Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay

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Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
CountryUnited States
Presented byAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)
First awarded1929
Currently held byJames Ivory
Call Me by Your Name (2017)
Websiteoscars.org

The Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. It is awarded each year to the writer of a screenplay adapted from another source (usually a novel, play, short story, or TV series but sometimes another film). All sequels are automatically considered adaptations by this standard (since the sequel must be based on the original story).

See also the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are not adaptations.

Superlatives[edit]

The first person to win twice in this category was Joseph L. Mankiewicz, who won the award in two consecutive years, 1949 and 1950. Others to win twice in this category include: George Seaton, Robert Bolt (who also won in consecutive years), Francis Ford Coppola, Mario Puzo, Alvin Sargent, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Alexander Payne and Michael Wilson. Payne won both awards as part of a writing duo, with Jim Taylor, and writing trio, with Jim Rash and Nat Faxon. Michael Wilson was blacklisted at the time of his second Oscar, so the award was given to a front (novelist Pierre Boulle). However, the Academy officially recognized him as the winner several years later.[1]

Frances Marion was the first woman to win in this category, in 1930.

Pierre Collings and Sheridan Gibney were the first to win for adapting their own work, for The Story of Louis Pasteur.

Philip G. Epstein and Julius J. Epstein are the first siblings to win in this category, for Casablanca. James Goldman and William Goldman are the first to win for separate films. Joel Coen and Ethan Coen are the third winning siblings, for No Country for Old Men.

Mario Puzo is the one of two writers whose work has been adapted and resulted in two wins. Puzo's novel The Godfather resulted in wins in 1972 and 1974. The other is E. M. Forster, whose novels A Room with a View and Howards End resulted in wins for Ruth Prawer Jhabvala.

Larry McMurtry is the only person who has won (for Brokeback Mountain) for adapting someone else's work and whose work has been adapted by someone else resulting in a win, Terms of Endearment.

Emma Thompson is the only winner who has also won for acting.[2] Winners Billy Bob Thornton and John Huston have only received nominations (not wins) in the acting categories.

Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh are the only married couple to win, for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.

Geoffrey S. Fletcher (for Precious: Based on the Novel 'Push' by Sapphire), John Ridley (for 12 Years a Slave), and Barry Jenkins and Tarell Alvin McCraney (both for Moonlight) are the only African-Americans to win in this category; Fletcher is also the first African-American to win in any writing category.

Billy Wilder, Charles Brackett, Paddy Chayefsky, Francis Ford Coppola, Horton Foote, William Goldman, Robert Benton, Bo Goldman, and the Coen brothers have won Oscars for both original and adapted screenplays.

James Ivory is the oldest person to receive the award, having been 89 years old when he won for Call Me by Your Name.

Notable nominees[edit]

Noted novelists and playwrights nominated in this category include: George Bernard Shaw (who shared an award for an adaptation of his play Pygmalion), Graham Greene, Tennessee Williams, Vladimir Nabokov, James Hilton, Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Lillian Hellman, Irwin Shaw, James Agee, Norman Corwin, S. J. Perelman, Terence Rattigan, John Osborne, Robert Bolt, Harold Pinter, David Mamet, Larry McMurtry, Arthur Miller, John Irving, David Hare, Tony Kushner, and August Wilson.

Scott Frank, James Mangold, and Michael Green, writers of Logan, are the first to be nominated for a film based on superhero comic books (the X-Men).

Winners and nominees[edit]

Winners are listed first in colored row, followed by the other nominees.

1920s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1927-28
(1st)
[note 1]
7th Heaven Bernard Glazer The play Seventh Heaven by Austin Strong
Glorious Betsy Anthony Coldeway The play Glorious Betsy by Rida Johnson Young
The Jazz Singer Alfred A. Cohn The play by Samson Raphaelson, from his story "The Day of Atonement"
1928-29
(2nd)
[note 2]
The Patriot Hanns Kräly Ashley Dukes' translation of the play Der Patriot by Alfred Neumann & the story Paul I by Dmitry Merezhkovsky
The Cop Elliott J. Clawson (original)
In Old Arizona Tom Barry The story The Caballero's Way by O. Henry
The Last of Mrs. Cheyney Kräly The play by Frederick Lonsdale
The Leatherneck Clawson (original)
Our Dancing Daughters Josephine Lovett (original)
Sal of Singapore Clawson The story The Sentimentalists by Dale Collins
Skyscraper A story by Dudley Murphy
The Valiant Barry The play by Halworthy Hall & Robert Middlemass
A Woman of Affairs Bess Meredyth The novel The Green Hat by Michael Arlen
Wonder of Women The novel Die Frau des Steffen Tromholt by Hermann Sudermann

