Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements.
Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind. They do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, and that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted.
Types of academy
The following are all types of academy:
- Sponsored academy: A formerly maintained school that has been transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are consequently run by a Government-approved sponsor. They are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
- Converter academy: A formerly maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor.
- Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was also extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition. The majority of free schools are similar in size and shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:
An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead. An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure that is either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust (MAT).
Features of an academy
All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas, such as science; arts; business and enterprise; computing; engineering; mathematics; modern foreign languages; performing arts; sport; or technology. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths, English and science, they are otherwise free to innovate, although they still participate in the same Key Stage 3 and GCSE exams as other English schools (which effectively means they teach a curriculum very similar to maintained schools, with small variations).
Like other state funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education. The trustees are legally, but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity of which the school is part. The trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team.
In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos, specialism and building (if a new one is built). The sponsor also has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body.
The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges. They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett, then Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations."
The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis (now Lord Adonis, formerly Secretary of State at the Department for Transport) in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s.
Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002. The term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later.
Sponsored Academies originally needed a private sponsor who could be an individual (such as Sir David Garrard, who sponsors Business Academy Bexley) or an organisation (such as the United Learning Trust or Amey plc). These sponsors were expected to bring "the best of private-sector best practice and innovative management" to academies, "often in marked contrast to the lack of leadership experienced by the failing schools that academies have replaced" (known as predecessor schools). They were originally required to contribute 10% of the academy's capital costs (up to a maximum of £2m). The remainder of the capital and running costs were met by the state in the usual way for UK state schools through grants funded by the local authority.
The Government later removed the requirement for financial investment by a private sponsor in a move to encourage successful existing schools and charities to become sponsors.
Sponsored Academies typically replaced one or more existing schools, but some were newly established. They were intended to address the problem of entrenched failure within English schools with low academic achievement, or schools situated in communities with low academic aspirations. Often these schools had been placed in "special measures" after an Ofsted inspection. They were expected to be creative and innovative because of their financial and academic freedoms, in order to deal with the long-term issues they were intended to solve.
By May 2010 there were 203 Sponsored Academies in England.
The Academies Act 2010 sought to increase the number of academies. It enabled all maintained schools to convert to academy status, known as Converter Academies and enabled new academies to be created via the Free School Programme.
At the same time the new Conservative-led Coalition Government announced that they would redirect funding for school Specialisms [i.e. Technology College Status] into mainstream funding. This meant that Secondary Schools would no longer directly receive ring-fenced funds of c£130K from Government for each of their specialisms. One way to regain some direct control over their finances was to become a Converter Academy and receive all of their funding direct from Government, with the possibility of buying in services at a cheaper rate. This, along with some schools wanting more independence from local authority control, meant that many state secondary schools in England converted to academy status in subsequent years.
By April 2011, the number of academies had increased to 629, and by August 2011, reached 1070. By July 2012 this number reached 1957, double that of the previous year. and, at 1 November 2013, it stood at 3,444.
There are no academies in Wales or Scotland, where education policy is devolved.
The Education Funding Agency monitors financial management and governance of academies. In March 2016 the Perry Beeches The Academy Trust multi-academy trust was found to have deleted financial records for £2.5 million of free school meal funding, and that the chief executive was being paid by sub-contractors as well as by the trust. Its schools are likely to be taken over by a new trust. In August 2016 former principal and founder of Kings Science Academy, former finance director, and former teacher who was the founder's sister were found guilty of defrauding public funds of £150,000.
Support for the academies scheme
Whilst still in the fairly early stage of development, supporters pointed to emerging data showing "striking" improvements in GCSE results for academies compared to their predecessors, with early results showing that "GCSE results are improving twice as fast in academies as in state schools".
- They seem, so far, to be working – not all as spectacularly as Mossbourne, but much better than most of the struggling inner-city schools they replaced.
The article singles out the cited academy, Mossbourne Community Academy in Hackney, as "apparently the most popular [school] in Britain – at least with politicians" and "the top school in the country for value-added results".
Criticism of and opposition to the academies scheme
Academies have continued to be controversial, and their existence has frequently been opposed and challenged by some politicians, commentators, teachers, teachers' unions, and parents. Even after several years of operation and with a number of academies open and reporting successes, the programme continues to come under attack for creating schools that are said to be, among other things, a waste of money, selective, damaging to the schools and communities around them, forced on parents who do not want them, and a move towards privatisation of education "by the back door".
