Acala

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Acala
不動明王坐像-Fudō Myōō MET DP356182.jpg
Statue of Fudō Myōō (Acala), from early 13th century (Kamakura period) Japan
Sanskrit
  • अचल (Acala)
  • अचलनाथ (Acalanātha)
  • आर्याचलनाथ (Āryācalanātha)
  • अचलवज्र (Acalavajra)
  • चण्डरोषण (Caṇḍaroṣaṇa)
  • चण्डमहारोषण (Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa)
  • महाचण्डरोषण (Mahācaṇḍaroṣaṇa)
Chinese
  • (Traditional) 不動明王
  • (Simplified) 不动明王
  • (Pinyin: Bùdòng Míngwáng)
  • 不動金剛明王 / 不动金刚明王 (Bùdòng Jīngāng Míngwáng)
  • 不動使者 / 不动使者 (Bùdòng Shǐzhě)
  • 不動如來使 / 不动如来使 (Bùdòng Rúláishǐ)
  • 不動尊 / 不动尊 (Bùdòng-zūn)
  • 無動明王 / 无动明王
    (Wúdòng Míngwáng)
  • 無動尊 / 无动尊 (Wúdòng-zūn)
  • 無動使者 / 无动使者 (Wúdòng Shǐzhě)
Japanese
  • 不動明王 (Fudō Myōō)
  • 大日大聖不動明王 (Dainichi Daishō Fudō Myōō)
  • 不動尊 (Fudō-son)
  • 不動使者 (Fudō Shisha)
  • 不動如来使 (Fudō Nyoraishi)
  • 無動明王 Mudō Myōō)
  • 無動尊 (Mudō-son)
  • 聖無動尊 (Shō-Mudō-son)
  • お不動さん (O-Fudō-san)
  • お不動様 / お不動さま (O-Fudō-sama)
Korean부동명왕 (Budong Myeongwang)
MongolianХөдөлшгүй (Khödölshgüi)
Tibetanམི་གཡོ་བ་ (Miyowa)
VietnameseBất Động Minh Vương
Information
Venerated byVajrayana Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Shugendō
Attributesvajra, lasso (pāśa), sword
P religion world.svg Religion portal

Acala or Achala (Sanskrit: अचल, "The Immovable"), also known as Acalanātha (अचलनाथ, "Immovable Lord") or Āryācalanātha (आर्याचलनाथ, "Noble Immovable Lord"), is a wrathful deity and dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) prominent in Vajrayana Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism.[1]

Originally a minor deity described as a messenger or acolyte of the buddha Vairocana, Acala later rose to prominence as an object of veneration in his own right as a remover of obstacles and destroyer of evil, eventually becoming seen as the wrathful manifestation of either Vairocana, the buddha Akṣobhya, or the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī. In later texts, he is also called Caṇḍaroṣaṇa (चण्डरोषण, "Violent Wrathful One") or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa (चण्डमहारोषण, "Violent One of Great Wrath"), the names by which he is more commonly known in countries like Nepal and Tibet.[2][3][4]

In East Asian esoteric Buddhism, Acala is classed among the wisdom kings (vidyārāja) and is preeminent among the Five Wisdom Kings of the Womb Realm. Accordingly, he occupies an important hierarchical position in the Mandala of the Two Realms. In China, he is known as Budong Mingwang (不動明王, "Immovable Wisdom King", the Chinese translation of Sanskrit Acala Vidyārāja[5]), while in Japan, he is called Fudō Myōō, the on'yomi reading of his Chinese name.[6] Acala (as Fudō) is one of the especially important and well-known divinities in Japanese Buddhism, being especially venerated in the Shingon, Tendai, Zen, and Nichiren sects, as well as in Shugendō.

