List of academic ranks

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Not to be confused with Academic degree.

This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars in academia. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema.

Afghanistan[edit]

  • 1. پوهاند - Professor
  • 2. پوهنوال - Associate Professor
  • 3. پوهندوی - Assistant Professor (Higher Rank)
  • 4. پوهنمل - Assistant Professor (Lower Rank)
  • 5. پوهنیار - Lecturer
  • 6. پوهیالی - Assistant Lecturer
  • 7. نامزد پوهنیار - Lecturer Candidate
  • 8. نامزد پوهیالی - Assistant Lecturer Candidate

Algeria[edit]

In Algeria, university teachers are initially recruited - on the basis of a competition - at the rank of Maître Assistant (Assistant Professor), only if they are holding a Doctoral degree from either local public universities or UNESCO officially accredited and internationally recognized foreign institutions of higher education . Not all foreign PhD's or academic titles are accepted or automatically given local equivalencies . Degree granting Universities and their doctoral programs (i.e.;courses & dissertation) are first evaluated by the National Ministry of higher education equivalency committee before an official equivalency decision to the Algerian Doctorate is granted . After a minimum of three years and - on the basis of a competition based on teaching and scholarly work - assistant professors are allowed to apply to compete for promotion to the rank of Maître de Conférences (Associate Professor). After a minimum of five years, they can similarly - on the basis of a competition based on teaching and scholarly work - apply for promotion to the rank of Professeur de l'Enseignement Superieur (Full Professor). All applications for the competition to promotion competitions are first evaluated and ranked by the University scientific committees at faculty and university levels, then by the Ministry of higher education promotion committee before an official promotion decision is to be granted . The whole process (French system legacy) is quite long and extremely competitive, and does not allow for automatic rank equivalency for professors transferring from overseas universities, the lengthy process repeat from assistant professor upwards to professor is inevitable, exceptions made to officially invited visiting professors who are well-known experts in their fields of expertise.

Source: Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research - Algiers

Australia[edit]

  • Level A - Tutor/Associate Lecturer; equivalent to Lecturer/Assistant Professor at a US university or Lecturer at a UK university.
  • Level B - Lecturer; equivalent to Assistant Professor at a US university or Senior Lecturer at a UK university.
  • Level C - Senior Lecturer; equivalent to (Pre-tenure) Associate Professor at a US university or Senior/Principal Lecturer at a UK university.
  • Level D - Reader/Associate Professor; equivalent to Associate Professor with tenure at a US university or Reader at a UK university.
  • Level E - Professor; equivalent to Full Professor (with a Chair) at a US university or Professor at a UK university.

Bangladesh[edit]

Teachers are categorized in four main classes in Bangladesh at University level. The ascending rank of teacher is Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Lecturer is generally enrolled as the top student of the class. Master's degree is required for normal university level Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Assistant Professor, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.

Belgium[edit]

Dutch speaking community[edit]

  • Gewoon hoogleraar (full professor, full-time) (professor ordinarius)
  • Deeltijds gewoon hoogleraar (part-time full professor) (previously: professor extraordinarius)
  • Hoogleraar (professor)
  • Hoofddocent (associate professor)
  • Docent (assistant professor)
  • Doctor-assistent (postdoc research assistant)
  • Assistent (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rector
  • Vice-Rector
  • Decaan (dean, i.e. head of a faculty)

French community[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (visiting professor in Switzerland, part-time professor in Belgium)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (associate professor, tenured)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de Conférences (senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant, with Ph.D.)
  • Chargé de recherche (researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

  • Asistent - assistant (Must hold at least Masters Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold PhD, Doctorate or pre-Bologna Magister Degree with evidence of further study to doctoral level. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Vanredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
  • Profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty or school at the university
  • Šef katedre - head of department

Honorary ranks

  • Profesor emeritus - professor emeritus

Brazil[edit]

There is no official academic ranking in Brazilian private universities. However, most of the public Federal Universities apply the following (from the highest position to the lowest one):

  • Professor Emérito (professor emeritus)
  • Professor Titular (full professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Associado (associate professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Adjunto (adjunct professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Assistente (assistant professor; lecturer) - only a master's degree is required
  • Professor Auxiliar (assistant lecturer) - no post-graduation degree is required
  • Professor Substituto ou Temporário (substitute lecturer)

Bulgaria[edit]

