Accession of Montenegro to the European Union

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Montenegrin EU accession bid
European Union Montenegro Locator (with internal borders).svg
Status
Negotiating
Chapter Progress
9.1% complete
Screening Progress
100% complete
Website
Statistics
EU averageMontenegro
PPP GDP ($M)552,7807,157
PPP per capita ($)40,60017,000 (2016 est.) [1]
Area (km2)165,04813,812
Population18,583,598625,000
Coat of arms of Montenegro.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Montenegro
Constitution

Accession of Montenegro to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.

The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro started the process of Accession to the European Union in November 2005, when negotiations over a Stabilisation and Association Agreement began. In May 2006, Montenegro voted for independence in a referendum and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved. Serbia continued with the existing negotiations, and separate negotiations were launched with Montenegro in September 2006.[2][3] The Agreement was initialled on 15 March 2007 and officially signed on 15 October 2007. In 2010, the Commission issued a favourable opinion on Montenegro's application, identifying seven key priorities that would need to be addressed for negotiations to begin, and the Council granted it candidate status. In December 2011, the Council launched the accession process with a view to opening negotiations in June 2012. The accession negotiations with Montenegro subsequently began on 29 June 2012. With 32 chapters opened, the country enjoys a widespread support among EU members' officials, and accession of the country to the EU is considered possible by 2025. In its 2016 assessment of the accession progress, European Commission has identified Montenegro as having the highest level of preparation for membership among the negotiating states.

Montenegro is currently receiving €507 million of developmental aid until 2020 from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.

Application[edit]

Montenegro officially applied to join the EU on 15 December 2008.[4] On 23 April 2009, the Council invited the European Commission to submit its opinion on the application. The Commission presented Montenegro with a questionnaire to assess its application on 22 July 2009.[5] On 9 December 2009, Montenegro delivered its answers to the EC questionnaire.[6]

Stabilisation and Association Agreement[edit]

Negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) between Montenegro and the European Union started in September 2006.[7] The agreement was officially signed on 15 October 2007, and on 1 May 2010 it came into force, after all the 27 member-states of EU had ratified the SAA.[8][9]

Status of SAA ratification
Event North Macedonia [10] Croatia [11] Albania [12] Montenegro [13][Note 1] Bosnia and
Herzegovina
[15]
Serbia [16][Note 2] Kosovo* [17][Note 3]
SAA negotiations start 2000-04-05 2000-11-24 2003-01-31 2005-10-10 2005-11-25 2005-10-10 2013-10-28[19]
SAA initialled 2000-11-24 2001-05-14 2006-02-28 2007-03-15 2007-12-04 2007-11-07 2014-07-25[20]
SAA/IA signature 2001-04-09 2001-10-29 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2008-04-29 2015-10-27[21]
Interim Agreement:
EC ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2009-12-08 N/A [Note 4]
SAP state ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-10-09 2007-11-14 2008-06-20 2008-09-22 N/A [Note 4]
entry into force 2001-06-01 2002-03-01 2006-12-01 2008-01-01 2008-07-01 2010-02-01 N/A [Note 4]
Deposit of the instrument of ratification:
SAP state 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-11-09 2007-11-13 2009-02-26 2008-09-22 2016-02-26
Austria 2002-09-06 2002-03-15 2008-05-21 2008-07-04 2009-09-04 2011-01-13 N/A
Belgium 2003-12-29 2003-12-17 2008-10-22 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 2012-03-20 N/A
Bulgaria entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2009-03-13 2010-08-12 N/A
Croatia entered the EU later N/A
Cyprus entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2008-11-20 2009-07-02 2010-11-26 N/A
Czech Republic entered the EU later 2008-05-07 2009-02-19 2009-07-23 2011-01-28 N/A
Denmark 2002-04-10 2002-05-08 2008-04-24 2008-06-25 2009-05-26 2011-03-04 N/A
Estonia entered the EU later 2007-10-17 2007-11-22 2008-09-11 2010-08-19 N/A
Finland 2004-01-06 2004-01-06 2007-11-29 2009-03-18 2009-04-07 2011-10-21 N/A
France 2003-06-04 2003-06-04 2009-02-12 2009-07-30 2011-02-10 2012-01-16 N/A
Germany 2002-06-20 2002-10-18 2009-02-19 2009-11-16 2009-08-14 2012-02-24 N/A
Greece 2003-08-27 2003-08-27 2009-02-26 2010-03-04 2010-09-20 2011-03-10 N/A
Hungary entered the EU later 2007-04-23 2008-05-14 2008-10-22 2010-11-16 N/A
Ireland 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 2007-06-11 2009-06-04 2009-06-04 2011-09-29 N/A
Italy 2003-10-30 2004-10-06 2008-01-07 2009-10-13 2010-09-08 2011-01-06 N/A
Latvia entered the EU later 2006-12-19 2008-10-17 2009-11-12 2011-05-30 N/A
Lithuania entered the EU later 2007-05-17 2009-03-04 2009-05-04 2013-06-26 N/A
Luxembourg 2003-07-28 2003-08-01 2007-07-04 2009-06-11 2010-12-22 2011-01-21 N/A
Malta entered the EU later 2008-04-21 2008-12-11 2010-01-07 2010-07-06 N/A
Netherlands 2002-09-09 2004-04-30 2007-12-10 2009-01-29 2009-09-30 2012-02-27 N/A
Poland entered the EU later 2007-04-14 2009-02-06 2010-04-07 2012-01-13 N/A
Portugal 2003-07-14 2003-07-14 2008-07-11 2008-09-23 2009-06-29 2011-03-04 N/A
Romania entered the EU later 2009-01-15 2010-01-08 2012-05-22 N/A
Slovakia entered the EU later 2007-07-20 2008-07-29 2009-03-17 2010-11-11 N/A
Slovenia entered the EU later 2007-01-18 2008-02-07 2009-03-10 2010-12-07 N/A
Spain 2002-10-04 2002-10-04 2007-05-03 2009-03-12 2010-06-15 2010-06-21 N/A
Sweden 2002-06-25 2003-03-27 2007-03-21 2009-03-11 2009-09-14 2011-04-15 N/A
United Kingdom 2002-12-17 2004-09-03 2007-10-16 2010-01-12 2010-04-20 2011-08-11 N/A
European Communities or
European Union and Euratom
2004-02-25 2004-12-21 2009-02-26 2010-03-29 2015-04-30 2013-07-22 2016-02-24 [Note 5]
SAA entry into force 2004-04-01 2005-02-01 2009-04-01 2010-05-01 2015-06-01 2013-09-01 2016-04-01[25]
EU membership (SAA lapsed) (TBD) 2013-07-01 (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD)