1930s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1929-30
(3rd)
[note 3]
The Big House Frances Marion (original)
All Quiet on the Western Front Maxwell Anderson (adaptation/dialogue), George Abbott (screenplay), Del Andrews (adaptation) The novel by Erich Maria Remarque
Disraeli Julien Josephson The play by Louis N. Parker
The Divorcee John Meehan The novel Ex-Wife by Ursula Parrott
Street of Chance Howard Estabrook A story by Oliver H. P. Garrett
1930-31
(4th)
[note 1]
Cimarron Howard Estabrook The novel by Edna Ferber
The Criminal Code Seton I. Miller & Fred Niblo Jr. The play by Martin Flavin
Holiday Horace Jackson The play by Philip Barry
Little Caesar Francis Edward Faragoh (screen version/dialogue) & Robert N. Lee (continuity) The novel by W. R. Burnett
Skippy Joseph L. Mankiewicz & Sam Mintz The comic strip by Percy Crosby
1931-32
(5th)
[note 1]
Bad Girl Edwin J. Burke The novel and play by Viña Delmar
Arrowsmith Sidney Howard The novel by Sinclair Lewis
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Percy Heath & Samuel Hoffenstein The novel by Robert Louis Stevenson
1932-33
(6th)
[note 1]
Little Women Victor Heerman & Sarah Y. Mason The novel by Louisa May Alcott
Lady for a Day Robert Riskin The story Madame la Gimp by Damon Runyon
State Fair Paul Green & Sonya Levien The novel by Phil Stong
1934
(7th)
[note 1]
It Happened One Night Robert Riskin The story Night Bus by Samuel Hopkins Adams
The Thin Man Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett The novel by Dashiell Hammett
Viva Villa! Ben Hecht The book by Edgecumb Pinchon & O. B. Stade
1935
(8th) [note 4]
[note 5]
The Informer Dudley Nichols [note 6][3] The novel by Liam O'Flaherty
The Lives of a Bengal Lancer Achmed Abdullah, John L. Balderston & Waldemar Young (screenplay); Grover Jones & William Slavens McNutt (adaptation) The novel by Francis Yeats-Brown
Mutiny on the Bounty Jules Furthman, Talbot Jennings & Carey Wilson The novel by James Norman Hall & Charles Nordhoff
1936
(9th)
The Story of Louis Pasteur Pierre Collings & Sheridan Gibney (original)
After the Thin Man Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett A story by Dashiell Hammett
Dodsworth Sidney Howard The play by Howard & the novel by Sinclair Lewis
Mr. Deeds Goes to Town Robert Riskin The story Opera Hat by Clarence Budington Kelland
My Man Godfrey Eric S. Hatch & Morrie Ryskind The story 1101 Park Avenue by Hatch
1937
(10th)
The Life of Emile Zola Heinz Herald, Geza Herczeg & Norman Reilly Raine The book Zola and His Time by Matthew Josephson
The Awful Truth Viña Delmar The play by Arthur Richman
Captains Courageous Marc Connelly, Dale Van Every & John Lee Mahin The novel by Rudyard Kipling
Stage Door Morrie Ryskind & Anthony Veiller The play by Edna Ferber & George S. Kaufman
A Star Is Born Alan Campbell, Robert Carson & Dorothy Parker A story by William A. Wellman & Carson
1938
(11th)
Pygmalion George Bernard Shaw (screenplay & dialogue); Ian Dalrymple, Cecil Arthur Lewis & W. P. Lipscomb (adaptation) The play by Shaw
Boys Town John Meehan & Dore Schary A story by Schary & Eleanore Griffin
The Citadel Ian Dalrymple, Elizabeth Hill & Frank Wead The novel by A. J. Cronin
Four Daughters Lenore Coffee & Julius J. Epstein The short story Sister Act by Fannie Hurst
You Can't Take It with You Robert Riskin The play by George S. Kaufman & Moss Hart
1939
(12th)
Gone with the Wind Sidney Howard (p.r.) The novel by Margaret Mitchell
Goodbye, Mr. Chips Eric Maschwitz, R. C. Sherriff & Claudine West The novel by James Hilton
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Sidney Buchman A story by Lewis R. Foster
Ninotchka Charles Brackett, Walter Reisch & Billy Wilder A story by Melchior Lengyel
Wuthering Heights Ben Hecht & Charles MacArthur The novel by Emily Brontë

1940s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1940
(13th)
The Philadelphia Story Donald Ogden Stewart The play by Philip Barry
The Grapes of Wrath Nunnally Johnson The novel by John Steinbeck
Kitty Foyle Dalton Trumbo The novel by Christopher Morley
The Long Voyage Home Dudley Nichols The short plays The Moon of the Caribees, In the Zone, Bound East for Cardiff & The Long Voyage Home by Eugene O'Neill
Rebecca Joan Harrison & Robert E. Sherwood The novel by Daphne du Maurier
1941
(14th)
Here Comes Mr. Jordan Sidney Buchman & Seton I. Miller The play Heaven Can Wait by Harry Segall
Hold Back the Dawn Charles Brackett & Billy Wilder The story Memo to a Movie Producer by Ketti Frings
How Green Was My Valley Philip Dunne The novel by Richard Llewellyn
The Little Foxes Lillian Hellman The play by Hellman
The Maltese Falcon John Huston The novel by Dashiell Hammett
1942
(15th)
Mrs. Miniver George Froeschel, James Hilton, Claudine West & Arthur Wimperis The character Mrs. Miniver from the newspaper columns by Jan Struther
The Invaders Rodney Ackland & Emeric Pressburger A story by Pressburger
The Pride of the Yankees Herman J. Mankiewicz & Jo Swerling A story by Paul Gallico
Random Harvest Froeschel, West & Wimperis The novel by Hilton
The Talk of the Town Sidney Buchman & Irwin Shaw A story by Sidney Harmon
1943
(16th)
Casablanca Philip G., Julius J. Epstein & Howard Koch The play Everybody Comes to Rick's by Joan Alison & Murray Burnett
Holy Matrimony Nunnally Johnson The novel Buried Alive by Arnold Bennett
The More the Merrier Richard Flournoy, Lewis R. Foster, Frank Ross & Robert W. Russell A story by Ross & Russell
The Song of Bernadette George Seaton The novel by Franz Werfel
Watch on the Rhine Dashiell Hammett The play by Lillian Hellman
1944
(17th)
Going My Way Frank Butler & Frank Cavett A story by Leo McCarey
Double Indemnity Raymond Chandler & Billy Wilder The novel Double Indemnity in Three of a Kind by James M. Cain
Gaslight John L. Balderston, Walter Reisch & John Van Druten The play Angel Street by Patrick Hamilton
Laura Jay Dratler, Samuel Hoffenstein & Betty Reinhardt The novel by Vera Caspary
Meet Me in St. Louis Irving Brecher & Fred F. Finklehoffe The novel by Sally Benson
1945
(18th)
[4]
The Lost Weekend Charles Brackett & Billy Wilder The novel by Charles R. Jackson
G. I. Joe Leopold Atlas, Guy Endore & Philip Stevenson The books Brave Men & Here Is Your War by Ernie Pyle
Mildred Pierce Ranald MacDougall The novel by James M. Cain
Pride of the Marines Albert Maltz The book Al Schmid, Marine by Roger Butterfield
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Frank Davis & Tess Slesinger (p.n.) The novel by Betty Smith
1946
(19th)
The Best Years of Our Lives Robert E. Sherwood The novel Glory for Me by MacKinlay Kantor
Anna and the King of Siam Sally Benson & Talbot Jennings The novel by Margaret Landon
Brief Encounter Anthony Havelock-Allan, David Lean & Ronald Neame The play Still Life by Noël Coward
The Killers Anthony Veiller The short story by Ernest Hemingway
Rome, Open City Sergio Amidei & Federico Fellini A story by Amidei & Alberto Consiglio
1947
(20th)
Miracle on 34th Street George Seaton A story by Valentine Davies
Boomerang Richard Murphy The Reader's Digest article by Anthony Abbot
Crossfire John Paxton The novel The Brick Foxhole by Richard Brooks
Gentleman's Agreement Moss Hart The novel by Laura Z. Hobson
Great Expectations & Anthony Havelock-Allan, David Lean & Ronald Neame The novel by Charles Dickens
1948
(21st)
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre John Huston The novel by B. Traven
A Foreign Affair Charles Brackett, Richard L. Breen & Billy Wilder A story by David Shaw
Johnny Belinda Allen Vincent & Irma von Cube The play by Elmer Blaney Harris
The Search Richard Schweizer & David Wechsler (original screenplay)
The Snake Pit Millen Brand & Frank Partos The novel by Mary Jane Ward
1949
(22nd)
A Letter to Three Wives Joseph L. Mankiewicz The novel Letter to Five Wives by John Klempner
All the King's Men Robert Rossen The novel by Robert Penn Warren
The Bicycle Thief Cesare Zavattini The novel Bicycle Thief by Luigi Bartolini
Champion Carl Foreman The short story by Ring Lardner
The Fallen Idol Graham Greene The short story by Greene

