Access to the Region's Core
|Location||Hudson Palisades/Hudson River|
|Status||Canceled as of October 2010|
|System||New Jersey Transit|
|Start||North Bergen, New Jersey|
|End||New York City|
|Work begun||June 2009|
|Operator||New Jersey Transit|
|No. of tracks||2 single-track tubes|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrified||12 kV overhead catenary|
|Lowest elevation||100 ft (30.5 m) below river level|
|Tunnel clearance||24.5 ft (7.5 m)|
|Grade||0.3 – 0.8%|
Access to the Region's Core (ARC) was a commuter rail project to increase passenger service capacity on New Jersey Transit (NJT) between Secaucus Junction in New Jersey and Manhattan in New York City. New infrastructure would have included new trackage, a new rail yard, and a tunnel under the Hudson River. A new station adjacent to New York Penn Station was to be constructed as running more trains into the current station was deemed unfeasible. An estimated budget for the project was $8.7 billion. Construction began in mid-2009 and the project was slated for completion in 2018, but it was cancelled in October 2010 by Governor Chris Christie, citing the possibility of cost overruns and the state's lack of funds. $600 million had been spent on the project.
The project was initiated after studies conducted in the 1990s determined that new rail tunnels under the Hudson River were the best approach to address transportation needs for the New York metropolitan area. At times called the Trans Hudson Express Tunnel (THE Tunnel) or the Mass Transit Tunnel, it eventually became known by the name of a Major Investment Study, and received endorsements from both New Jersey and New York governors. It was colloquially dubbed the tunnel to Macy's basement, in reference to its terminus under 34th Street (Manhattan).
After its cancellation, the federal government demanded repayment of funding received by NJT for the project. The Christie administration engaged a law firm to present its arguments for non-payment which were subsequently rejected by the Federal Transit Administration. An agreement was eventually reached in which part of the funds would be returned while other monies would be used on transit-related projects.
Soon after work was halted there was speculation that the previously discussed idea of New York Transit Authority's 7 Subway Extension continuing into New Jersey would be revived, but was later scuttled. In February 2011, Amtrak announced the Gateway Project, a plan to build a right of way and new tunnels from Newark Penn Station to New York Penn Station, passing through Secaucus Junction, which would be shared with NJT trains.
Christie later directed PANYNJ funding toward New Jersey road projects. A March 2012 Government Accountability Office investigated the decision to cancel the project and provided comments that questioned Christie's rationale. Since 2014, Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance, Jr. and Securities and Exchange Commission are conducting investigations into possible misuse of PANYNJ funds since they are not within the agency's purview.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Project history
- 3 Funding repayment controversy
- 4 NJT costs, litigation, and settlements
- 5 Government Accountability Office report
- 6 NJ Legislature, Manhattan District Attorney and SEC investigations
- 7 Alternatives
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The project would have more than doubled the number of trains from New Jersey to Midtown Manhattan, providing direct, one-seat service from most of New Jersey Transit's rail lines, as well as more frequent service to in-state destinations. The improvement would have included the construction of two new rail tunnels under the Hudson River as a supplement to the North River Tunnels, which operate at 100% capacity. The new tunnels would have connected to a six-track, state-of-the-art construction of a new station under 34th Street east of the existing Penn Station with pedestrian connections to the existing station and New York City Transit's Eighth, Seventh, Sixth Avenue, and Broadway subway lines. Also planned were a new rail loop near the Frank R. Lautenberg Secaucus Junction Station allowing Main Line/Bergen County Line and Pascack Valley Line trains direct service to Midtown, and a new mid-day rail storage yard in the Kearny Meadows. While the terminal station would have dead-ended trains, there was hope that it would one day be extended eastward depending on future funding.
Cost and funding
The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) projected the cost for ARC as $8.7 billion in their 2009 Annual Report on Funding Recommendations for the New Starts Program, which identified the funding for the project as follows.