The House of Commons Education and Skills Select Committee reported in March 2005 that it would have been wiser to limit the programme to 30 or 50 academies in order to evaluate the results before expanding the programme, and that "the rapid expansion of the Academy policy comes at the expense of rigorous evaluation". The Select Committee was concerned that the promising results achieved by some academies may be due to increased exclusions of harder-to-teach pupils. They noted that two Middlesbrough academies had expelled 61 pupils, compared to just 15 from all other secondary schools in the borough.
The programme of creating academies has also been heavily criticised by some for handing schools to private sector entrepreneurs who in many cases have no experience of the education sector – most infamously, the Evangelical Christian car dealer, Sir Peter Vardy, who has been accused of promoting the teaching of creationism alongside macroevolution in his Emmanuel Schools Foundation academies. This is also linked to the wider debate in the education sector as to the benefits or otherwise of the growing role of religion in the school system being promoted by the New Labour government in general, and Tony Blair in particular, with many academies (one estimate puts it at "more than half") being sponsored either by religious groups or organisations/individuals with a religious affiliation.
Former leader of the Labour Party Neil Kinnock has criticised the academies scheme saying that they were a "distortion of choice" and risked creating a "seller's market" with "schools selecting parents and children instead of parents selecting schools".
There are indications that several city academies are failing. Ofsted has placed the Unity City Academy in Middlesbrough and the Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle under special measures, heavily criticised the West London Academy in Ealing and condemned standards at the Business Academy in Bexley, Kent.
The Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle, sponsored by Eddie Stobart owner Andrew Tinkler, and local businessman Brian Scowcroft opened in September 2008. By January 2009, there were protests by parents and pupils regarding poor quality education and school facilities. The school was found to be failing and was placed in special measures, with the headmaster and chief executive being immediately replaced.
The original City Academy programme was attacked for its expense: it cost on average £25m to build an academy under this scheme, much of which was taken up by the costs of new buildings. Critics contend that this is significantly more than it costs to build a new local authority school. Some operators are paying senior staff six-figure salaries, partly funded by central government.
In 2012, the academy scheme was applied to primary schools. The government began transforming some schools that had been graded Satisfactory or lower by Ofsted into academies, in some cases removing existing governing bodies and Head Teachers. An example was Downhills Primary School in Haringey, where the Head resisted turning the school into an academy. Ofsted were called in to assess the school, and placed it in Special Measures. The head and the Governing Body were removed and replaced with a Government-appointed board. There was opposition from the school and parents.
A parliamentary report in 2015, entitled "Free Schools and Academies", recommends that "In the meantime the Government should stop exaggerating the success of academies and be cautious about firm conclusions except where the evidence merits it. Academisation is not always successful nor is it the only proven alternative for a struggling school". In 2016 a major study by the Education Policy Institute found no significant differences in performance between Academies and local council run schools, and that multi-academy trusts running at least five schools performed worse than local council run schools.
Party policies, and developments since the end of the Labour Government
The Conservative Party has supported the academy proposal from its inception but wants the scheme to go further. This accord was reflected in a remark made by Conservative spokesman David Willetts in 2006:
I am more authentically Andrew Adonis than Andrew Adonis is.
In 2004, the Liberal Democrats were reported as being "split" on the issue and so decided that academies should not be mentioned in the party's education policy. The position of Phil Willis, the education spokesman at the time, was summarised as:
… there [are] no plans to abolish either city academies or specialist schools if the Lib Dems came to power, though "they would be brought under local authority control".
In 2005, Willis' successor, Ed Davey, argued that academies were creating a "two-tier education system" and called for the academy programme to be halted until "a proper analysis can be done".
In 2010 the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats coalition government announced plans to expand the academy programme with the Academies Act 2010. In May 2010 the then Education secretary Michael Gove wrote to all state schools in England inviting them to opt out of Local Authority control and convert to Academy status. Gove also stated that some academies could be created in time for the new Academic year in September 2010. By 23 July 2010, 153 schools in England had applied for academy status, lower than the prediction that more than 1,000 would do so. In spite of the expanding Academy programme, in August 2010 Gove announced that 75 existing academy rebuild projects were likely to be scaled back. Nevertheless, by September 2012, the majority of state secondary schools in England had become Academies. Monthly updated information on existing academies and free schools, and applications in process, is published by the Department for Education.