1950s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1950
(23rd)
All About Eve Joseph L. Mankiewicz The short story The Wisdom of Eve by Mary Orr
The Asphalt Jungle John Huston & Ben Maddow The novel by W. R. Burnett
Born Yesterday Albert Mannheimer The play by Garson Kanin
Broken Arrow Albert Maltz [note 7] The novel Blood Brother by Elliott Arnold
Father of the Bride Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett The novel by Edward Streeter
1951
(24th)
A Place in the Sun Harry Brown & Michael Wilson The novel An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser & play by Patrick Kearney
The African Queen James Agee & John Huston The novel by C. S. Forester
Detective Story Robert Wyler & Philip Yordan The play by Sidney Kingsley
La Ronde Jacques Natanson & Max Ophüls The play by Arthur Schnitzler
A Streetcar Named Desire Tennessee Williams The play by Williams
1952
(25th)
The Bad and the Beautiful Charles Schnee The story Tribute to a Badman by George Bradshaw
5 Fingers Michael Wilson The novel Operation Cicero by Ludwig Carl Moyzisch
High Noon Carl Foreman The story The Tin Star by John W. Cunningham
The Man in the White Suit John Dighton, Alexander Mackendrick & Roger MacDougall The play by MacDougall
The Quiet Man Frank Nugent The story Green Rushes by Maurice Walsh
1953
(26th)
From Here to Eternity Daniel Taradash The novel by James Jones
The Cruel Sea Eric Ambler The novel by Nicholas Monsarrat
Lili Helen Deutsch The story Love of Seven Dolls by Paul Gallico
Roman Holiday John Dighton & Ian McLellan Hunter A story by Dalton Trumbo (front: Ian McLellan Hunter)
Shane A. B. Guthrie Jr. The novel by Jack Schaefer
1954
(27th)
The Country Girl George Seaton The play by Clifford Odets
The Caine Mutiny Stanley Roberts The novel by Herman Wouk
Rear Window John Michael Hayes The story It Had to Be Murder by Cornell Woolrich
Sabrina Ernest Lehman, Samuel A. Taylor & Billy Wilder The novel Sabrina Fair by Taylor
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers Frances Goodrich, Albert Hackett & Dorothy Kingsley The story The Sobbin' Women by Stephen Vincent Benét
1955
(28th)
Marty Paddy Chayefsky The teleplay by Chayefsky
Bad Day at Black Rock Millard Kaufman The short story Bad Time at Honda by Howard Breslin
Blackboard Jungle Richard Brooks The novel by Evan Hunter
East of Eden Paul Osborn The novel by John Steinbeck
Love Me or Leave Me Daniel Fuchs & Isobel Lennart A story by Fuchs
1956
(29th)
Around the World in 80 Days John Farrow, S. J. Perelman & James Poe The novel Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne
Baby Doll Tennessee Williams The plays 27 Wagons Full of Cotton & The Unsatisfactory Supper by Williams
Friendly Persuasion Michael Wilson [note 8] The novel The Friendly Persuasion by Jessamyn West
Giant Fred Guiol & Ivan Moffat The novel by Edna Ferber
Lust for Life Norman Corwin The novel by Irving Stone
1957
(30th)
The Bridge on the River Kwai Pierre Boulle, Carl Foreman, & Michael Wilson [note 9] The novel by Boulle
Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison John Huston & John Lee Mahin The novel by Charles Shaw
Peyton Place John Michael Hayes The novel by Grace Metalious
Sayonara Paul Osborn The novel by James A. Michener
12 Angry Men Reginald Rose The teleplay Twelve Angry Men by Rose
1958
(31st)
Gigi Alan Jay Lerner The novella by Colette
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Richard Brooks & James Poe The play by Tennessee Williams
The Horse's Mouth Alec Guinness The novel by Joyce Cary
I Want to Live! Nelson Gidding & Don Mankiewicz Articles by Edward S. Montgomery & letters by Barbara Graham
Separate Tables John Gay & Terence Rattigan The play by Rattigan
1959
(32nd)
Room at the Top Neil Paterson The novel by John Braine
Anatomy of a Murder Wendell Mayes The novel by John D. Voelker
Ben-Hur Karl Tunberg The novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ by Lew Wallace
The Nun's Story Robert Anderson The novel by Kathryn Hulme
Some Like It Hot I. A. L. Diamond & Billy Wilder A story by M. Logan & Robert Thoeren