- Federal New Starts = $3.0 billion
- Federal American Recovery & Reinvestment Act = $0.130 billion
- Federal Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program & Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) = $1.320 billion
- Port Authority of New York and New Jersey = $3.0 billion
- New Jersey Turnpike Authority = $1.250 billion
Projections rose to close to $11 billion by the time of the cancellation of New Jersey's funding of the project It is estimated that $610 million has been spent on the project. Before being terminated, the Port Authority had purchased, or otherwise acquired rights or leased land on Manhattan's West Side. About $250 million was spent on studies and design. Condemnation procedures initiated by the state for properties along the route in Hudson County were left pending at various stages after the cancellation.
Christie later directed that funding be directed to road projects. In March 2011 the PANYNJ agreed to redirect $1.8 billion earmarked for the project to repairs to road and bridges in Hudson County that it saw as part of the larger network of the distribution system in the Port of New York and New Jersey. In September 2011, the Turnpike Authority voted to spend the funds committed to the project on roads within the state.
In 1995, the ARC project began with the initiation of the Access to the Region's Core Major Investment Study (MIS) in which an initial list of 137 alternatives was identified, including bus, light rail, subway, Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) rail, commuter rail, ferry, new technologies, and auto. This Major Investment Study was completed in 2003, and recommended two alternatives for advancement into a Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Alternative P would create new tracks and platforms under the existing Penn Station. Alternative S would create a new rail link to existing Penn Station as well as new East River Tunnels to expanded rail storage facilities at Sunnyside Yard. Alternative G would have provided a link to Grand Central Terminal, but that alternative was not recommended for further advancement.
The environmental review stage lasted from 2003 to 2009. In June 2003, NJ Transit Board of Directors awarded a $4.9 million contract to Transit Link, a joint venture of Parsons Brinckerhoff and Systra Engineering, to produce a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project.
In the very early stages of the project, there were plans for track connections from the new tunnels to existing Penn Station, the Penn Station Connector, which would have provided NJ Transit and Amtrak with the operational flexibility to use either the existing rail tunnels or the new ARC tunnels. In order to achieve a less than two percent grade from the low point in the tunnel under the river to Penn Station, the Penn Station Connector would have to diverge from the new ARC tunnels somewhere under the Hudson River. This would have required approval by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Coast Guard to allow construction of a very large, expensive cofferdam mid-river. Regulatory approvals seemed unlikely; construction of the cofferdam would have disrupted the contaminated river bottom which was previously declared a Superfund site and would have obstructed busy river shipping channels. In addition to Hudson River impacts, the Penn Station Connector would have required excavation of a wide trench across Manhattan's West Side. Known as cut and cover tunneling construction, this wide trench would have displaced many businesses and residents and required unlikely support from the Hudson River Park Trust, Community Boards, and other stakeholder organizations.
After the initial engineering and expert peer review in 2006 and 2007, NJ Transit determined that moving the station deeper and using modern tunnel boring techniques was the only way to avoid environmental, community, and engineering concerns. The agency opted to construct an underground terminal, which later became a source of controversy.
Design and construction management contracts were awarded respectively to THE Partnership, a joint venture of Parsons Brinckerhoff, STV, and DMJM Harris/AECOM, and CM Consortium, a joint venture of Tishman, Parsons Corp. and ARUP, both in 2006.
In July 2006, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announced its decision to allow preliminary engineering to begin on the new trans-Hudson rail tunnel. Supporters called the FTA's announcement a positive sign that the federal government eventually intended to commit funding to the project. The FTA approved the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project in January 2007, and the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS) in March 2008. The SDEIS identified and evaluated the environmental impacts of a deeper profile tunnel with no track connections to existing Penn Station. These changes to the project scope were necessitated by a significant number of environmental, community, and engineering concerns regarding construction of the previous shallow tunnel and station. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was approved in October 2008. In January 2009, the FTA issued the Record of Decision for the project and approved the start of final design.
Beginning of construction
The first construction contract was awarded to construct a new railroad underpass at Tonnelle Avenue in North Bergen in June 2009, and the project's groundbreaking was held on June 8, 2009. The Palisades Tunnels construction contract, the first major tunneling contract for the project was awarded on May 5, 2010.