Acala has been popular throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times in Nepal, Tibet and Japan, where sculptural and pictorial representations of him are most often found.[1][3]

Origins and development[edit]

Acala first appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra (不空羂索神変真言經, Bùkōng juànsuǒ shénbiàn zhēnyán jīng, translated by Bodhiruci circa 707-709 CE[7]), where he is described as a servant or messenger of the buddha Vairocana:[8]

The first from the west in the northern quadrant is the acolyte Acala (不動使者). In his left hand he grasps a noose and in his right hand he holds a sword. He is seated in the half-lotus position.[8][9]

More well-known, however, is the following passage from the Mahāvairocana Tantra which refers to Acala as one of the deities of the Womb Mandala:

Below the lord of mantras [i.e. Vairocana], in the southwestern direction, is Acala, servant of the Tathāgata (不動如来使). He holds the sword of wisdom and the noose (pāśa). His hair hangs on his left shoulder. One eye lightly squinting, he gazes intently. Blazing flames radiate from his awe-inspiring body. He dwells on a large rock. On his forehead are wrinkles like waves on the water. He is a young boy with a plump body.[8][10]

The deity was apparently popular in India during the 8th-9th centuries as evident by the fact that six of the Sanskrit texts translated by the esoteric master Amoghavajra into Chinese are devoted entirely to him.[3]

12th century Tibetan (Kadampa school) painting of Acala stepping on Vighnarāja (Ganesha), the "Lord of Obstacles"

While some scholars have put forward the theory that Acala originated from the Hindu god Shiva, particularly his attributes of destruction and reincarnation,[11][12] Bernard Faure suggested the wrathful esoteric deity Trailokyavijaya (whose name is an epithet of Shiva), the Vedic fire god Agni, and the guardian deity Vajrapāṇi to be other, more likely prototypes for Acala. He notes: "one could theoretically locate Acala's origins in a generic Śiva, but only in the sense that all Tantric deities can in one way or another be traced back to Śiva."[8] Faure compares Acala to Vajrapāṇi in that both were originally minor deities who eventually came to occupy important places in the Buddhist pantheon.[13]

Acala is said to be a powerful deity who protects the faithful by burning away all impediments (antarāya) and defilements (kleśa), thus aiding them towards enlightenment.[14] In a commentary on the Mahāvairocana Tantra by Yi Xing, he is said to have manifested in the world following Vairocana's vow to save all beings, and that his primary function is to remove obstacles to enlightenment.[8] Indeed, the tantra instructs the ritual practitioner to recite Acala's mantras or to visualize himself as Acala in order to remove obstacles.[15]

From a humble acolyte, Acala evolved into a powerful demon-subduing deity. In later texts such as the Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra, Acala - under the name Caṇḍaroṣaṇa ("Violent Wrathful One") or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa ("Violent One of Great Wrath") - is portrayed as the "frightener of gods, titans, and men, the destroyer of the strength of demons" who slays ghosts and evil spirits with his fierce anger.[3][16] In the Sādhanamālā, the "wicked" Hindu gods Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Kandarpa who subject humanity to endless rebirth are said to be terrified of Acala because he carries a rope to bind them.[3]

10th century bronze statue of Acala from Nepal (currently in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art)

In Tibetan Buddhism, Acala or Miyowa (མི་གཡོ་བ་, Wylie: mi g.yo ba) is considered as belonging to the vajrakula ("vajra family", Tibetan: དོ་རྗེའི་རིགས་, dorjé rik), a category of deities presided over by the buddha Akṣobhya and may even be regarded, along with the other deities of the kula, as an aspect or emanation of the latter.[3][17][18][19] Indeed, he is sometimes depicted in South Asian art wearing a crown bearing an effigy of Akṣobhya.[3][18][19] In Nepal, Acala may also be identified as a manifestation of the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī.[20][21][22] He has a consort named Viśvavajrī in both the Nepalese and Tibetan traditions, with whom he is at times depicted in yab-yum union.[4][21]

The five Wisdom Kings (Vidyarāja, Myōō) of Shingon Buddhism: Acala (Fudō, center), Trailokyavijaya (Gōzanze, lower right), Kuṇḍali (Gundari, lower left), Yamāntaka (Daiitoku, upper left), and Vajrayakṣa (Kongōyasha, upper right)