  • Assistant professor – Асистент
  • Chief assistant professor – Главен Асистент
  • Docent – Доцент – associate professor
  • Professor – Професор – full professor
University
  • Assistant professor – Асистент
  • Chief assistant professor – Главен Асистент
  • Docent – Доцент – associate professor
  • Professor – Професор – full professor
Academy of Sciences
  • Scientist III: after Master thesis or Diploma, equal to Assistant
  • Scientist II: after Doctoral thesis/PhD/Dissertation, after Dr. Grade (3–5 or 7 years work after Master), equal Chef Assistant, *Associate or Post Doc
  • Scientist I: After second Post Doc (1 or 2 years work after PhD/Dr), equal Senior Assistant or Senior Associate.
  • Senior Scientist I: after PhD (USA, UK....) or Doctoral dissertation/thesis (France, Germany, Russia...) and some years of *Post-Doc, equal of Assoc. Prof.
  • Senior Scientist II: after Habilitation, equal to Professor
  • Full Professor
Higher administration of the academy of sciences
  • Member of correspondence for the Academy of Science (after professor/habilitation), very rare
  • Academic: after member of correspondence (for the entire of Bulgaria).
Administrative ranks
  • Rector
  • Vice-rectors
  • Assistant rector
  • Secretary general
  • Academic ombudsman

Canada[edit]

Faculty appointment

  • Distinguished professor or university professor (distinguished professor emeritus, university professor emeritus; Fr professeur émérite)
  • Professor or full professor (research professor, professor of practice, visiting professor, adjunct professor, professor emeritus; Fr professeur titulaire)
  • Associate professor (research associate professor, visiting associate professor, adjunct associate professor; Fr professeur agrégé)
  • Assistant professor (research assistant professor, adjunct assistant professor; Fr professeur adjoint)
  • Lecturer or instructor (sessional lecturer or sessional instructor; Fr chargé de cours)

Assistant professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty.

Non-faculty teaching and research personnel

Administrative ranks

  • Dean (often also full professors)
  • Associate dean (often also full professors)
  • Directors of administrative departments
  • Associate/assistant directors of administrative departments
  • Chairs of academic departments (usually full professors)
  • Graduate Coordinators
  • Undergraduate Coordinators

Croatia[edit]

  • Redoviti profesor u trajnom zvanju equivalent to distinguished professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Redoviti profesor equivalent to full professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Izvanredni profesor equivalent to associate professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Docent equivalent to assistant professor (doc. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Viši asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, PhD (dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, usually a PhD student
  • Viši predavač equivalent to senior lecturer
  • Predavač equivalent to lecturer

Honorary academic rank

  • Professor emeritus - awarded to some full professors in retirement

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor equivalent to rector, head of university (in USA equivalent to president of university)
  • Prorektor equivalent to prorector, assistant to head of university (in USA equivalent to vice-president of university)
  • Dekan equivalent to dean, head of faculty or school in university
  • Prodekan equivalent to vice-dean, assistant to dean
  • Pročelnik odsjeka equivalent to department chair
  • Predstojnik zavoda equivalent to head of department
  • Predstojnik katedre equivalent to head of chair

Cuba[edit]

Tenured:

  • Professor (Professor Titular)(full/part-time, PhD required)
  • Auxiliary Professor (Professor Auxiliar)(full/part-time)
  • Teaching Assistant (Assistante)(full/part-time)
  • Lecturer (Instructor)(full/part-time)

Cyprus[edit]

Tenure-track faculty positions

  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer

Non-tenure track positions

  • Special teaching personnel
  • Special scientists

Estonia[edit]

  • Emeriitprofessor (professor emeritus)
  • Professor
  • Dotsent (associate professor)
  • Lektor (lecturer)
  • Õpetaja (teacher)

France[edit]

Faculty Research-only Teaching-only Part-time
Permanent positions Professeur des universités or Directeur d'études Directeur de recherche Professeur des universités associé
Maître de conférences Chargé de recherche professeur agrégé or professeur certifié Maître de conférences associé
Temporary positions Attaché temporaire d'enseignement et de recherches (ATER) Post-doctorant Chargé d'enseignement
Doctorant contractuel chargé d'enseignement Doctorant contractuel

Ghana[edit]

Academic Positions

  • Emeritus Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor / Council Chair
  • Vice-chancellor/ President/ Rector
  • Pro-vice-chancellor/ Vice President/ Vice Rector
  • Provost
  • Deans of faculties/ schools
  • Vice Deans of faculties/ schools
  • Heads of departments
  • Registration Officer
  • Examination Officer

Greece[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus (Greek: Ομότιμος Καθηγητής (male) / Ομότιμος Καθηγήτρια or Ομότιμη Καθηγήτρια (female)).

Αn honorary title for people at the rank of Professor who have reached the legal age for retirement; If they wish, they have the right, for a limited time after retirement, to continue their research projects.