At the time of cancellation, construction was already underway on the Tonnelle Avenue Underpass and the Palisades Tunnels, one of three tunnel segments in the project, the construction contract for the Manhattan Tunnels was pending award to Barnard-Judlau JV and the Hudson River Tunnels, the third and final tunnel construction contract, was in the procurement phase.
Governor Christie endorsed the project in April 2010, but his support for the project was later called into question. On September 10, 2010, with final design and construction on the first two contracts was already underway, NJ Transit's executive director, James Weinstein, ordered work on the tunnel to be suspended for 30 days for a 30-day risk review of the project's cost and schedule, because of concerns that the project would go $1 billion over budget and the State of New Jersey couldn't afford to pay. News reports mentioned the possibility that Governor Christie's administration was considering scrapping the project to use the project's funding to replenish New Jersey's Transportation Trust Fund, however New Jersey's Transportation Commissioner James S. Simpson denied that the Administration ever contemplated such a possibility.
On October 7, 2010, New Jersey governor Chris Christie announced that the ARC Tunnel project was officially cancelled, citing rising costs and concerns over New Jersey residents fronting the bill for the estimated $15 billion project. The next day the governor agreed to a two-week reprieve, so that additional options for funding the tunnel could be developed. Christie did briefly reconsider, reviewing options in discussions with US Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, but made a final decision to terminate the project on October 27, 2010.
Funding repayment controversy
The cancellation forfeited federal funding for the project, and put into question the use of Port Authority money. In November 2010, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood agreed to an arrangement proposed by New Jersey's congressional delegation in which the state would return $271 million already received for the project and the federal DOT would in turn put $128 million into the state’s Congestion Mitigation Air Quality account to be used on future projects. The Christie administration did not accept the offer.
The federal government then demanded total repayment by New Jersey of federal grants, as stipulated under federal law. The Christie administration has refused to repay and is involved in legal proceedings to avoid doing so. The Federal Transit Administration requested that the state repay $271,101,291 by December 24, 2010. New Jersey hired the Washington, D.C. law firm Patton Boggs to argue against the repayment. As of April 2011, Patton Boggs had billed the state $803,000 in legal fees. In a letter to New Jersey U.S. senators and congresssional representatives, Secretary LaHood wrote that the state was liable for the money, and that non-payment could result in the withholding of federal funding for other projects.
On April 29, 2011, a Federal Transit Administration ruling rejected New Jersey's arguments on the repayment of the funds. The debt carries an interest rate of 1% per year, and began to accrue on that date at a rate of approximately $225,000 per month. Christie vowed that he would contest in the decision in court.
In September 2011, FTA and NJT reached a deal whereby $95 million would be paid back. The agreement waived $2.7 million in penalties and interest and stipulated that $128 million would be spent on DOT-approved transit-related projects. While the $95 million taken as loss in 2011, the re-payment schedule will be $19 million per year for five years.
NJT costs, litigation, and settlements
in June 2010, a $162.7 million insurance premium payment was made by NJT when the project started, $144.5 million of which was reimbursed. The remaining $18,208,603 was used to cover the cost of insurance coverage for the project until it was shut down.
In October 2012, in an eminent domain case for a property in Weehawken that lie in the path of the tunnel NJT was ordered to pay $8.5 million for the parcel. The agency also agreed to a $5.6 million settlement with a construction company Barnard/Judlau Joint Venture for previously completed work final design plans, drawings and reports.
Government Accountability Office report
In March 2012, the Government Accountability Office (GAO), a federal agency, published a report entitled Commuter Rail Potential Impacts and Cost Estimates for the Cancelled Hudson River Tunnel Project which concluded that Christie's basis for cancelation was a misrepresentation and that he misstated the estimated costs, cost over-runs, and New Jersey's obligation to pay them.
It found that no agreement had been made as to whom was responsible for costs over-runs, which Christie claimed were NJ's responsibility. While he had suggested that the project would cost up to $14 billion, NJ state officials stated that in their estimation before the cancellation it would cost around $10 billion. The report concluded that New Jersey would have been responsible for 14.4% of the costs of project, and that Christie's claim of 70% included funds committed by the PANYNJ (a bi-state agency) and $775 million contribution to the rebuilding of the Portal Bridge, which was not in the scope of ARC project. New Jersey's funds earmarked for ARC were eventually diverted to the state transportation trust, normally funded by a gasoline tax, one of the lowest in the United States.