By contrast, in the Japanese Shingon school, Acala is considered to be a fierce manifestation of Vairocana. According to the sanrinjin (三輪身, "three cakra bodies") theory prevalent in Japanese esoteric Buddhism, the five vidyārājas or wisdom kings (明王, myōō), of which Acala is one, are incarnations of the Five Tathāgatas known as "embodiments of the wheel of injunction" (教令輪身, kyōryō rinshin).[23][24] In this theory, the five buddhas manifest themselves in both benevolent and wrathful forms, appearing as gentle bodhisattvas to teach the Dharma to sentient beings and also as terrifying wisdom kings to subdue and convert hardened nonbelievers.[25] Under this conceptualization, the wisdom kings are ranked superior to the dharmapala (護法善神, gohō zenshin),[26] a different class of guardian deities. However, this interpretation, while common, is not necessarily universal: in Nichiren-shū, for instance, Acala and Rāgarāja (Aizen Myōō), the two vidyārājas who commonly feature in the mandalas inscribed by Nichiren, are seen more as protective deities (外護神, gegoshin) who are the respective embodiments of the concepts of shōji soku nehan (生死即涅槃, "the sufferings of life and death (saṃsāra) are nirvana") and bonnō soku bodai (煩悩即菩提, "earthly desires (kleśa) lead to enlightenment (bodhi)").[27][28][29][30]

Texts[edit]

A mandala gohonzon inscribed by Nichiren in 1280. On the gohonzon's right-hand side (in Siddhaṃ script) is hāṃ (हां), Acala's bīja or seed syllable; Rāgarāja's seed syllable, hūṃ (हूं), is on the left.

As noted above, Acala appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra and the Mahāvairocana Tantra (also known as the Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Tantra or the Vairocana Sūtra). As Caṇḍaroṣaṇa or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa, he is the primary deity of the Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra and is described in the Sādhanamālā.

The Japanese esoteric Buddhist tradition and Shugendō also make use of the following apocryphal sutras on Acala:

  • Sūtra of the Great Wrathful King Āryācala's Secret Dhāraṇī (聖無動尊大威怒王秘密陀羅尼経, Shō-Mudō-son daiifunnuō himitsu darani kyō)
A sūtra in the form of a discourse given by the bodhisattva Vajrasattva (identified here with Samantabhadra) to Mañjuśrī concerning Acala's nature. Acala, identified in this text with the all-pervading dharmakāya, is here said to "have no fixed abode, but dwells within the hearts of sentient beings" (無其所居、但住衆生心想之中).[31][32]
  • Āryācala Sūtra (仏説聖不動経, Bussetsu Shō-Fudō kyō)
A condensed version of the above sutra. To this text is often appended two litanies of the names of Acala's young acolytes, the 'thirty-six kumāras' (三十六童子, sanjuroku dōji) and the 'eight great kumāras' (八大童子, hachi daidōji).[33][34]
  • Sūtra on Reverencing the Secret Dhāraṇī of Āryācala (稽首聖無動尊秘密陀羅尼経, Keishu Shō-Mudō-son himitsu darani kyō)[35][36]

Bījā and mantra[edit]

हाँ (hāṃ), Acala's seed syllable (bīja) written in Siddhaṃ script

The bīja or seed syllables used to represent Acala in Japanese Buddhism are hāṃ (हां / हाँ) and hāmmāṃ (हाम्मां / हाम्माँ), the latter being a combination of the two final bīja in his mantra: hāṃ māṃ (हां मां).[37][38] Hāṃ is sometimes confounded with the similar-looking hūṃ (हूं), prompting some writers to mistakenly identify Acala with other deities.[39] The syllables are written using the Siddham script and is conventionally read as kān (カーン) and kānmān (カーンマーン).[37][40][41]

Three mantras of Acala are considered to be the standard in Japan. The most widely known one, derived from the Mahāvairocana Tantra and popularly known as the "Mantra of Compassionate Help" (慈救呪, jikushu or jikuju), goes as follows:[42][43]

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation Tendai pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ samanta vajrānāṃ caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa sphoṭaya hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ[38] Nōmaku sanmanda bazarada(n) senda(n) makaroshada sowataya un tarata kan man[44][45] Namaku samanda basaranan senda makaroshana sowataya un tarata kan man[46][47] Homage to the all-encompassing Vajras! O violent one of great wrath (caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa), destroy! hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ.
The seed syllable(s) हाम्माँ (hāmmāṃ) in Siddhaṃ script

The "Short Mantra" (小呪, shōshu) of Acala - also found in the Mahāvairocana Tantra[48] - is as follows:

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ samanta vajrānāṃ hāṃ[38] Nōmaku sanmanda bazaradan kan[49][50] Homage to the all-encompassing Vajras! hāṃ.