  • Professor (Καθηγητής (male) / Καθηγήτρια (female)).
  • Associate Professor (Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής (male) / Αναπληρώτρια Καθηγήτρια (female)).
  • Assistant Professor (Επίκουρος Καθηγητής (male) / Επίκουρος Καθηγήτρια or Επίκουρη Καθηγήτρια (female)).
  • Lecturer (in Universities and Technical Universities: Λέκτορας (both male and female)/ in Technological Educational Institutes: Καθηγητής Εφαρμογών (male) / Καθηγήτρια Εφαρμογών (female)). This academic rank existed only from 1982 to 2011.[1]
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor (Εντεταλμένος Επίκουρος Καθηγητής (male) / Εντετελμένη Επίκουρος Καθηγήτρια or Εντεταλμένης Επίκουρη Καθηγήτρια (female) or Adjunct Lecturer (Εντεταλμένος Λέκτορας (male) / Εντεταλμένη Λέκτορας (female).)

A temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct Lecturers and Assistant Professors are sometimes called simply as "407" or "P.D. 407", after the number of the Decree.

  • Teaching assistant.

This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain teaching assistants until retirement.

Administrative ranks (Universities and Technical Universities)

  • Rector (Πρύτανης).
  • Vice-rector (Αντιπρύτανης).
  • Secretary General (Γενικός Γραμματέας (male) / Γενική Γραμματέας (female)).
  • Dean (Κοσμήτορας)
  • Deputy Dean (Αναπληρωτής Κοσμήτορας (male) / Αναπληρώτρια Κοσμήτορας (female)).
  • Chairman of the Department (Πρόεδρος Τμήματος).
  • Deputy Chairman of the Department (Αντιπρόεδρος Τμήματος).
  • Director of the Section (Διευθυντής Τομέα (male) / Διευθύντρια Τομέα (female)).

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors. The only exception is Secretary General, who is not a faculty member.

Administrative ranks (Technological Educational Institutes)

  • President (Πρόεδρος).
  • Vice-president (Αντιπρόεδρος).
  • Secretary General (Γενικός Γραμματέας (male) / Γενική Γραμματέας (female)).
  • Director of the School (Διευθυντής Σχολής (male) / Διεθύντρια Σχολής (female)).
  • Supervisor of the Department (Προϊστάμενος Τμήματος (male) / Προϊσταμένη Τμήματος (female)).
  • Director of the Section (Διευθυντής Τομέα (male) / Διευθύντρια Τομέα (female)).

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors.

Guyana[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus (on retirement)
  • Professor
  • Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer II
  • Lecturer I
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Tutor
  • Laboratory Demonstrator

Administrative ranks

Hong Kong[edit]

Academic ranks
In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor, associate professor, and assistant professor). Institutions established in the 1980s and 1990s almost entirely follows the North American system, while older ones, notably the University of Hong Kong is in the process of transition.[2] Depending on institutions, the title of "professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above.

  • Chair professor
  • Emeritus professor
  • Honorary professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer
  • Research assistant professor
  • Post-doctoral fellow
  • Adjunct (associate/assistant) professor
  • Professional consultant or teaching consultant/fellow
  • Research associate
  • Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator)
  • Postgraduate or graduate
  • Undergraduate

Administrative ranks

Iceland[edit]

In Icelandic universities, especially The University of Iceland, prófessor is the most senior ranking teaching position. Below prófessor is dósent, then lektor. This three step hierarchy is akin to the US-scale, of full-, associate- and assistant-professors. Until the early 1990s no upward mobility was available in the Icelandic system. Most university teachers were hired as "prófessor." A "dósent" or a "lektor" wishing to ascend to a higher rank had to apply for a new position when it became available. Currently (since the 1990s) much more university teachers are hired as junior rank "lektor" and are promoted to "dósent" and "prófessor" if their work proves worthy of it.

  • Prófessor
  • Dósent (associate-professors)
  • Lektor (assistant-professors)

India[edit]

Regular Academic ranks (Hierarchy from top): Academic institutions in India have the mandate of teaching, training and research. This also includes research universities.

  1. Professor
  2. Associate Professor
  3. Assistant Professor
  4. In addition to these, there are government sponsored fellowships such as Ramanujan & Ramalingaswami. The fellowship is awarded to able candidates for a 5-year contract period during which they are hosted by an academic or research organisation. Their primary function is to carry out high quality original research. They may become a regular faculty as an assistant professor or associate professor during this period subject to their performance.
  5. Assistant Professor (on contract) / Adhoc faculty - They are primarily involved in teaching for a limited contract period typically 6 months - 1 year.

Research ranks (Hierarchy from top): Research institutions such as national labs have a different kind of hierarchy and are primarily concerned with basic and applied research. They guide Ph.D students in their research thesis but do not grant degrees. In most cases the Ph.D candidates are registered with another University which grants the degree. Awarding of degree is subjected to meeting the same criteria as Ph.D guided by university professors.