NJ Legislature, Manhattan District Attorney and SEC investigations
In a controversial move in 2011, Governor Chris Christie directed the PANYNJ to divert money originally earmarked for ARC to highway projects. The agency agreed to pay $1.8 billion to partially fund efforts to rehabilitate the Pulaski Skyway and Route 139, replace Wittpenn Bridge, and extend Route 1&9T, all part of the larger distribution network in the Port of New York and New Jersey. An 2014 article in WNYC claimed: "According to documents and interviews with more than a dozen top-level sources, the governor made clear from the get-go that the agency would be the source of cash for New Jersey’s hard-up infrastructure budget. And he and his team proceeded to wrangle billions from the bi-state authority to further his political goals — much of that for projects that had never been under the Port Authority’s jurisdiction before.
In February 2014, a special joint committee of the New Jersey Legislature investigating the Fort Lee lane closure scandal subpoenaed the PANYNJ for documents related to the ARC project, specifically with regard to projected cost overruns and to discussions related to Christie's appointments to the agency.
In March 2014, Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance, Jr. subpoenaed records from the PANYNJ seeking correspondence among authority officials and Christie's administration regarding projects such as the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site and the PATH transportation hub in lower Manhattan. Vance’s office has conducted interviews about the agency’s funding of reconstruction of the Pulaski Skyway. As the Port Authority's jurisdiction includes access roads to the Lincoln Tunnel but not the Holland Tunnel, the Christie administration allegedly pressured the Port Authority to classify the Skyway as an access route to the Lincoln Tunnel.
In April 2014, media reported that lawyers from the New York office of the Securities and Exchange Commission were working with the Manhattan DA's office in a joint probe into the possible misuse of Port Authority funds. NJ State Senator Ray Lesniak reportedly had sent a letter to the SEC and the Internal Revenue Service calling for an investigation into whether the diversion of money to New Jersey roads may have violated securities or tax laws.
In February 2011 Amtrak announced its intention to build a small segment of a high-speed rail corridor called the Gateway Project to also be used by New Jersey Transit. While Amtrak acknowledged that the region represented a bottleneck in the national system, its timetable for beginning the project was advanced in part due to ARC's cancellation. The project is similar in scope, but passengers travelling from Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, and Orange counties will still require a transfer at Secaucus Junction. Rather than a deep cavern station, a new southern terminal annex, considered more integral to an expanded New York Penn Station complex, will be built. A track from the new tunnel will also connect to the existing Penn Station, allowing for use by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor through-service trains. The proposed project is expected to take ten years to complete and is estimated to cost $13.5 billion, though no funding was identified at the time of the plan's announcement. In 2013, it was estimated NJ's contribution would be between $3–5 Billion. In December 2013, The Asbury Park Press reported that parts of the design and engineering work for ARC has been used by Amtrak in the development of the Gateway Project.
New York City Subway extension
On November 16, 2010, The New York Times reported that New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's administration was working on a plan in lieu of the ARC tunnel, to extend the IRT Flushing Line of the New York City Subway to Secaucus Junction. This revived previous discussions about the possible extension which were not pursued given New Jerseyeans presumed preference for a "one seat ride" into Manhattan. Construction on the 7 Subway Extension saw the line extended southwest from Times Square – 42nd Street to the 34th Street – Hudson Yards station, which opened on September 13, 2015. The new station is near the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project site and Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, one block from the Hudson River.
If built, the extension would take the New York City Subway outside the city's borders for the first time. It would offer a direct rail access from New Jersey to Times Square, Grand Central Terminal, and Queens as well as connections with most other subway routes.