N/A: Not applicable.

  1. ^ Montenegro started negotiations in November 2005 while a part of Serbia and Montenegro (SiM). Separate technical negotiations were conducted regarding issues of sub-state organizational competency. A mandate for direct negotiations with Montenegro was established in July 2006. Direct negotiations were initiated on 26 September 2006 and concluded on 1 December 2006.[14]
  2. ^ Serbia started negotiations in November 2005 while part of SiM, with a modified mandate from July 2006.
  3. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition. The European Union remains divided on its policy towards Kosovo, with five EU member states not recognizing its independence. The EU launched a Stabilisation Tracking Mechanism for Kosovo on 6 November 2002 with the aim of aligning its policy with EU standards. On 10 October 2012 the European Commission found that there were no legal obstacles to Kosovo signing a SAA with the EU, as independence is not required for such an agreement.[18]
  4. ^ a b c No Interim Agreement associated with Kosovo's SAA was concluded.[22]
  5. ^ Kosovo's SAA was the first signed after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, which conferred a legal personality to the EU. As a result, unlike previous SAAs Kosovo's is exclusively between it and the EU and Euratom, and the member states are not parties independently.[19][23][24]

Recommendation[edit]

The European Commission on 9 November 2010 recommended Montenegro as candidate country. This candidate status was officially granted on 17 December 2010.[26]

Progress[edit]

Montenegro is experiencing ecological, judicial and crime-related problems that may hinder its bid.[27] Montenegro signed an agreement with the Bulgarian government in December 2007 in which Bulgaria will assist Montenegro with its Euro-Atlantic and EU integration for the following three years.[28] To work on these matters the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Montenegro has a special agency dedicated to accession to the EU, the Office for assistance to the Chief Negotiator. The goal of the office is to support the task of the Chief Negotiator for Montenegro’s Accession to EU, Aleksandar Drljević.

On 27 July 2010, the Montenegrin Parliament passed a non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity as prohibited grounds of discrimination. This was one of the requirements the country had to meet for EU membership.[29]

Domestic opinion[edit]

Montenegro's population is overwhelmingly pro-EU, with 76.2% being in favour according to polling and only 9.8% against, in October 2009.[30]

Chronology of relations with the EU[edit]