The city academy programme was originally based on the programme of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) created by the Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s, which were also business-sponsored.
Currently, the Government is encouraging CTCs to convert to academies; several have already done so (for example, Djanogly CTC is now Djanogly City Academy).
Academies differ from CTCs in several ways; most notably, academies cannot select more than 10% of pupils by ability, whereas CTCs can.
Operators of academies
A number of private and charitable organisations run groups of academies. These major operators include ARK Schools, Academies Enterprise Trust, E-ACT (formerly Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust), Emmanuel Schools Foundation, Harris Federation, Oasis Trust, Ormiston Academies Trust, LSSAT Academies Trust and United Learning Trust.
The Department for Education publishes a full list of active academy sponsors.
- State-funded schools (England)
- Specialist Schools and Academies Trust
- University Technical College
- Comprehensive school
- Foundation school
- Grant-maintained school
- "Academy Funding Agreements". School and college performance tables. DfE. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Charities and charity trustees: an introduction for school governors". Charity Commission website. Charity Commission. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Types of school - Academies". Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Academies Act 2010, Section 1". Gov.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Academy and Free School Master Funding Agreement" (PDF). Gov.uk. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Types of academy". SSAT Website. Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Academy sponsorship". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Comparison of Different School Type" (PDF). NSN website. New Schools Network. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Academy conversion process". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Education Terms: Free Schools". DfE Website. Department for Education. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "The free school presumption" (PDF). Gov.uk. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "Types of school". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "UTC Colleges Overview". UTC Colleges. Baker Dearing Educational Trust. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Academy Chains" (PDF). SSAT UK website. Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Become an academy: information for schools". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "'Faith' academy faces criticism". BBC News website. BBC. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Ward, Victoria (15 Nov 2012). "Test case could dictate admissions policy in faith schools". Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Bedell, Geraldine (31 August 2008). "Children of the revolution". London: The Observer. Archived from the original on 1 September 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "School admissions code". gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Learning and Skills Act 2000 (c. 21)". Opsi.gov.uk. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Education Act 1996 (c. 56)". Opsi.gov.uk. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Carvel, John (15 Mar 2000). "Blunkett plans network of city academies". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Blessed be the school sponsor". Times Educational Supplement. 17 Mar 2000. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "EDUCATION | 'City academies' to tackle school failure". BBC News. 15 September 2000. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Garner, Richard (8 October 2008). "The Big Question: What are academy schools, and is their future under threat?". London: The Independent. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- "Education Act 2002 (c. 32)". Opsi.gov.uk. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "BSF — HOW TO SPONSOR AN ACADEMY OR A SPECIALIST SCHOOL. A GUIDE FOR SPONSORS". Parliamentary Year Book 2008. Blakes. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Q&A: city academies". Channel 4 News website. Channel 4. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Specialist Schools". The Standards Site. Department for Children, Schools and Families. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
- "Specialist schools programme: Michael Gove announces changes". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Q&A: Academies and free schools". BBC News. 26 May 2010.
- "Specialist schools programme: Michael Gove announces changes". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Waugh, Paul (19 Oct 2010). "Michael Gove signals end for specialist schools". Evening Standard. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Q&A: Academies". BBC News website. BBC. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Huge increase in academies takes total to more than 2300", Dept. for Education Press Notice, Sept. 7 2012. ("Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-13.)
- "Open academies and academy projects in development – The Department for Education". Education.gov.uk. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Richard Adams (28 March 2016). "Lauded academy chain to be stripped of schools after finances inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Bradford Kings Science academy staff convicted of fraud". BBC News. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Adonis, Andrew (31 December 2009). "Academies are a success story". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Smith, Jacqui (15 November 2005). "This is a comprehensive success story". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Teachers' leader slams academy school plan Archived 17 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Observer, 23 March 2008.