A subway extension would cost less than the ARC tunnel, as its eastern end would be the new subway station at Eleventh Avenue, avoiding the expensive tunnel boring work east to Herald Square. Travel times into Manhattan could be longer than under the original ARC proposal, because riders would need to transfer to the subway from New Jersey Transit trains at Secaucus. On the other hand, riders would gain direct access to Grand Central Terminal on the east side of Manhattan. This was one of the original key goals of the ARC project that the final ARC proposal didn't satisfy. The 7 route might not have the same capacity as the ARC tunnel, as trains would not be arriving at a terminal station with multiple platforms. Bloomberg had not discussed the project with either New York Governor Andrew Cuomo or Christie, and it would not automatically receive the federal funds allotted to the ARC tunnel. Christie stated that he would be open to the discussion.
On February 2, 2011 the city's Economic Development Corporation voted to budget up to $250,000 for a feasibility study of a tunnel for the subway line extension awarded to Parsons Brinckerhoff, a major engineering firm that was working on the ARC tunnel. The report was released in April 2013. The proposal includes the construction of the in-fill station at 10th Avenue, tunnels running along the path of the ARC tunnel, and a multi-level multi-modal addition to Secaucus Junction. A widening of the right-of way of the Northeast Corridor was considered. The study revived hope for the project, with Mayor Bloomberg saying "Extending the 7 train to Secaucus is a promising potential solution ... and is deserving of serious consideration." Citing budget considerations, the director of the MTA, Joe Lhota, said that it was doubtful the extension would be built in the foreseeable future.
In a November 2013 Daily News opinion article, the president of the Real Estate Board of New York and the chairman of Edison Properties called for the line to be extended to Secaucus in tunnels to be shared with the Gateway Project. Later in November 2013 the New Jersey Assembly passed a Resolution 168 supporting the extension of the line to Hoboken and Secaucus. An economic impact study by the Meadowlands Chamber of Commerce is expected to be released in spring 2015.
- Florida high speed rail
- List of ferries across the Hudson River in New York City
- List of fixed crossings of the Hudson River (bridges and tunnels)
- Empire Connection
- "ARC Access to the Region's Core". New Jersey Transit. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- 200 ft (61 m) average depth in Palisades portion
- McGeehan, Patrick (October 7, 2010). "Christie Halts Train Tunnel, Citing Its Cost". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- Pillets, Jeff (February 28, 2011), "State wants refund for $161.9M tunnel insurance", The Record, retrieved March 14, 2011
- "Timeline of events in Hudson River tunnel project". The Star-Ledger (Newark). October 7, 2010. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- Mulshine, Paul (October 27, 2010). "Christie kills the tunnel to Macy's basement". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- Frassinelli, Mike (February 6, 2011). "N.J. senators, Amtrak official to announce new commuter train tunnel project across the". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- "Gateway Project" (PDF). Amtrak. February 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- McGeehan, Patrick (January 6, 2011). "Christie Seeks Loan in Plan to Pay for N.J. Transit". The New York Times.
- "Commuter Rail" (PDF). Gao.gov. March 2012. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- Sarles, Richard R. (February 6, 2009). "N.J./N.Y. rail tunnel will benefit commuters". Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- Belson, Ken (April 6, 2008). "Tunnel Milestone, and More to Come". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- New Jersey Transit (October 2008). Newark, NJ. "Access to the Region's Core: Final Environmental Impact Study." Executive Summary.
- Annual Report on Funding Recommendations, Fiscal Year 2011, New Starts, Small Starts, and Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Program (PDF), November 2009
- Bagli, Charles (November 16, 2010). "New York Studies Extending Subway Line to New Jersey". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Committee on operations minutes" (PDF). PANYNJ. March 25, 2010. Retrieved 2014-12-27.
- Brown, Eliot (August 8, 2008). "Planned Hudson Tunnel Puts an Extra $6 M. in Sam Chang’s Pocket [UPDATED]". The Observer. Retrieved 2014-12-27.