The longest of the three is the "Great Mantra" of Acala, also known as the "Fire Realm Mantra" (火界呪, kakaishu / kakaiju):[51]

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ sarva-mukhebhyaḥ sarvathā traṭ caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa khaṃ khā he khā he (or khāhi khāhi[52]) sarva-vighnaṃ hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ[53] Nōmaku saraba tatagyateibyaku saraba bokkeibyaku sarabata tarata senda makaroshada ken gyaki gyaki saraba bikin(n)an un tarata kan man[45][49][50] Homage to all Tathāgatas, the omnipresent doors, who are in all directions! traṭ. O violent one of great wrath! khaṃ. Root out, root out every obstacle! hūm traṭ hām mām.[54]

Another mantra associated with the deity is Oṃ caṇḍa-mahā­roṣaṇa hūṃ phaṭ, found in the Siddhaikavīra Tantra. The text describes it as the "king of mantras" that dispels all evil and grants "whatever the follower of Mantrayāna desires".[55]

Iconography[edit]

A 14th century (early Malla period) Nepalese depiction of a kneeling Acala

The Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra's description of Acala is a good summary of the deity's depiction in South Asian Buddhist art.


"His right hand is terrifying with a sword in it,
His left is holding a noose;
He is making a threatening gesture with his index finger,
And bites his lower lip with his fangs.
"Kicking with his right foot,
He is smashing the four Māras.
His left knee is on the ground.
Squint eyed, he inspires fear.
"He points a threatening gesture at Vasudhā [i.e. the earth],
Kneeling on the cap of his left knee.
He has Akṣobhya for his crest jewel;
He is of blue color and wears a jewel diadem.
"A princely youth, Wearing Five Braids of Hair,
Adorned with all the ornaments,
He appears to be sixteen years old,
And his eyes are red—he, the powerful one."[16]

Bronze statue of standing Acala (Tibet, 13th century)

In Nepalese and Tibetan art, Acala is usually shown either kneeling on his left knee or standing astride, bearing a noose or lasso (pāśa) and an upraised sword. Some depictions portray him trampling on the elephant-headed Vighnarāja (the Hindu god Ganesha), the "Lord of Hindrances". He may also be shown wearing a tiger skin, with snakes coiled around his arms and body.[3][56]

Statue of Acala in the Lecture Hall (Kōdō) of Tō-ji in Kyoto

By contrast, portrayals of Acala (Fudō) in Japan tend to conform to the description given in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra and the Mahāvairocana Tantra: holding a lasso and a sword while sitting or standing on a rock (盤石座, banjakuza) or a pile of hewn stones (瑟瑟座, shitsushitsuza), with his braided hair hanging from the left of his head.[57][58][59] He may also be depicted with a lotus flower - a symbol of enlightenment - on his head (頂蓮, chōren).[60] Unlike the South Asian Acala (whose posture conveys movement and dynamism), the Japanese Fudō sits or stands erect, suggesting motionlessness and rigidity.[8] The sword he wields may or may not be flaming and is sometimes described generically as a "jeweled sword" (宝剣, hōken) or "vajra sword" (金剛剣, kongō-ken), which is descriptive of the fact that the sword's pommel is in the shape of the talon-like vajra (金剛杵, kongō-sho). It may also be referred to as a "three-pronged vajra sword" (三鈷剣, sanko-ken).[61] In some cases, he is seen holding the "Kurikara sword" (倶利伽羅剣, Kurikara-ken),[62] a sword with the dragon (nāga) king Kurikara (倶利伽羅; Sanskrit: Kulikāla-rāja or Kṛkāla-rāja) coiled around it.[63] The flaming nimbus or halo behind Acala is known in Japanese as the "Garuda flame" (迦楼羅炎, karura-en), after the mythical fire-breathing bird from Indian mythology.[14]