  1. Scientist H
  2. Scientist G
  3. Scientist F
  4. Scientist E (in some cases EII)
  5. Scientist D (in some cases EI)
  6. Scientist C
  7. Scientist B

Non-faculty ranks

  1. Research associate (postdoctoral fellows)
  2. Senior research fellow (Ph.D students after completing two years of course work and research)
  3. Junior research fellow (Newly joined Ph.D candidates)

Administrative ranks in Universities

  1. Chancellor
  2. Vice Chancellor
  3. Pro Vice Chancellor
  4. Deans / Directors
  5. Chairs / HODs / Wardens

Administrative ranks in Research Institutions

  1. Director General
  2. Director
  3. Chair of Departments / Divisions

Indonesia[edit]

Academic ranks There are 4 academic ranks which can be categorized to 9 main levels with one or more rates within each rank.

  1. Asisten Ahli (Associate Lecturer, rates: 100, 150)
  2. Dosen (Lecturer, rates: 200, 300)
  3. Dosen Kepala (Senior Lecturer, rates: 400, 550, 700)
  4. Guru Besar (professor)
    • Guru Besar Madya (Associate Professor) - Rate 850
    • Guru Besar (Professor) - Rate 1050

Administrative ranks (university)

  • Rektor (Rector)
  • Wakil Rektor (Vice Rector)
  • Dekan (Dean)
  • Wakil Dekan (Vice Dean)
  • Ketua Jurusan (Head of Department)
  • Kepala Program Studi (Head of Programme)

Iran[edit]

Holders of master's degrees when granted to teach in a college:

  • Instructor - مربی

Holders of Ph.D. degrees:

  • Assistant professor - استادیار
  • Associate professor - دانشیار
  • Professor - استاد
  • distinguished Professor - استاد ممتاز
  • Ostād Momtāz استاد ممتاز (Distinguished professor. The rank existed only in University of Tehran)
  • Ostād استاد (professor)
  • Daneshyār دانشیار (associate professor)
  • Ostādyār استادیار (assistant professor)
  • Morabbi مربی (Instructor)

Emeritus ranks

Administrative ranks

  • Chancellor
  • Dean
  • Head of department

Iraq[edit]

Holders of master's degrees can be (in ascending order):

  • Assistant lecturer (محاضر مساعد)
  • Lecturer (محاضر)
  • Assistant professor (أستاذ مساعد)
  • Professor (أستاذ)

Holders of PhD degrees can be (in ascending order):

  • Lecturer (محاضر)
  • Assistant professor (أستاذ مساعد)
  • Professor (أستاذ)

Note: Holders of PhD degrees are automatically promoted to lecturer if they were assistant lecturers before they received their PhD.

  • استاذ equivalent to professor.
  • استاذ مساعد equivalent to associate professor.
  • مدرس equivalent to assistant professor in American Universities (with PhD) or with researches.
  • مدرس مساعد Assistant lecturer (without PhD).

Israel[edit]

Academic:

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor Min Haminyan (full prof.)
  • Professor Chaver
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer

Administrative Ranks:

  • President
  • Rector
  • Dean
  • Department Chair

Japan[edit]

Tenured or non-tenured faculty[note 1]

  • Professor emeritus, Meiyo Kyōju (名誉教授?)
  • Professor, Kyōju (教授?)
  • Associate professor, Junkyōju (准教授?)
  • Lecturer / Instructor, Kōshi (講師?)
  • Assistant professor / Research Associate, Jokyō (助教?) (previously, Joshu (助手?))

The Japanese system includes non-tenure, term-limited, tokunin (特任?) positions at all ranks, including professor. These are referred to as ninki tsuki (任期付き?) positions and officially include tokunin in the title. Limited tenure track positions (similar to the United States) have recently been introduced ("tenure". 国立研究開発法人 科学技術振興機構. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ). In this system Jokyō (助教?) corresponds to assistant professor. A major difference between the United States system and Japan is that granting of tenure and promotion to associate professor are not linked; one may be tenured yet remain and assistant professor. Advancing upward typically requires a higher-level post to be vacated, even in the new tenure-track system.

Latvia[edit]

Administrative positions:

  • Rektors (male), Rektore (female) (rector)
  • Dekāns (male), Dekāne (female) (dean), head of a faculty (human sciences, natural sciences etc.)
  • Nodaļas vadītājs (male) Nodaļas vadītāja (female) (department manager), head of a department (computer science, mathematics etc.)