1960s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1960
(33rd)
Elmer Gantry Richard Brooks The novel by Sinclair Lewis
Inherit the Wind Harold Jacob Smith & Nedrick Young [note 10] The play by Jerome Lawrence & Robert E. Lee
Sons and Lovers T. E. B. Clarke & Gavin Lambert The novel by D. H. Lawrence
The Sundowners Isobel Lennart The novel by Jon Cleary
Tunes of Glory James Kennaway The novel by Kennaway
1961
(34th)
Judgment at Nuremberg Abby Mann The teleplay by Mann
Breakfast at Tiffany's George Axelrod The novella by Truman Capote
The Guns of Navarone Carl Foreman The novel by Alistair MacLean
The Hustler Sidney Carroll & Robert Rossen The novel by Walter Tevis
West Side Story Ernest Lehman The play book by Arthur Laurents
1962
(35th)
To Kill a Mockingbird Horton Foote The novel by Harper Lee
David and Lisa Eleanor Perry The story Lisa and David by Theodore Isaac Rubin
Lawrence of Arabia Robert Bolt & Michael Wilson [note 11] The writings of T. E. Lawrence
Lolita Vladimir Nabokov The novel by Nabokov
The Miracle Worker William Gibson The play & teleplay by Gibson
1963
(36th)
Tom Jones John Osborne The novel The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling by Henry Fielding
Captain Newman, M.D. Richard L. Breen, Henry & Phoebe Ephron The novel by Leo Rosten
Hud Harriet Frank Jr. & Irving Ravetch The novel Horseman, Pass By by Larry McMurtry
Lilies of the Field James Poe The novel by William Edmund Barrett
Sundays and Cybele Serge Bourguignon (scenario/dialogue) & Antoine Tudal (scenario) The novel Les Dimanches de Ville d'Avray by Bernard Eschassériaux
1964
(37th)
Becket Edward Anhalt The play by Jean Anouilh
Dr. Strangelove Stanley Kubrick, Peter George & Terry Southern The novel Red Alert by George
Mary Poppins Don DaGradi & Bill Walsh The book series by P. L. Travers
My Fair Lady Alan Jay Lerner The musical by Lerner
Zorba the Greek Michael Cacoyannis The novel The Life of Alexis Zorba by Nikos Kazantzakis
1965
(38th)
Doctor Zhivago Robert Bolt The novel by Boris Pasternak
Cat Ballou Walter Newman & Frank Pierson The novel The Ballad of Cat Ballou by Roy Chanslor
The Collector John Kohn & Stanley Mann The novel by John Fowles
Ship of Fools Abby Mann The novel by Katherine Anne Porter
A Thousand Clowns Herb Gardner The play by Gardner
1966
(39th)
A Man for All Seasons Robert Bolt The play by Bolt
Alfie Bill Naughton The play by Naughton
The Professionals Richard Brooks The novel A Mule for the Marquesa by Frank O'Rourke
The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming William Rose The novel Off-Islanders by Nathaniel Benchley
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Ernest Lehman The play by Edward Albee
1967
(40th)
In the Heat of the Night Stirling Silliphant The novel by John Ball
Cool Hand Luke Donn Pearce & Frank Pierson The novel by Pearce
The Graduate Buck Henry & Calder Willingham The novel by Charles Webb
In Cold Blood Richard Brooks The novel by Truman Capote
Ulysses Fred Haines & Joseph Strick The novel by James Joyce
1968
(41st)
The Lion in Winter James Goldman The play by Goldman
The Odd Couple Neil Simon The play by Simon
Oliver! Vernon Harris The musical by Lionel Bart
Rachel, Rachel Stewart Stern The novel A Jest of God by Margaret Laurence
Rosemary's Baby Roman Polanski The novel by Ira Levin
1969
(42nd)
Midnight Cowboy Waldo Salt The novel by James Leo Herlihy
Anne of the Thousand Days Bridget Boland & John Hale (screenplay); Richard Sokolove (adaptation) The play by Maxwell Anderson
Goodbye, Columbus Arnold Schulman The novel by Philip Roth
They Shoot Horses, Don't They? James Poe & Robert E. Thompson The novel by Horace McCoy
Z Costa-Gavras & Jorge Semprún The novel by Vassilis Vassilikos