Acala with mismatched eyes or tenchigan (lit. "heaven-and-earth eyes"), by Katsushika Hokusai

Whereas earlier Japanese images showed Acala with glaring eyes and two fangs pointing upwards, a new variation developed by the late Heian period which depicted him with one eye wide open and/or looking upwards, with the other narrowed and/or looking downwards - an iconographic trait known as the tenchigan (天地眼), "heaven-and-earth eyes". Similarly, one of his fangs is now shown as pointing up, with the other pointing down.[59][64][65][66] Acala's mismatched eyes and fangs were allegorically interpreted to signify both the duality and nonduality of his nature (and of all reality): the upward fang for instance was interpreted as symbolizing the process of elevation towards enlightenment, with the downward fang symbolizing the descent of enlightened beings into the world to teach sentient beings. The two fangs also symbolize the realms of buddhas and sentient beings, yin and yang, and male and female, with the nonduality of these two polar opposites being expressed by Acala's tightly closed lips.[67]

12th century painting of Yellow Acala (黄不動, Ki-Fudō) in Manshu-in in Kyoto, based on an image (not available to public view) kept at Mii-dera in Shiga Prefecture

Acala is commonly shown as having either black or blue skin (the Sādhanamālā describes his color as being "like that of the atasī (flax) flower," which may be either yellow[68] or blue[69][70]), though he may be at times portrayed in other colors. In Tibet, for instance, a variant of the kneeling Acala depiction shows him as being white in hue "like sunrise on a snow mountain reflecting many rays of light".[71] In Japan, some images may depict Acala sporting a red (赤不動, Aka-Fudō) or yellow (黄不動, Ki-Fudō) complexion. The most famous example of the Aka-Fudō portrayal is a painting kept at Myōō-in on Mount Kōya (Wakayama Prefecture) traditionally attributed to the Heian period Tendai monk Enchin. Legend claims that Enchin, inspired by a vision of Acala, painted the image using his own blood (thus explaining its red color), though recent analysis suggests that the image may have been actually created much later, during the Kamakura period.[72][73][74] The Ki-Fudō image, enshrined in Mii-dera (Onjō-ji) at the foot of Mount Hiei in Shiga Prefecture, is meanwhile said to have been based on another vision that Enchin saw while practicing austerities in 838. The original Ki-Fudō is a 'hidden buddha' or hibutsu (秘仏, Buddhist images hidden from public view) traditionally only shown to esoteric masters (ācārya; 阿闍梨, ajari) during initiation rites, though copies of it have been made. One such copy, made in the 12th century, is kept at Manshu-in in Kyoto.[75][76][77][78][79]

The deity is usually depicted with one head and two arms, though a few portrayals show him with multiple heads, arms or legs.[80] In Japan, a depiction of Acala with four arms is employed in subjugation rituals and earth-placating rituals (安鎮法, anchin-hō); this four-armed form is identified in one text as "the lord of the various categories [of gods]."[81] An iconographic depiction known as the "Two-Headed Rāgarāja" (両頭愛染, Ryōzu Aizen or Ryōtō Aizen) shows Acala combined with the wisdom king Rāgarāja (Aizen).[82][83][84]

Acolytes[edit]

The 'Blue Acala' (青不動, Ao-Fudō) of Shōren-in in Kyoto, showing Acala with his two attendants Kiṃkara (Kongara, right) and Ceṭaka (Seitaka, left)

Acala is sometimes described as having a retinue of acolytes, the number of which vary between sources, usually two or eight but sometimes thirty-six or even forty-eight. These represent the elemental, untamed forces of nature that the ritual practitioner seeks to harness.[1][85]

The two kumāra or boy servants (童子, dōji) most commonly depicted in Japanese iconographic portrayals are Kiṃkara (矜羯羅童子, Kongara-dōji) and Ceṭaka (吒迦童子, Seitaka-dōji), who also appear as the last two of the list of Acala's eight great dōji.[1][14][85] Kiṃkara is depicted as white in color, with his hands joined in respect, while Ceṭaka is red-skinned and holds a vajra in his left hand and a vajra staff in his right hand. The two are said to symbolize both Dharma-essence and ignorance, respectively, and is held to be in charge of good and evil.[85]

Sculpture of four of Acala's eight acolytes by Unkei (Kongōbu-ji, Mount Kōya). From left: Ceṭaka (Seitaka), Kiṃkara (Kongara), Matijvala (Ekō), and Matisādhu (Eki).