Academic positions:

  • Profesors (male) Profesore (female) Professor
  • Asociētais profesors (male) Asociētā profesore (female) associate professor
  • Docents (male), Docente (female) (assistant professor), usually almost the same teaching/research/administration division as professor, Doctoral Degree required
  • Lektors (male), Lektore (female) Lecturer. Requires MA degree
  • Asistents (male), Asistente (female) research or teaching assistant

Lebanon[edit]

Academic positions at the Lebanese American University:

  • Instructor
  • Senior Instructor
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Professor
  • Distinguished Professor

Libya[edit]

  • Professor (أستاذ)
  • Associate professor (أستاذ مشارك)
  • Assistant professor (أستاذ مساعد)
  • Lecturer (محاضر)
  • Assistant lecturer (محاضر مساعد )

Macau[edit]

At the University of Macau there are nine levels of faculty rank, namely

  • Chair professor,
  • Distinguished professor,
  • Professor,
  • Associate professor,
  • Assistant professor
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Senior instructor
  • Instructor

At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels

  • professor (professor coordenador)
  • associate professor (professor adjuncto)
  • lecturer (assistente)

Macedonia[edit]

  • Demonstrator, Демонстратор-(Graduate employee in a university)
  • Younger assistant, Помлад Асистент-(B.Sc.)
  • Assistant, Асистент-(M.Sc.)
  • Docent, Доцент-(Ph.D.)
  • Vonreden Professor, Вонреден Професор-(associate professor)
  • Professor, Професор-(full-time professor)
  • Professor emeritus, Пензиониран Професор-(retired professor)
  • Academic, Академик-(academician)

Administrative positions:

  • Pomlad referent, Помлад референт- (Younger Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Referent, Референт- (Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Postar Referent, Постар Референт- (Senior Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Pomlad Sorabotnik, Помлад Соработник- (Younger Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Sorabotnik, Соработник- (Аssociate) -Associate Degree
  • Postar Sorabotnik, Постар Соработник- (Senior Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Rakovoditel na studentski prasanja, Раководител на студентски прашања- (Head of Students Affairs) -Bachelor's degree
  • Rakovoditel na katedra/institut, Раководител на катедра/институт- (Head of Department/Institute) -Ph.D.
  • Prodekan, Продекан- (Vice Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Dekan, Декан- (Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Prorektor, Проректор- (Vice Rector) -Ph.D.
  • Rektor, Ректор- (Rector) -Ph.D.

Malta[edit]

  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer

Mexico[edit]

The ranking system in most Mexican public universities is as follows

  • Professor Asociado A (early assistant professor or senior postdoc)
  • Professor Asociado B (early assistant professor or senior postdoc)
  • Professor Asociado C (early assistant professor or senior postdoc)
  • Professor Titular A (equivalent to assistant professor or lecturer)
  • Professor Titular B (equivalent to associate professor or reader)
  • Professor Titular C (equivalent to full professor or professor)
  • Professor Emerito (equivalent to distinguished professor, not to be confused with emeritus professor)

Usually Mexican academics are also fellows of the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI) that has four levels (candidate, I, II and III) that more or less correlate (but are not equivalent) to the Asociado and Titular A, B, and C professorships. The rank as professor is determined by the individual's institution while the SNI level is determined by an independent committee that evaluates the researchers nationwide. Thus for research institutions a SNI I researcher level would roughly be equivalent to a postdoc or 'assistant professor', a SNI II equivalent to an associate professor and a SNI III equivalent to a full professor.

Also:

  • Professor emeritus (not higher rank but lifetime title)
  • Full-time researcher
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor

Often described (in Spanish) as Associate Professor (professor asociado) A, B or C (indicating their level from lower to higher)

Research titles are linked to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores given by the national research council (Conacyt):

  • SNI emeritus researcher (not necessarily higher rank but lifetime, requires 15 years in SNI III)
  • SNI III researcher
  • SNI II researcher
  • SNI I researcher
  • SNI candidate researcher (C)

All titles, both professors and researchers, can be given in a:

  • Full-time, or
  • Part-time basis

Administrative academic positions:

  • Rector
  • Director of Faculty or College
  • Coordinator

Nigeria[edit]

Academic Positions

  • Emeritus Professor (retired)
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor / Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer I
  • Lecturer II
  • Assistant Lecturer

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor
  • Vice-chancellor
  • Deputy vice-chancellor
  • Pro-vice-chancellor
  • Deans of faculties(some are referred to as provost)
  • Heads of departments/schools
  • Department/school directors of studies

Nepal[edit]

Academic Positions

1. Professor Emeritus

2. Associate professor

3. Assistant Professor

4. Teaching Assistant

5. Instructor

6. Assistant Instructor

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor
  • Vice-chancellor
  • Rector
  • Registrar
  • Deans of faculties
  • Heads of departments/schools

Pakistan[edit]

The hiring of academic positions in public universities throughout Pakistan is managed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, the requirement for all positions vary with respect to the field of studies e.g. Engineering, IT, Medical, Law, and Arts and Design.

There are four faculty ranks lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.

In engineering public universities, a lecturer requires a M.Sc. or B.Sc. degree and high academic standing in the field (e.g. gold medallist, among top 15 students of graduating class). An assistance professor position requires a Ph.D. in relevant field and at least two years of teaching/research/professional experience. An associate professorship can be conducted in the fourth year of employment, although, it is becoming more common for promotion and tenure to be awarded in the sixth year of employment. The review requires a certain number 5/8/10 research publications (with at least 1/2/4[jargon] publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals.