1970s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1970
(43rd)
M*A*S*H Ring Lardner Jr. The novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors by Richard Hooker
Airport George Seaton The novel by Arthur Hailey
I Never Sang for My Father Robert Anderson The play by Anderson
Lovers and Other Strangers Joseph Bologna, David Zelag Goodman & Renée Taylor The play by Bologna & Taylor
Women in Love Larry Kramer The novel by D. H. Lawrence
1971
(44th)
The French Connection Ernest Tidyman The book The French Connection: A True Account of Cops, Narcotics, and International Conspiracy by Robin Moore
A Clockwork Orange Stanley Kubrick The novel by Anthony Burgess
The Conformist Bernardo Bertolucci The novel Il Conformista by Alberto Moravia
The Garden of the Finzi-Continis Vittorio Bonicelli & Ugo Pirro The novel by Giorgio Bassani
The Last Picture Show Peter Bogdanovich & Larry McMurtry The novel by McMurtry
1972
(45th)
The Godfather Francis Ford Coppola & Mario Puzo The novel by Puzo
Cabaret Jay Presson Allen The musical book by Joe Masteroff
The Emigrants Bengt Forslund & Jan Troell The novels The Emigrants & Unto a Good Land by Vilhelm Moberg
Pete 'n' Tillie Julius J. Epstein The story Witch's Milk by Peter De Vries
Sounder Lonne Elder III The novel by William H. Armstrong
1973
(46th)
The Exorcist William Peter Blatty The novel by Blatty
The Last Detail Robert Towne The novel by Darryl Ponicsan
The Paper Chase James Bridges The novel by John Jay Osborn, Jr.
Paper Moon Alvin Sargent The novel Addie Pray by Joe David Brown
Serpico Waldo Salt & Norman Wexler The book by Peter Maas
1974
(47th)
The Godfather Part II Francis Ford Coppola & Mario Puzo The novel The Godfather by Puzo
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz Mordecai Richler (screenplay) & Lionel Chetwynd (adaptation) The novel by Richler
Lenny Julian Barry The play by Barry
Murder on the Orient Express Paul Dehn The novel by Agatha Christie
Young Frankenstein Mel Brooks & Gene Wilder The novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
1975
(48th)
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Bo Goldman & Lawrence Hauben The novel by Ken Kesey
Barry Lyndon Stanley Kubrick The novel The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq. by William Makepeace Thackeray
The Man Who Would Be King Gladys Hill & John Huston The story by Rudyard Kipling
Profumo di donna Ruggero Maccari & Dino Risi The novel The Scent of a Woman by Giovanni Arpino
The Sunshine Boys Neil Simon The play by Simon
1976
(49th)
All the President's Men William Goldman The book by Carl Bernstein & Bob Woodward
Bound for Glory Robert Getchell The book by Woody Guthrie
Fellini's Casanova Federico Fellini & Bernardino Zapponi The autobiography Histoire de ma vie by Giacomo Casanova
The Seven-Per-Cent Solution Nicholas Meyer The novel by Meyer
Voyage of the Damned David Butler & Steve Shagan The book by Gordon Thomas & Max Morgan-Witts
1977
(50th)
Julia Alvin Sargent The novel Pentimento by Lillian Hellman
Equus Peter Shaffer The play by Shaffer
I Never Promised You a Rose Garden Lewis John Carlino & Gavin Lambert The novel by Joanne Greenberg
Oh, God! Larry Gelbart The novel by Avery Corman
That Obscure Object of Desire Luis Buñuel (scenario) & Jean-Claude Carrière (collaboration) The novel The Woman and the Puppet by Pierre Louÿs
1978
(51st)
Midnight Express Oliver Stone The book by Billy Hayes & William Hoffer
Bloodbrothers Walter Newman The novel by Richard Price
California Suite Neil Simon The play by Simon
Heaven Can Wait Warren Beatty & Elaine May The play by Harry Segall
Same Time, Next Year Bernard Slade The play by Slade
1979
(52nd)
Kramer vs. Kramer Robert Benton The novel by Avery Corman
Apocalypse Now Francis Ford Coppola & John Milius The novel Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad
La Cage aux folles Marcello Danon, Édouard Molinaro, Jean Poiret & Francis Veber The play by Poiret
A Little Romance Allan Burns The novel E=MC2 Mon Amour by Patrick Cauvin
Norma Rae Harriet Frank Jr. & Irving Ravetch The book Crystal Lee, a Woman of Inheritance by Hank Leiferman

1980s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1980
(53rd)
Ordinary People Alvin Sargent The novel by Judith Guest
Breaker Morant Bruce Beresford, Jonathan Hardy & David Stevens The play by Kenneth G. Ross
Coal Miner's Daughter Thomas Rickman The book by Loretta Lynn & George Vecsey
The Elephant Man Eric Bergren, Christopher De Vore & David Lynch The books The Elephant Man and Other Reminiscences by Sir Frederick Treves & The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity by Ashley Montagu
The Stunt Man Lawrence B. Marcus (screenplay) & Richard Rush (adaptation) The novel by Paul Brodeur
1981
(54th)
On Golden Pond Ernest Thompson The play by Thompson
The French Lieutenant's Woman Harold Pinter The novel by John Fowles
Pennies from Heaven Dennis Potter The television miniseries written by Potter
Prince of the City Jay Presson Allen & Sidney Lumet The book Prince of the City: The True Story of a Cop Who Knew Too Much by Robert Daley
Ragtime Michael Weller The novel by E. L. Doctorow
1982
(55th)
Missing Costa-Gavras & Donald E. Stewart The book The Execution of Charles Horman: An American Sacrifice by Thomas Hauser
Das Boot Wolfgang Petersen The novel by Lothar-Günther Buchheim
Sophie's Choice Alan J. Pakula The novel by William Styron
The Verdict David Mamet The novel by Barry Reed
Victor/Victoria Blake Edwards The film Viktor und Viktoria by Reinhold Schünzel
1983
(56th)
Terms of Endearment James L. Brooks The novel by Larry McMurtry
Betrayal Harold Pinter The play by Pinter
The Dresser Ronald Harwood The play by Harwood
Educating Rita Willy Russell The play by Russell
Reuben, Reuben Julius J. Epstein The play Spofford by Herman Shumlin
1984
(57th)
Amadeus Peter Shaffer The play by Shaffer
Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes Michael Austin & Robert Towne [note 12][5] The novel Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs
The Killing Fields Bruce Robinson The article The Death and Life of Dith Pran by Sydney Schanberg
A Passage to India David Lean The novel by E. M. Forster
A Soldier's Story Charles Fuller The play A Soldier's Play by Fuller
1985
(58th)
Out of Africa Kurt Luedtke The memoir by Karen Blixen & the books Silence Will Speak by Errol Trzebinski & Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller by Judith Thurman
The Color Purple Menno Meyjes The novel by Alice Walker
Kiss of the Spider Woman Leonard Schrader The novel by Manuel Puig
Prizzi's Honor Richard Condon & Janet Roach The novel by Condon
The Trip to Bountiful Horton Foote The play & teleplay by Foote
1986
(59th)
A Room with a View Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel by E. M. Forster
Children of a Lesser God Hesper Anderson & Mark Medoff The play by Medoff
The Color of Money Richard Price The novel by Walter Tevis
Crimes of the Heart Beth Henley The play by Henley
Stand by Me Bruce A. Evans & Raynold Gideon The novella The Body by Stephen King
1987
(60th)
The Last Emperor Bernardo Bertolucci & Mark Peploe The autobiography From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi by Puyi
The Dead Tony Huston The short story by James Joyce
Fatal Attraction James Dearden The teleplay Diversion by Dearden
Full Metal Jacket Gustav Hasford, Michael Herr & Stanley Kubrick The novel The Short-Timers by Hasford
My Life as a Dog Brasse Brännström, Per Berglund, Lasse Hallström & Reidar Jönsson The novel Mitt liv som hund by Jönsson
1988
(61st)
Dangerous Liaisons Christopher Hampton The play Les Liaisons Dangereuses by Hampton & the novel by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
The Accidental Tourist Frank Galati & Lawrence Kasdan The novel by Anne Tyler
Gorillas in the Mist Anna Hamilton Phelan (story/screenplay) & Tab Murphy (story) An article by Harold Hayes
Little Dorrit Christine Edzard The novel by Charles Dickens
The Unbearable Lightness of Being Jean-Claude Carrière & Philip Kaufman The novel by Milan Kundera
1989
(62nd)
Driving Miss Daisy Alfred Uhry The play by Uhry
Born on the Fourth of July Ron Kovic & Oliver Stone The book by Kovic
Enemies, A Love Story Paul Mazursky & Roger L. Simon The novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer
Field of Dreams Phil Alden Robinson The novel Shoeless Joe by W. P. Kinsella
My Left Foot Shane Connaughton & Jim Sheridan The book by Christy Brown