- McGeehan, Patrick (February 7, 2011). "With One Plan for a Hudson Tunnel Dead, Senators Offer Another Option". The New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Firschein, Merry (October 30, 2010). "Cases in limbo with tunnel demise". The Record (Bergen County). Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- McGeehan, Patrick,Christie Outlines a Plan to Pay for Transit Work, New York Times, January 6, 2011
- Boburg, Shawn (March 29, 2011). "Port Authority to redirect $1.8B in tunnel funds to North Jersey road repairs". The Record. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- McGeehan, Patrick (May 15, 2011). "Commuters Feel Pinch as Christie Tightens". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Frasinelli, Mike (September 8, 2011), "N.J. Turnpike Authority to redirect $1.25B from scrapped ARC tunnel to local road, bridge projects", The Star-Ledger (Newark), retrieved September 9, 2011
- "Access to the Region's Core Major Investment Study Summary Report 2003" (PDF) (Press release). NJ Transit. 2003.
- "McGreevey announces major progress for "ARC" project". June 20, 2003.
- "The Hudson River Dredging Project". General Electric. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- Vantuono, William (April 2010). "Reconquering Gotham". RailwayAge. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "Engineering Begins on Trans-Hudson Express (THE) Tunnel" (Press release). New Jersey Transit. August 1, 2006. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- Smothers, Ronald (July 19, 2006). "New Hudson Rail Tunnel Is Nearing Federal Approval". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- "FTA Approves Next Major Step for Tunnel Project" (Press release). New Jersey Transit. January 19, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- "N.Y.-N.J. rail tunnel clears environmental hurdle" (Press release). The Associated Press. November 10, 2008.
- "Record of Decision Access to the Region's Core Project in Hudson County, NJ and New York City, NY" (PDF) (Press release). New Jersey Transit. January 14, 2009.
- "New Jersey Breaks Ground on Nation's Largest Transit Project" (Press release). New Jersey Transit. June 8, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
- Skanska to Construct Rail Tunnel in New York for USD 52 M, Approximately SEK 380 M, May 18, 2010
- Strong competition for first ARC contract, November 2009
- Freemark, Yonah (September 17, 2010). "Political Will Disappearing, New Jersey’s ARC Project Could be On the Way Out". The Transport Politic. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- Sherman, Ted (September 12, 2010). "N.J. halts new work on $8.7B N.Y.-N.J. tunnel project due to budget issues". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
- Fleisher, Lisa; Sherman, Ted (September 14, 2010). "Gov. Christie says he ordered suspension of $8.7B trans-Hudson tunnel project". The Star-Ledger (Neark). Archived from the original on September 17, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "NJ Official: Diverting Arc Tunnel Money Considered". September 20, 2010.
- Rouse, Karen (September 28, 2010). "N.J. transportation chief says no plan to kill rail tunnel". The Record. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- WNYC Newsroom (October 7, 2010). "It's Official: ARC Tunnel Project is Dead". WNYC. Archived from the original on October 10, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- McGeehan, Patrick (October 8, 2010). "Christie to Review Options on Tunnel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "Governor Chris Christie – "I’m executing my responsibility in the way that I believe is best for the people of the State of New Jersey and our long-term fiscal health."" (Press release). New Jersey Office of the Governor. October 27, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
- Margolin, Josh; Frassinelli, Mike (October 27, 2010). "N.J. Gov. Christie to cancel Hudson River tunnel, blaming feds' refusal to increase funding". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- McGeehan, Patrick (October 27, 2010). "Christie Kills Train Tunnel, Again". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- "U.S. relaxes demand on $271M ARC tunnel funds after N.J. Gov. Christie canceled project", The Star-Ledger (Newark), December 16, 2010, retrieved May 2, 2011
- Patton Boggs (January 25, 2011). "New Jersey Transit Corporation's Opposition to the Federal Transit Administration's November 24, 2010 Repaymnet Demand". scribd.com. Retrieved 2014-12-15.