- "Kinnock criticises city academies". BBC News. 18 April 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Harris, John (15 January 2005). "What a creation ...". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 30 November 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Parkinson, Justin (17 March 2005). "Education | Why the fuss over city academies?". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Adams, Stephen (24 August 2008). "City academies: Lord Adonis announces plan to step up expansion plan". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Academies reverse years of failure in city schools – Times Online Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Rebecca Smithers, education editor (19 January 2006). "Half of city academies among worst-performing schools | Education". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Roy Hattersley, The Guardian, 6 June 2005, "And now, over to our sponsors" Archived 26 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Polly Curtis, The Guardian, 1 November 2004, "Academies 'gagging' teachers" Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Rebecca Smithers, The Guardian, 31 August 2004, "Flagship schools attacked over costs" Archived 3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Bob Roberts (28 July 2006). "Exclusive: Flushed Out". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Education | Teachers 'oppose city academies'". BBC News. 14 March 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- The Committee Office, House of Commons. "House of Commons – Education and Skills – Fifth Report". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Education | Faith groups back more academies". BBC News. 17 July 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Gaby Hinsliff, political editor (8 August 2005). "City schools could be front for evangelists | UK news | The Observer". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Root of All Evil? Part 2: The Virus of Faith" Archived 22 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. by Richard Dawkins – Channel 4 – RichardDawkins.net
- Garner, Richard (12 April 2006). "Faith schools are 'at odds with reason', says chaplain – Education News, Education". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Smithers, Rebecca (28 May 2005). "New-style academy condemned as failure". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Ofsted inspection report, Richard Rose Central Academy" (PDF). Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- Press Association (7 March 2006). "Ofsted criticises London academy standards | Education". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Richard Rose Central Academy: Press Release". Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- Behr, Rafael. "How car dealers can run state schools". New Statesman. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Shepherd, Jessica (14 November 2011). "Academies pay £200k salaries". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
Charities that run chains of academy schools are using public funds to pay senior staff six-figure salaries, with some on £240,000 or more.
- "Academy row school governors sacked by Michael Gove". BBC News. 15 March 2012.
- "Protesting Tottenham parents 'disgusted' with Downhills Primary School governors' removal". Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- Jon Stone (7 July 2016). "Academy trust schools among the worst at raising pupil performance, new research shows". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Education | Parents back academies says Blair". BBC News. 12 September 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Baker, Mike (19 May 2006). "Education | Blair's legacy for schools". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Hélène Mulholland in Bournemouth (21 September 2004). "Lib Dems split over city academies | Politics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Matthew Taylor, education correspondent (31 October 2005). "City academies accused of deserting poor | Politics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "Doubts grow over city academies – Education News, Education". The Independent. London. 28 May 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Polly Curtis, education editor (30 August 2008). "As 51 academy schools prepare for first day, GCSEs show work still to be done | Education". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Polly Curtis, education editor (16 July 2008). "Education: Expand academy model into primary sector, says thinktank | Education". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Angela Harrison (30 July 2010). "Michael Gove defends academy schools list". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Shepherd, Jessica; Wintour, Patrick (29 July 2010). "Michael Gove's academy plan under fire as scale of demand emerges". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Hannah Richardson (6 August 2010). "Rebuild plans for 75 schools scaled back". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Jessica Shepherd (5 April 2012). "Academies to become a majority among state secondary schools". Manchester Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Open academies and academy projects in development". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 21 Feb 2016.
- Rebecca Smithers, The Guardian, 6 July 2005, "Hedge fund charity plans city academies" Archived 2 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Academy sponsor contact list". Gov.uk. Department for Education. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Department for Education: Opening an Academy or Free School
- SSAT (The Schools Network) (formerly known as the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust)
- Anti Academies Alliance
- In Defence of Academies by a pupil at Greig City Academy, 12 October 2006.
- "Do academy schools really work?", Lisa Freedman, Prospect magazine, 24 February 2010.
- National Audit Office (23 February 2007). The Academies Programme. London: The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-10-294442-6. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- PricewaterhouseCoopers (November 2008). Academies Evaluation Fifth Annual Report (PDF). Department for Children, Families and Schools. ISBN 978-1-84775-302-1. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Curtis, Andrew; Exley, Sonia; Sasia, Amanda; Tough, Sarah; Whitty, Geoff (December 2008). "The Academies programme: Progress, problems and possibilities" (PDF). The Sutton Trust. Retrieved 21 July 2009.[dead link]
- Bolton, Paul (2010). Academies: Statistics (PDF) (Report). House of Commons Library. Retrieved 28 June 2010.