A professor requires ten years post-PhD teaching/research experience in an HEC recognized university or a post-graduate institution or professional experience in the relevant field in a national or international organization. It requires a minimum of 8/12/15 research publications (with at least 2/3/5 publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Meritorious Professor/ Distinguished National Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer
  • Lab Engineer
  • Research Associate

Philippines[edit]

  • Professor I-VI
  • Associate Professor I-VI
  • Assistant Professor I-VI
  • Instructor I-VI
  • Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)
  • Guest Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)

(Ranks reach up to the 12th level at the University of the Philippines)

Dedication rank

  • Exclusive dedication professor
  • Full-time professor
  • Contracted professor

Administrative ranks (UP System;National)

  • Chancellor/University President
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Planning and Development
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Research and Extension
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Academic Affairs
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Finance and Management
  • University Registrar
  • Dean
  • Assistant Dean/Associate Dean
  • Department Chairman/Program Chairperson
  • Faculty Members and Staff

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher
  • Researcher
  • Professor Emeritus
  • Ad honorem professor

Poland[edit]

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • (pl 'asystent') - research-and-teaching assistant / research-and-teaching fellow (hold master's degree)
  • (pl 'adiunkt') - assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • (pl 'docent') - senior lecturer (requires PhD or habilitation), (a new position, since 2007 optional and only in some universities, does not involve any research duties and is meant mainly for teaching). Until 1987 a position between assistant professor and associate professor.
  • (pl 'profesor nadzwyczajny') - associate professor (requires habilitation), according to German nomenclature sometimes called "professor extraordinarius"
  • (pl 'profesor zwyczajny') - full professor (requires the professor title, which is an academic title, not an academic position), sometimes called "professor ordinarius"

and also for a special purpose:

  • (pl 'profesor wizytujący')- visiting professor
  • (pl 'profesor emerytowany')- professor emeritus

Teaching staff: (lower rank)

  • (pl 'instruktor') - instructor (sport)
  • (pl 'lektor') - instructor, foreign language teacher
  • (pl 'wykładowca') - lecturer
  • (pl 'starszy wykładowca') - senior lecturer (please note the same term is used for both "docent" and "starszy wykładowca"

Elected or nominated posts

  • Rector (Rektor) - the principal head of the university (one per university); usually assisted by several deputy rectors (pl prorektor)
  • Dean (Dziekan); the principal head of the faculty (one per faculty), usually assisted by several deputy deans (pl prodziekan);
  • Head (Kierownik) - the head of the institute/department/chair (one per organizational unit)

Romania[edit]

Administrative ranks

  • Rector (Rector): one per university
  • Prorector (Vice-rector): one or more per university
  • Decan (Dean): one per college
  • Prodecan (Vice-dean): one or more per college
  • Șef de departament (Head of department): one per department

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • Profesor universitar (Professor): he/she needs a doctor's degree and international-impact research activity
  • Conferențiar universitar (Associate professor): he/she needs a doctor's degree and national-impact research activity
  • Lector universitar or Șef de lucrări (Assistant professor): he/she needs a doctor's degree and local-impact research activity

and also for a special purpose:

  • Profesor vizitator (Visiting professor)
  • Profesor emerit or Profesor consultant (Emeritus professor)

Teaching staff (lower rank)

  • Asistent universitar (Instructor): he/she needs a master's degree
  • Preparator universitar (Associate Instructor): he/she needs a bachelor's degree [this position type became obsolete in 2015, according to the Romanian legislation]

Slovakia[edit]

  • Profesor (professor), both degree (written prof. before name) and position. Professors are appointed by the president after a successful accomplishment of the process of awarding a professorship. One of the requirements is an already accomplished docent degree.
  • Docent (associate professor), both degree (written doc. before name) and position. The degree is awarded by the rector after a certain amount of years of teaching and after a successful accomplishment of habilitácia (a process concluded by a defense of a reviewed research manuscript and a public lecture).
  • Odborný asistent (lecturer / researcher), this title covers positions from lecturers to researchers. Requirements for lecturers / researchers vary, usually a Ph.D. / Th.D. is required
  • Asistent (assistant lecturer), at least Master degree is required

Special

  • Hosťujúci profesor (hosting professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of professor
  • Hosťujúci docent (hosting associate professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of associate professor
  • Mimoriadny profesor (adjunct professor; sometimes also translated as associate professor, but it is not same position as docent), associate professor temporarily appointed to the position of professor at a faculty while being an expectant to professor degree (written mimoriadny profesor after name)