- Kabak, Benjamin (January 26, 2011). "Mulling the 7, Christie disputes ARC payments". Second Avenue Sagas. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- "N.J. is formally told to pay federal government $271M for canceling ARC tunnel". Associated Press. November 29, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Rouse, Karen (March 10, 2011), "Legal bill for ARC tunnel money fight tops $333,000", The Record, retrieved March 14, 2011
- Associated Press (April 20, 2011). "N.J. legal tab to fight $271M federal bill for scrapped ARC tunnel reaches $800K". nj.com. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
Invoices show the Washington, D.C.-based Patton Boggs law firm billed the state $469,715 for work performed in January alone. The Record newspaper reports that covers more than 700 hours of work performed by 11 attorneys. The newspaper says those costs are in addition to the $333,281 NJ Transit has already paid the law firm for work in December.
- Rizzo, Salvador (April 30, 2011), "Federal government demands N.J. re-pay $271M for commuter tunnel Gov. Christie canceled", The Star-Ledger (Newark), retrieved April 30, 2011
- La Hood, Ray (April 29, 2011). "Secretary of Transportation letter to Senator Lautenberg" (PDF). nj.com. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- McGeehan, Patrick (April 30, 2011). "New Jersey Must Return $271 Million Spent on Hudson Tunnel, U.S. Insists". The New York Times. p. A16. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- Rizzo, Salvatore (May 29, 2011). "Gov. Christie's battle over scrapped ARC tunnel costing N.J. $225K a month in interest alone". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Rizzo, Salvatore (May 3, 2011). "Christie vows to fight Obama administration in court over $271M for scrapped ARC tunnel". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- McGeehan, Patrick (September 30, 2011). "N.J. to Repay U.S. $95 Million Over Hudson Tunnels". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- Rouse, Karen (September 30, 2011). "Feds reach deal with NJ Transit to reduce ARC tunnel debt to $95M". The Record. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Frassinelli, Mike (September 30, 2011). "N.J., feds settle bill for canceled ARC tunnel for $95M". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Higgs, Larry (April 6, 2013). "Hudson River tunnel project expenses eat up revenue gains from NJ Transit ridership increase ARC tunnel expenses haunt agency two years after cancellation". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Frassinelli, Mike (October 16, 2012). "NJ Transit still paying price for canceled Hudson River rail tunnel". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Commuter Rail Potential Impacts and Cost Estimates for the Cancelled Hudson River Tunnel Project (PDF) (Report). Government Accountability Office. March 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Zernike (April 10, 2012), "Report Disputes Christie's Basis for Halting Tunnel", The New York Times, retrieved April 10, 2012
- Goodyear, Sarah (January 9, 2014). "How the Politics of Transportation Made Chris Christie, and Could Break Him". Atlantic Cities. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- Rouse, Karen (April 10, 2012), "GAO report disputes Christie's Hudson River rail tunnel fears", The Record, retrieved April 10, 2012
- Haddon. Haddon, Mann, Ted (April 11, 2012). "Christie Slammed for Tunnel Cost Estimate". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Doig, Will (April 11, 2012). "Chris Christie’s gas tax foolishness". Salon. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- McGeehan, Patrick (January 6, 2011). "Christie Outlines a Plan to Pay for Transit Work". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Boburg, Shawn (March 29, 2011). "Port Authority to redirect $1.8B in tunnel funds to North Jersey road repairs". The Record (Woodland Park, NJ). Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- McGeehan, Patrick (May 15, 2011). "Commuters Feel Pinch as Christie Tightens". The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
- Staff (2010). "Portway Projects". New Jersey Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "FY 2013 Transportation Capital Program New Jersey Department of Transportation Projects" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Transportation. p. 1. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Boburg, Shawn (March 30, 2014). "Christie's toll-money shuffle: Port Authority funds paying for repairs to state roads". The Record. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
