are potentially distributed by rodents or birds.[16]
  • For ornamental purposes (local)
  • By animals: The dispersal of the seeds of A . mearnsii is believed to be aided by cattle and birds.[17]
  • By people: Local people collecting branches and logs for firewood may spread seeds.[18]
    • Transportation of soil: The seeds may also be spread by the movement of seed-contaminated soil.[19]
  • By water: The hard-coated seeds are spread readily down water courses.[19]

Mycorrhizal fungi attach to the roots to produce food for marsupial animals, and these animals in turn disperse the spores in their droppings to perpetuates the symbiotic relationship between wattle's roots and the mycorrhizal fungi.

The cracks and crevices in the wattle's bark are home for many insects and invertebrates. The rare Tasmanian hairstreak butterfly lays her eggs in these cracks, which hatch to produce caterpillar larva attended by ants (Iridomyrmex sp.) that feed off the sweet exudates from the larva.[citation needed] A. mearnsii is used similarly as a larval host plant and food source by the imperial hairstreak, Jalmenus evagoras.[20]

The tree is home to various grubs, such as wood moths, which provide a food source to the Australian black cockatoos, who strip the bark for access to these borers.

During winter insects, birds and marsupials are hosted by the black wattle with the aid of their supplies of nectar in their leaf axials. These creatures provide an important predatory role to deal with tree die back caused by scarab beetles and pasture pests.

Black wattles, along with gums, native box, native hop form the framework vegetation on so-called "hill-topping" sites. They are often isolated remnant pockets of native vegetation amongst a lower sea of exotic pasture. These "hill topping" sites are critical habitat for male butterflies to attract females for mating, which then lay their eggs under the wattle's bark elsewhere but still within close proximity. It's the only acceptable mating site in the area for these butterflies.

Black wattle flowers provide very nitrogen rich pollen with no nectar. They attract pollen-feeding birds such as wattlebirds, yellow-throated honeyeaters and New Holland honeyeaters. The protein rich nectar in the leaf axials is very sustaining for nurturing the growth of juvenile nestlings and young invertebrates, e.g. ants.

Ants harvest the seed, attracted by the fleshy, oil rich elaiosome (or seed stalk), which they bury and store in widely dispersed locations. These seeds are buried ready for germinating with the next soaking rains. However a "wattle seed-eating insect' which enjoys liquid meals using its proboscis-like injector to pierce the testa and suck out the embryo often reduces the seeds viability.[21]

Status as an invasive species[edit]

In some parts of the world, A. mearnsii is considered to be an invasive species. Its invasiveness is due to its production of large numbers of seeds each year and to its large crown that shades other species.[22]

Uses[edit]

The Ngunnawal people of the Australian Capital Territory use the gum as food and to make cement (when mixed with ash), and to ensure a supply of sap, the bark was cut in the autumn.[23] The bark was also used to make coarse rope and string, and used to be infused in water to make a medicine for indigestion.[23]

Reproduction[edit]

A. mearnsii produces copious numbers of small seeds that are not dispersed actively. The species may resprout from basal shoots following a fire.[8] It also generates numerous suckers that result in thickets consisting of clones.[8] Seeds may remain viable for up to 50 years.[24]

Chemistry[edit]

Leuco-fisetinidin, a flavan-3,4-diol (leucoanthocyanidin) and a monomer of the condensed tannins called profisetinidins, can be extracted from the heartwood of A. mearnsii.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Acacia mearnsii". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b Kodela, Phillip G. "Acacia mearnsii". Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment: Canberra. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  3. ^ Kodela, Phillip G. "Acacia mearnsii De Wild". Royal Botanic Garden Sudney. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Acacia mearnsii". Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Acacia mearnsii". APNI. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  6. ^ Tame, Terry; Phillip Kodela; Barry Conn; Ken Hill (June 2001). "WattleWeb – Acacia mearnsii". Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
  7. ^ Brown, Gillian K.; Ariati, Siti R.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Miller, Joseph T. H.; Ladiges, Pauline Y. (1991). "Bipinnate acacias (Acacia subg. Phyllodineae sect. Botrycephalae) of eastern Australia are polyphyletic based on DNA sequence data". Australian Systematic Botany. 19 (4): 315–26. doi:10.1071/SB05039.
  8. ^ a b c PIER, 2003. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk web
  9. ^ Adair, R. (2002). Black Wattle: South Africa Manages Conflict of Interest. CABI Biocontrol News March 2002, Volume 23 No. 1. web Archived 4 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Paiva, J. 1999. Acacia. In Talavera, S. Aedo, C, Castroviejo, S, Romero Zarco, C, Sáez, L, Salgueiro, F.J & Velayos, (ed). Flora Iberica – Plantas Vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol.VII(I). Leguminosae. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIS. Madrid. ISBN 84-00-06221-3. pp. 11- 25.
  11. ^ Franco, J.A. 1971. Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Açores). Vol. 1. Franco, J.A. (Ed.). Lisboa.
  12. ^ Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. 1992. Flora Europaea. Vol.2 Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. (reprint). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-06662-X, pp. 84–85
  13. ^ Jose, Shibu; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar (2013). Invasive Plant Ecology. CRC Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4398-8126-2.
  14. ^ Duke, J. A. 1983. Acacia mearnsii. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. web
  15. ^ Franco, J.A. 1943. Dendrologia Florestal. Lisboa.
  16. ^ Carr, G. D. Acacia mearnsii University of Hawaii, Botany Department. web
  17. ^ Milton, S.J., Dean W.R.J. and Richardson, D.M. 2003. Economic Incentives for Restoring Natural Capital in Southern African Rangelands, Front Ecol Environ+C26 1 (5): 247,254.
  18. ^ Sankaran, K. V. (2002). Black Wattle Problem Emerges in Indian Forests. CABI Biocontrol News March 2002 23(1) web page (archived 2005)
  19. ^ a b De Wit, M.P., Crookes, D.J. and Van Wilgen, B.W. 2001. Conflicts of Interest in Environmental Management: Estimating the Costs and Benefits of a Tree Invasion, Biological Invasions: 3 167 – 178.
  20. ^ Biology of Australian butterflies. Kitching, R. L. (Roger Laurence), 1945-, CSIRO (Australia). Collingwood, VIC, Australia: CSIRO Pub. 1999. ISBN 978-0643050273. OCLC 40792921.CS1 maint: others (link)
  21. ^ Australian Plants Society (Tasmania), June 2000
  22. ^ "Acacia mearnsii". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  23. ^ a b Ngunnawal Elders (2014) 'Ngunnawal Plant Use.' ACT Government: Canberra
  24. ^ "Alien Invader Plants". 2002. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  25. ^ Roux, D. G.; Paulus, E. (1962). "Condensed tannis. 12. Polymeric leucofisetinidin tannins from the heartwood of Acacia mearnsii". The Biochemical Journal. 82 (2): 320–324. doi:10.1042/bj0820320. PMC 1243455. PMID 14494576.

External links[edit]