Administrative

  • Rektor (rector), head of the university
  • Prorektor (vice-rector), typically 3 to 5 people are vice-rectors; the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-rector is responsible for (e. g. study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, development, information technology)
  • Kvestor (registrar, bursar), senior professional financial administrator of the university
  • Dekan (dean), head of a faculty
  • Prodekan (vice-dean); the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-den is responsible for (e. g. admissions, study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, information technology)
  • Riaditeľ (director), head of a sub-unit at the university or a faculty (institute, research center), e. g. Institute of Life-Long Learning of the Slovak University of Technology, Institute of Physical Education and Sport at the Pavol Jozef Šafárik University
  • Vedúci katedry (departmental chair), head of a katedra (department) – sub-unit at a faculty
  • Zástupca vedúceho katedry (deputy departmental chair), deputizes department chair if necessary

Honorary ranks

  • Emeritný profesor (professor emeritus), may be awarded by the rector on the proposal of the scientific council of the university for significant contributions in the field of science, art or education to professor older than 65 years who is no longer employment at the university, but is still active in research and teaching
  • Doctor honoris causa (honorary doctor for the sake of the honor), honorary doctorate of the university or a faculty awarded for special merit (written Dr.h.c. before name)

Slovenia[edit]

  • Asistent - assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Asistent-raziskovalec - research assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Lektor (usually a native speaker of a taught language)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold Doctorate / PhD. Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well.)
  • Izredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
  • Redni profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Predstojnik oddelka - head of department; several per faculty, academy or school at the university

Honorary ranks

  • Zaslužni profesor - distinguished professor, a title bestowed to professors for their extraordinary achievements

South Korea[edit]

Protected job titles (aka tenure positions):

  • (Full) professor (정교수/교수)
  • Associate professor (부교수)
  • Assistant professor (조교수)
  • Full-time instructor (전임 강사) : In some universities, this rank is missed and full-time academic career begins with the assistant professor rank.

Other positions:

  • Part-time instructor (시간 강사)
  • Research professor (연구 교수)
  • Clinical professor (임상 교수)
  • Adjunct professor (겸임 교수)
  • Teaching assistant professor ( 강의전문 조교수)
  • Collegiate professor
  • Visiting professor (객원 교수/초빙 교수)
  • Chaired professor (석좌 교수)
  • Emeritus professor (명예 교수)

Sri Lanka[edit]

The appointment of professors follows the British system and is governed by the University Grants Commission regulations. A points-based system considers contributions to the research field, national development and institutional development. Several types of professorships exist:

  • Professor emeritus (on retirement at the age of 65)
  • Senior professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor

Professor positions are clearly separated from other junior faculty positions such as, in seniority order: senior lecturer (grade I) (usually PhD and 6+ years service), senior lecturer (grade II) (usually a PhD and 2+ years service), lecturer (usually with PhD), lecturer (probationary), assistant lecturer.

  • Professor emeritus (on retirement)
  • Senior professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Temporary Assistant lecturer
  • Instructor/ demonstrator
  • Student instructor (undergrad)

Administrative ranks

  • Chancellor (titular)
  • Vice-chancellor/president
  • Registrar
  • Deans of faculties
  • Heads of departments/schools
  • Directors of Postgraduate Institutes

Syria[edit]

The academic rankings in the Syrian Arab Republic are very similar to the Egyptian ones; see Academic ranks in Egypt for details.

Switzerland[edit]

German-language universities[edit]

[note 2]

  • Hilfassistent/innen: Undergraduate research assistant / Undergraduate teaching assistant
  • Assistent/innen: research assistant (typically a PhD student)
  • Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter/innen: Scientific Staff (Note: typically synonymous with "Assistent/innen")
  • Postdoc: Postdoc (i.e., after PhD)
  • Oberassistent/innen: senior researcher/lecturer (typically after 1–2 years as a postdoc)
  • Lehrbeauftragte: lecturer / adjunct professor
  • Gastdozent/innen: visiting lecturer
  • Assistent professor: assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • Privatdozent/innen: senior lecturer (has the habilitation but not professorship)
  • Professor: full professor (ordinary and extraordinary)

French-language universities[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor, chair)
  • Professeur extraordinaire
  • Professeur invité
  • Professeur associé (associate professor literally, yet functions as full professor or reader, non-chair, tenured)
  • Professeur assistant (assistant professor literally, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours (senior lecturer, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Privat docent (has the habilitation but not professorship, required for tenure-track)
  • Maître-Assistant (assistant professor or lecturer, non-tenured)
  • Assistant (lecturer, usually a graduate student)
  • Moniteur (undergraduate student)

Taiwan[edit]

  • Professor emeritus
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor (assistant professor and above are mainly for people who hold a PhD degree. Some are promoted to this rank by distinctive industrial performance.)
  • Lecturer
  • Adjunct professor
  • Adjunct associate professor
  • Adjunct assistant professor (According to the contract work, and less welfare. Usually 1 to 2 years.)
  • Adjunct researcher