- Bernstein, Andrea (January 16, 2014). "How Christie's Men Turned the Port Authority into a Political Piggy Bank". WNYC. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Baxter, Christopher (February 12, 2014). "New bridge scandal subpoenas seek records related to Chris Christie, ARC tunnel and more". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- Mann, Ted (April 11, 2014). "New York Prosecutors Open Another Front of Scrutiny for Port Authority". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- Voreacos, David (April 12, 2014). "Manhattan DA Said to Probe Port Authority Skyway Funding". Bloomberg. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- "SEC probing New Jersey Gov. Christie's transport funding -report". Reuters. April 25, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Bowling, Shawn (April 12, 2014). "NYC district attorney launches wide-ranging investigation into Port Authority". The Record. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- Rashbaum, William (April 12, 2014). "Another Prosecutor Is Said to Investigate Port Authority". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Brennan, Lisa (April 25, 2014). "SEC Joins Manhattan DA to Probe Christie’s Diversion of Port Authority Funds". Main Justice. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Linhorst, Michael (April 25, 2014). "As U.S. attorney continues GWB probe, SEC looks into Port Authority spending". The Record. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Magyar, Mark J. (October 21, 2013). "NJ FACES HEFTY PRICETAG FOR RAIL TUNNEL, TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS". NJ Spotlight. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Higgs, Larry (December 1, 2013). "@Issue: Sharing of rail tunnel design work to aid transition from ARC to Gateway project Sharing of rail tunnel design work to aid transition from ARC to Gateway project". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- Barbara, Philip (November 28, 2010), "Opinion: ARC derailed: Weighing the alternatives", The Record, retrieved March 14, 2011
- Cassidy, Jack (April 4, 2005). "Bloomberg's Game". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Frassinelli, Mike (November 18, 2010). "Extending No. 7 subway to Secaucus could provide alternative to killed ARC tunnel". The Star-Ledger (Newark). Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- McGeeham, Patrick (November 17, 2010). "Extend a Subway Line Under the Hudson? For Two Men, It’s Hardly a New Idea". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- "New 34 St-Hudson Yards 7 Subway Line Station Opens" (Press release). New York City Mayor's Office. September 13, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- Bernstein, Andrea (November 16, 2010). "Mayor Bloomberg Explores Extending Subway to New Jerse". WNYC.
- McGeehan, Patrick (November 23, 2010). "Subway Extension Draws Support, if Not Financing". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Bernstein, Andrea (February 4, 2011). "City finally puts $$$ behind subway to New Jersey". Transportation Nation. Archived from the original on February 6, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- New York City Economic Development Commission (February 2, 2011). "No. 7 Line Extension to Secaucus Consultant Services" (PDF). scribd.com. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Frasinelli, Mike (April 10, 2013). "Plan to extend No. 7 subway from NYC to New Jersey could be back on track". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Rouse, Karen (April 10, 2013). "Report: Extending NY No. 7 subway line to Secaucus would accommodate commuter demand". The Record. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Parsons Brinkerhoff (April 2013). No 7 Secaucus Extension Feasibility Analysis Final Report (PDF) (Report). NYCEDC. p. 1. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Plan to extend No. 7 subway from NYC to New Jersey could be back on track, Mike Frassinelli, The Star-Ledger, April 10, 2013
- Parsons Brinkerhoff (April 2013). No 7 Secaucus Extension Feasibility Analysis Final Report (PDF) (Report). NYCEDC. p. III–X. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Haughney, Christine (April 3, 2012). "MTA Chief rules out subway line to New Jersey". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2012
- Gottesman, Jerry; Spinola, Steven (November 4, 2013). "Let’s extend the 7 train to Secaucus After the far West Side, the next stop on the 7 should be across the river". Daily News (New York). Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "AN ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION supporting the extension of the New York City IRT Flushing Line into the State of New Jersey." (PDF). ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION No. 168 STATE OF NEW JERSEY 215th LEGISLATURE. New Jersey Legislature. May 13, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Brenzel, Kathryn (November 26, 2013). "Committee green lights expansion of NYC subway to Hoboken". NJ.com. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Ma, Myles (September 12, 2014). "Study into No. 7 subway extension to Secaucus announced: 7 things to know". NJ Advance Media. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Resnikoff, Ned (January 26, 2014). "Christie’s other traffic jam". MSNBC.
- ARCTunnel.com Official website
- N.J. Governor Christie reconsiders canceling tunnel project October 10, 2010 News story
- United States' Largest Transit Project Breaks Ground 06/08/2009 Demotix - Photo News Wire. Photos by Jim DeLillo
- ONeil, James (November 20, 2010). "Halt to train tunnel hurting wetlands project". The Record.