1990s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
1990
(63rd)
Dances with Wolves Michael Blake The novel by Blake
Awakenings Steven Zaillian The book by Oliver Sacks
Goodfellas Nicholas Pileggi & Martin Scorsese The book Wiseguy by Pileggi
The Grifters Donald E. Westlake The novel by Jim Thompson
Reversal of Fortune Nicholas Kazan The book Reversal of Fortune: Inside the von Bülow Case by Alan Dershowitz
1991
(64th)
The Silence of the Lambs Ted Tally The novel by Thomas Harris
Europa Europa Agnieszka Holland The book I Was Hitler Youth Salomon by Solomon Perel
Fried Green Tomatoes Fannie Flagg & Carol Sobieski (p.n.) The novel Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe by Flagg
JFK Zachary Sklar & Oliver Stone The books Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs & On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison
The Prince of Tides Pat Conroy & Becky Johnston The novel by Conroy
1992
(65th)
Howards End Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel by E. M. Forster
Enchanted April Peter Barnes The novel The Enchanted April by Elizabeth von Arnim
The Player Michael Tolkin The novel by Tolkin
A River Runs Through It Richard Friedenberg The short story by Norman Maclean
Scent of a Woman Bo Goldman The novel Il Buio E Il Miele by Giovanni Arpino & film Profumo di Donna written by Ruggero Maccari & Dino Risi
1993
(66th)
Schindler's List Steven Zaillian The novel Schindler's Ark by Thomas Keneally
The Age of Innocence Jay Cocks & Martin Scorsese The novel by Edith Wharton
In the Name of the Father Terry George & Jim Sheridan The book Proved Innocent by Gerry Conlon
The Remains of the Day Ruth Prawer Jhabvala The novel by Kazuo Ishiguro
Shadowlands William Nicholson The play & teleplay by Nicholson
1994
(67th)
Forrest Gump Eric Roth The novel by Winston Groom
The Madness of King George Alan Bennett The play The Madness of George III by Bennett
Nobody's Fool Robert Benton The novel by Richard Russo
Quiz Show Paul Attanasio The book Remembering America: A Voice from the Sixties by Richard N. Goodwin
The Shawshank Redemption Frank Darabont The short story Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King
1995
(68th)
Sense and Sensibility Emma Thompson The novel by Jane Austen
Apollo 13 William Broyles Jr. & Al Reinert The book Lost Moon by Jeffrey Kluger & Jim Lovell
Babe George Miller & Chris Noonan The novel The Sheep-Pig by Dick King-Smith
Leaving Las Vegas Mike Figgis The novel by John O'Brien
Il Postino: The Postman Anna Pavignano, Michael Radford & Massimo Troisi (p.n.) (screenplay) ; Furio & Giacomo Scarpelli (story/screenplay) The novel Ardiente Paciencia by Antonio Skármeta
1996
(69th)
Sling Blade Billy Bob Thornton The short film Some Folks Call It a Sling Blade written by Thornton
The Crucible Arthur Miller The play by Miller
The English Patient Anthony Minghella The novel by Michael Ondaatje
Hamlet Kenneth Branagh The play by William Shakespeare
Trainspotting John Hodge The novel by Irvine Welsh
1997
(70th)
L.A. Confidential Curtis Hanson & Brian Helgeland The novel by James Ellroy
Donnie Brasco Paul Attanasio The book Donnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia by Joseph D. Pistone & Richard Woodley
The Sweet Hereafter Atom Egoyan The novel by Russell Banks
Wag the Dog Hilary Henkin & David Mamet The novel American Hero by Larry Beinhart
The Wings of the Dove Hossein Amini The novel The Wings of the Dove by Henry James
1998
(71st)
Gods and Monsters Bill Condon The novel Father of Frankenstein by Christopher Bram
Out of Sight Scott Frank The novel by Elmore Leonard
Primary Colors Elaine May The novel by Joe Klein
A Simple Plan Scott Smith The novel by Smith
The Thin Red Line Terrence Malick The novel by James Jones
1999
(72nd)
The Cider House Rules John Irving The novel by Irving
Election Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor The novel by Tom Perrotta
The Green Mile Frank Darabont The novel by Stephen King
The Insider Michael Mann & Eric Roth The article The Man Who Knew Too Much by Marie Brenner
The Talented Mr. Ripley Anthony Minghella The novel by Patricia Highsmith