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Instructor
  • Graduate/Research Assistant

Tunisia[edit]

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (assistant professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (associate professor, tenured)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de Conférences (senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant, with Ph.D.)
  • Chargé de recherche (researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Turkey[edit]

Academic ranks

  • Profesör(Full professor)
  • Doçent, (Associate professor)
  • Yardımcı Doçent, (Assistant professor)
  • Öğretim Görevlisi, (Lecturer)
  • Okutman, (Instructor)
  • Araştırma Görevlisi, (Research/teaching assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektör, rector or president (professors)
  • Rektör Yardımcısı, vice-rector or vice-president (professors)
  • Fakülte Dekanı, dean of the faculty (associate professor or above)
  • Enstitü müdürü, Director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Dekan Yardımcısı, vice-dean or associate dean (associate professor or above)
  • Enstitü müdür yardımcısı, Deputy director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Bölüm Başkanı, head of department (assistant professor or above)
  • Ana Bilim Dalı Başkanı, chair of academic programs (assistant professor or above)

Ukraine[edit]

Academic ranks

  • Profesor / Професор (Full professor)
  • Docent / Доцент (Associate professor)
  • Starshyj naukovyj doslidnyk (spivrobitnyk) / Старший науковий дослідник (співробітник) (Senior researcher)
  • Asystent / Асистент (Assistant professor)
  • Starshyj vykladach / Старший викладач (Senior lecturer)
  • Vykladach / Викладач (Lecturer)
  • Starshyj Laborant / Старший лаборант (Senior research/teaching assistant)
  • Laborant / Лаборант (Research/teaching assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor / Ректор, rector or president (professors)
  • Zastupnyk rektora / Заступник ректора, vice-rector or vice-president (professors)
  • Dekan Fakultetu / Декан факультету, dean of the faculty (associate professor or above)
  • Dyrektor instytutu / centru / Директор інституту / центру, Director of the institute / centre (assistant professor or above)
  • Zastupnyk dekana/dyrektora / Заступник декана/директора, vice-dean or associate dean (associate professor or above) / deputy director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach kafedry / Завідувач кафедри, head of department (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach laboratoriji / Завідувач лабораторії, head of laboratory (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach sekciji kafedry / Завідувач секції кафедри, chair of academic programs (assistant professor or above)

Venezuela[edit]

  • Titular professor (Professor Titular)
  • Associated professor (Professor Asociado)
  • Aggregate professor (Professor Agregado)
  • Assistant professor (Professor Assistante)
  • Instructor (Instructor)

Dedication rank

  • Exclusive dedication professor (Professor a Dedicación Exclusiva)
  • Full-time professor (Professor a Tiempo Completo)
  • Contracted professor (Professor a Tiempo Convencional - academic rank is usually optional)

Administrative ranks (public national)

  • University council (Consejo Universitario - Órgano Colegiado)
  • Rector or chairman (Rector)
  • University secretary or registrar (Secretario)
  • Academic vice rector (Vicerrector Académico)
  • Administrative vice rector (Vicerrector Administrativo)
    • Faculty council (Consejo de Facultad - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean (Decano - one per faculty)
    • Vice-dean (Vicedecano - one per faculty - optional)
    • Academic council (Concejo Académico - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean's council (Consejo Decanal - Órgano Colegiado)
      • School council (Consejo de Escuela - Órgano Colegiado)
      • Principal (Director - one per school)
      • Vice-principal (Subdirector - one per school - optional)
        • Chief of Department (Jefe de Departamento)
          • Chief of chair (Jefe de Cátedra)

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher (Professor Investigador)
  • Researcher (Investigador)
  • Retired professor (Professor Retirado)
  • Ad honorem professor (Professor Ad Honorem)
  • Consultant professor (Professor Consultante)
  • Visiting professor (Professor Visitante)
  • Emergency teacher (Docente de Emergencia)

Auxiliary and Lab assistants

  • Auxiliary teacher I (Docente Auxiliar I)
  • Auxiliary teacher II (Docente Auxiliar II)
  • Auxiliary teacher III (Docente Auxiliar III)
  • Auxiliary teacher IV (Docente Auxiliar IV)
  • Auxiliary teacher V (Docente Auxiliar V)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Japan has been taking steps to make its academic rankings similar to that of America. But whereas only PhDs can acquire the rank of "assistant professor" in the US, in the past many Japanese "assistant professors" and "associate professors" have only masters degrees and do not advance beyond that.
  2. ^ The title of "Oberassistent" is comparable to the German Akademischer Rat (de), a postdoctoral position that today has mostly been replaced by the position of Juniorprofessur (de). It is typically non-tenured and does not imply faculty rank (i.e., one would not participate in faculty meetings of professors).

References[edit]

External links[edit]