Kiṃkara and Ceṭaka are also sometimes interpreted as transformations or emanations of Acala himself. In a sense, they reflect Acala's original characterization as an attendant of Vairocana; indeed, their servile nature is reflected in their names (Ceṭaka for instance means "slave") and their topknots, the mark of banished people and slaves. In other texts, they are also described as manifestations of Avalokiteśvara (Kannon) and Vajrapāṇi or as transformations of the dragon Kurikara, who is himself sometimes seen as one of Acala's various incarnations.[85]

Two other notable dōji are Matijvala (恵光童子, Ekō-dōji) and Matisādhu (恵喜童子, Eki-dōji), the first two of Acala's eight great acolytes. Matijvala is depicted as white in color and holds a three-pronged vajra in his right hand and a lotus topped with a moon disk on his left, while Matisādhu is red and holds a trident in his right hand and a wish-fulfilling jewel (cintāmaṇi) on his left. The eight acolytes as a whole symbolize the eight directions, with Matijvala and Matisādhu representing east and south, respectively.[85]

Worship[edit]

Painting of Red Acala (Aka-Fudō) in Myōō-in temple on Mount Kōya, traditionally attributed to Heian period monk Enchin

Japan[edit]

Five variant depictions of Acala, from a 12th century handscroll

The cult of Acala was first brought to Japan by the esoteric master Kūkai, the founder of the Shingon school, and his successors, where it developed as part of the growing popularity of rituals for the protection of the state. While Acala was at first simply regarded as the primus inter pares among the five wisdom kings, he gradually became a focus of worship in his own right, subsuming characteristics of the other four vidyarājas (who came to be perceived as emanating from him), and became installed as the main deity (honzon) at many temples and outdoor shrines.[1][86]

Acala, as a powerful vanquisher of evil, was regarded both as a protector of the imperial court and the nation as a whole (in which capacity he was invoked during state-sponsored rituals) and the personal guardian of ritual practitioners. Many eminent Buddhist priests like Kūkai, Kakuban, Ennin, Enchin, and Sōō worshiped Acala as their patron deity, and stories of how he miraculously rescued his devotees in times of danger were widely circulated.[87]

At temples dedicated to Acala, priests perform the Fudō-hō (不動法), or ritual service to enlist the deity's power of purification to benefit the faithful. This rite routinely involves the use of the Homa ritual (護摩, goma)[1] as a purification tool.

Acala at Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, Singapore

Lay persons or monks in yamabushi gear who go into rigorous training outdoors in the mountains often pray to small Acala statues or portable talismans that serve as his honzon.[1] This element of yamabushi training, known as Shugendō, predates the introduction of Acala to Japan. At this time, figures such as Zaō Gongen (蔵王権現), who appeared before the sect's founder, En no Gyōja, or Vairocana, were commonly worshiped.[1] Once Acala was added to list of deities typically enshrined by the yamabushi monks, his images were either portable, or installed in hokora (outdoor shrines).[1] These statues would often be placed near waterfalls (a common training ground), deep in the mountains and in caves.[59]

Acala also tops the list of Thirteen Buddhas.[88] Thus Shingon Buddhist mourners assign Fudō to the first seven days of service.[88] The first week is an important observance, but perhaps not as much as the observance of "seven times seven days" (i.e. 49 days) signifying the end of the "intermediate state" (bardo).

Literature on Shingon Buddhist ritual will explain that Sanskrit "seed syllables", mantras and mudras are attendant to each of the Buddhas for each observance period. But the scholarly consensus seems to be that invocation of the "Thirteen Buddhas" had evolved later, around the 14th century[89][90] and became widespread by the following century,[89] so it's doubtful that this practice was part of Kūkai's original teachings.

In popular culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Murakami 1988, Jp. rel. dict., pp. 242–246
  2. ^ Weston, David (2018). "The Bayer Collection — University of Glasgow" (PDF). The Bayer Collection.
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