2000s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
2000
(73rd)
Traffic Stephen Gaghan The teleplay Traffik by Simon Moore
Chocolat Robert Nelson Jacobs The novel by Joanne Harris
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Wang Hui-ling, James Schamus, & Kuo Jung Tsai The novel by Wang Dulu
O Brother, Where Art Thou? Coen Brothers The epic poem The Odyssey by Homer
Wonder Boys Steve Kloves The book by Michael Chabon
2001
(74th)
A Beautiful Mind Akiva Goldsman The book by Sylvia Nasar
Ghost World Daniel Clowes & Terry Zwigoff The graphic novel by Daniel Clowes
In the Bedroom Rob Festinger & Todd Field The short story Killings by Andre Dubus
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson & Fran Walsh The novel The Fellowship of the Ring by J. R. R. Tolkien
Shrek Ted Elliott, Roger S. H. Schulman, Joe Stillman & Terry Rossio The book by William Steig
2002
(75th)
The Pianist Ronald Harwood The memoir by Władysław Szpilman
About a Boy Peter Hedges, Chris & Paul Weitz The novel by Nick Hornby
Adaptation Charlie & Donald Kaufman [note 13][5] The book The Orchid Thief by Susan Orlean
Chicago Bill Condon The musical by Fred Ebb & Bob Fosse
The Hours David Hare The novel by Michael Cunningham
2003
(76th)
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson & Fran Walsh The novel The Return of the King by J. R. R. Tolkien
American Splendor Shari Springer Berman & Robert Pulcini The comic book by Harvey Pekar & Our Cancer Year by Joyce Brabner
City of God Bráulio Mantovani The novel by Paulo Lins
Mystic River Brian Helgeland The novel by Dennis Lehane
Seabiscuit Gary Ross The book Seabiscuit: An American Legend by Laura Hillenbrand
2004
(77th)
Sideways Alexander Payne & Jim Taylor The novel by Rex Pickett
Before Sunset Richard Linklater (story/screenplay); Kim Krizan (story); Julie Delpy & Ethan Hawke (screenplay) Characters from the film Before Sunrise created by Krizan & Linklater
Finding Neverland David Magee The play The Man Who Was Peter Pan by Allan Knee
Million Dollar Baby Paul Haggis The book Rope Burns: Stories from the Corner by F.X. Toole
The Motorcycle Diaries José Rivera The books Con el Che por America Latina by Alberto Granado & The Motorcycle Diaries by Che Guevara
2005
(78th)
Brokeback Mountain Larry McMurtry & Diana Ossana The short story by Annie Proulx
Capote Dan Futterman The book by Gerald Clarke
The Constant Gardener Jeffrey Caine The novel by John le Carré
A History of Violence Josh Olson The graphic novel by Vince Locke & John Wagner
Munich Tony Kushner & Eric Roth The book Vengeance by George Jonas
2006
(79th)
The Departed William Monahan The film Infernal Affairs written by Felix Chong & Alan Mak
Borat Sacha Baron Cohen, Peter Baynham & Anthony Hines (story/screenplay); Dan Mazer (screenplay); Todd Phillips (story) The character Borat Sagdiyev, from the television series Da Ali G Show by Baron Cohen
Children of Men David Arata, Alfonso Cuarón, Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby & Timothy J. Sexton The novel by P. D. James
Little Children Todd Field & Tom Perrotta The novel by Perrotta
Notes on a Scandal Patrick Marber The novel by Zoë Heller
2007
(80th)
No Country for Old Men Coen Brothers The novel by Cormac McCarthy
Atonement Christopher Hampton The novel by Ian McEwan
Away from Her Sarah Polley The short story "The Bear Went Over the Mountain" by Alice Munro
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly Ronald Harwood The book by Jean-Dominique Bauby
There Will Be Blood Paul Thomas Anderson The novel Oil! by Upton Sinclair
2008
(81st)
Slumdog Millionaire Simon Beaufoy The novel Q & A by Vikas Swarup
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button Eric Roth (story/screenplay) & Robin Swicord (story) The short story by F. Scott Fitzgerald
Doubt John Patrick Shanley The play Doubt: A Parable by Shanley
Frost/Nixon Peter Morgan The play by Morgan
The Reader David Hare The novel by Bernhard Schlink
2009
(82nd)
Precious Geoffrey S. Fletcher The novel Push by Sapphire
District 9 Neill Blomkamp & Terri Tatchell The short film Alive in Joburg written by Blomkamp
An Education Nick Hornby The book by Lynn Barber
In the Loop Jesse Armstrong, Simon Blackwell, Armando Iannucci & Tony Roche The character Malcolm Tucker, from the television series The Thick of It created by Iannucci
Up in the Air Jason Reitman & Sheldon Turner The novel by Walter Kirn

2010s[edit]

Year Film Nominees Source Material
2010
(83rd)
The Social Network Aaron Sorkin The book The Accidental Billionaires by Ben Mezrich
127 Hours Simon Beaufoy & Danny Boyle The book Between a Rock and a Hard Place by Aron Ralston
Toy Story 3 Michael Arndt (screenplay); John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton & Lee Unkrich (story) Characters from the films Toy Story films by Pete Docter, Lasseter, Stanton, et al.
True Grit Coen Brothers The novel by Charles Portis
Winter's Bone Debra Granik & Anne Rosellini The novel by Daniel Woodrell
2011
(84th)
The Descendants Nat Faxon, Alexander Payne & Jim Rash The novel by Kaui Hart Hemmings
Hugo John Logan The novel The Invention of Hugo Cabret by Brian Selznick
The Ides of March George Clooney, Grant Heslov & Beau Willimon The play Farragut North by Willimon
Moneyball Aaron Sorkin & Steven Zaillian(screenplay); Stan Chervin (story) The book by Michael Lewis
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy Bridget O'Connor (p.n.) & Peter Straughan The novel by John le Carré
2012
(85th)
Argo Chris Terrio The book The Master of Disguise by Tony Mendez & the article The Great Escape by Joshuah Bearman
Beasts of the Southern Wild Lucy Alibar & Benh Zeitlin The play Juicy and Delicious by Alibar
Life of Pi David Magee The novel by Yann Martel
Lincoln Tony Kushner The book Team of Rivals by Doris Kearns Goodwin
Silver Linings Playbook David O. Russell The novel by Matthew Quick
2013
(86th)
12 Years a Slave John Ridley The memoir by Solomon Northup
Before Midnight Julie Delpy, Richard Linklater & Ethan Hawke Characters from the film Before Sunrise created by Kim Krizan & Linklater
Captain Phillips Billy Ray The book A Captain's Duty by Richard Phillips & Stephan Talty
Philomena Steve Coogan & Jeff Pope The book The Lost Child of Philomena Lee by Martin Sixsmith
The Wolf of Wall Street Terence Winter The memoir by Jordan Belfort
2014
(87th)
The Imitation Game Graham Moore The book Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges
American Sniper Jason Hall The autobiography American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History by Jim DeFelice, Chris Kyle & Scott McEwan
Inherent Vice Paul Thomas Anderson The novel by Thomas Pynchon
The Theory of Everything Anthony McCarten The book Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen Hawking by Jane Hawking
Whiplash Damien Chazelle The short film written by Chazelle
2015
(88th)
The Big Short Adam McKay & Charles Randolph The book by Michael Lewis
Brooklyn Nick Hornby The novel by Colm Tóibín
Carol Phyllis Nagy The novel The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith
The Martian Drew Goddard The novel by Andy Weir
Room Emma Donoghue The novel by Donoghue
2016
(89th)
[6]
Moonlight Barry Jenkins (screenplay) & Tarell Alvin McCraney (story) The play In Moonlight Black Boys Look Blue by McCraney
Arrival Eric Heisserer The short story Story of Your Life by Ted Chiang
Fences August Wilson (p.n.) The play by Wilson
Hidden Figures Theodore Melfi & Allison Schroeder The book by Margot Lee Shetterly
Lion Luke Davies The memoir A Long Way Home by Saroo Brierley & Larry Buttrose
2017
(90th)
[7]
Call Me by Your Name James Ivory The novel by André Aciman
The Disaster Artist Scott Neustadter & Michael H. Weber The book by Greg Sestero & Tom Bissell
Logan Scott Frank, Michael Green & James Mangold (screenplay/story) Characters from the X-Men comic books & films
Molly's Game Aaron Sorkin The memoir by Molly Bloom
Mudbound Dee Rees & Virgil Williams The novel by Hillary Jordan

Age superlatives[edit]

Record Writer Film Age (in years) Ref.
Oldest winner James Ivory Call Me by Your Name 89
Oldest nominee [8]
Youngest winner Ernest Thompson On Golden Pond 32
Youngest nominee

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e During these years, the award was bestowed as Best Writing, Adaptation.
  2. ^ The 2nd Academy Awards is unique in being the only occasion where there were no official nominees. Subsequent research by AMPAS has resulted in a list of unofficial or de facto nominees, based on records of which films were evaluated by the judges.
  3. ^ During this year, the award was bestowed as Best Writing and included original and adapted screenplays.
  4. ^ From 1935 until 1955, the award was bestowed as Best Writing, Screenplay.
  5. ^ Captain Blood, written by Casey Robinson from the novel by Rafael Sabatini, was not officially nominated for this award, but appears in Academy records because it placed third in voting as a write-in candidate in 1935.
  6. ^ Dudley Nichols refused to accept the award, but was in possession of it by 1949 according to Academy records.
  7. ^ Michael Blankfort was originally nominated as the screenwriter of Broken Arrow. In 1991, research proved blacklisted Albert Maltz was the screenwriter and his credit was restored. Blankfort was removed from the nomination and it was given to Maltz.
  8. ^ Michael Wilson was originally credited as the screenwriter of Friendly Persuasion, but Allied Artists, acting in agreement with the Screen Writers Guild, removed his credit because he was blacklisted. Early in 1957, the Academy revised its bylaws so the film would be eligible for a writing nomination without naming Wilson as a nominee. Friendly Persuasion was initially announced a nominee without a writer's name attached. The Academy's Board of Governors voted to strike the nomination altogether and it was not included on the final ballot. The Board of Governors, however, reinstated the nomination with Wilson's name attached in 2002.
  9. ^ Pierre Boulle was credited as the screenwriter of The Bridge on the River Kwai and ultimately won the award. Blacklisted writers Michael Wilson and Carl Foreman, who actually wrote the screenplay, were awarded posthumous Oscars by the Academy's Board of Governors in 1984.
  10. ^ Due to blacklisting, Young wrote under the pseudonym Nathan E. Douglas.
  11. ^ In 1995, research proved blacklisted Michael Wilson was also a screenwriter of Lawrence of Arabia. He was added as a nominee by the Academy's Board of Governors.
  12. ^ Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes was initially adapted by screenwriter Robert Towne, but he removed his name from the credits because he was unhappy with co-writer Michael Austin's alterations and the finished film itself. He instead used the pseudonym P.H. Vazak, the name of his late Hungarian sheepdog.
  13. ^ Screenwriter Charlie Kaufman is a character in his own script for Adaptation, as is his fictional twin brother Donald. The nonexistent Donald was credited as a screenwriter and was nominated for an Academy Award. The film's end credits claimed he had died during preproduction.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aljean Harmetz (March 16, 1985). "Oscars Go to Writers of 'Kwai'". The New York Times.
  2. ^ Johnson, Andrew (28 March 2010). "Emma Thompson: How Jane Austen saved me from going under". The Independent. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  3. ^ "The Official Academy Awards Database". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  4. ^ "The 18th Academy Awards - 1946". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Saito, Stephen (February 20, 2008). "Fake Names, Real Oscars: Five Nominees Who Didn't Really Exist". IFC. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  6. ^ "Academy Awards 2017: Complete list of Oscar winners and nominees". Los Angeles Times. February 26, 2017. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  7. ^ "90th Oscar Nominations Announced" (PDF). Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  8. ^ https://www.theringer.com/2018/1/23/16923366/academy-award-nominations-get-out-lady-bird-three-billboards-shape-of-water-snubs-surprises