Timeline[31]
Date Event
22 January 2007 Council adopts European Partnership for Montenegro
15 October 2007 Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) signed in Luxembourg
1 January 2008 Agreements on trade and trade-related matters, visa facilitation, and readmission enter into force
15 December 2008 Montenegro applies for EU membership; formal application for membership submitted
22 July 2009 Commission applied Questionnaire to the Montenegro.
9 December 2009 Montenegro submits answers to the Commission's Questionnaire.
19 December 2009 Visa requirement lifted for Montenegrins visiting the EU
12 April 2010 Montenegro submits additional answers to the Commission's Questionnaire.
1 May 2010 Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) enters into force
9 November 2010 European Commission replies to the answers of the Questionnaire with a positive opinion (Avis).
17 December 2010 Montenegro receives official candidate status.
12 October 2011 Commission recommends starting of negotiations.[32]
26 March 2012 Screening started.
26 June 2012 European Council sets a target date of 29 June for the beginning of accession negotiations.[33]
29 June 2012 Accession negotiations begin with the screening process.
18 December 2012 Chapter 25 Science and Research is opened and provisionally closed.
15 April 2013 The first accession conference is held in Brussels. Chapter 26 Education and Culture is opened and provisionally closed.[citation needed]
27 June 2013 Screening completed[34]
18 December 2013 Five chapters are opened (Chapter 5 - Public procurement; Chapter 6 - Company law; Chapter 20 - Enterprise and industrial policy; Chapter 23 – Judiciary and fundamental rights; Chapter 24 – Justice, freedom and security)
31 March 2014 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 7 – Intellectual property rights and 10 – Information society and media)
24 June 2014 Three chapters are opened (Chapter 4 – Free movement of capitals, Chapter 31 – Foreign, security and defence policy, Chapter 32 – Financial control)
16 December 2014 Four chapters are opened (Chapters 18 – Statistics, Chapter 28 – Consumer and health protection, Chapter 29 – Customs Union, Chapter 33 – Financial and budgetary provisions)
30 March 2015 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 16 – Taxation, Chapter 30 – External relations)
22 June 2015 Two chapters are opened (Chapter – Financial services and Chapter 21 – Trans-European Networks)
21 December 2015 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 14 – Transport policy and Chapter 15 – Energy)
30 June 2016 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 12 – Food safety, veterinary and phytosanitary policy and Chapter 13 – Fisheries)
13 December 2016 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 11 - Agriculture and rural development and Chapter 19 - Social policy and employment)
20 June 2017 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 1 - free movement of goods and Chapter 22 - regional policy) and one chapter is provisionally closed (Chapter 30 - External relations)
11 December 2017 Two chapters are opened (Chapter 2: Freedom of movement for workers and Chapter 3: Right of establishment and freedom to provide services)
25 June 2018 One chapter is opened (Chapter 17: Economic and monetary policy)
10 December 2018 One chapter is opened (Chapter 27: Environment and climate change)

Visa liberalisation process[edit]

On 1 January 2008, the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Montenegro and the EU entered into force.[35] Montenegro was added to the list of visa exempt nationals on 19 December 2009, allowing their citizens to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa when traveling with biometric passports.[36] Visa liberalisation process does not include travels to Ireland or the United Kingdom as these countries operate their own respective visa regimes outside of the Schengen Agreement,

Unilateral euro adoption[edit]

Montenegro has no currency of its own. As a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia following World War II, and later of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav dinar was the official currency in Montenegro. In November 1999, the government of Montenegro unilaterally designated the Deutsche Mark as its co-official currency with the dinar, and on 1 January 2001 the dinar officially ceased to be a legal tender in Montenegro.[37][38] When the euro was introduced and the Deutsche Mark yielded, Montenegro followed suit and began using the euro as well, with no objection from the European Central Bank (ECB).[39][40] The European Commission and the ECB have since voiced their discontent over Montenegro's unilateral use of the euro on several occasions".[41] A statement attached to their Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU read: "unilateral introduction of the euro was not compatible with the Treaty."[42] The EU insists on the strict adherence to convergence criteria (such as spending at least 2 years in the ERMII system) which are not negotiable before euro adoption, but have not intervened to stop the unilateral adoption of the euro by Montenegro in 2002.[41][43]

The issue is expected to be resolved through the negotiations process.[41] The ECB has stated that the implications of unilateral euro adoption "would be spelled out at the latest in the event of possible negotiations on EU accession."[42] Diplomats have suggested that it's unlikely Montenegro will be forced to withdraw the euro from circulation in their country.[39][42] Radoje Žugić, Montenegro's Minister of Finance, has stated that "it would be extremely economically irrational to return to our own currency and then later to again go back to the euro."[44] Instead, he hopes that Montenegro will be permitted to keep the euro and has promised "the government of Montenegro, will adopt some certain elements, which should fulfil the conditions for further use of the euro; such as adopting fiscal rules."[44]

Negotiation progress[edit]

There is currently one chapter waiting to be opened, twenty-nine chapters open, three chapters that have been provisionally closed, and two chapters in which there is nothing to adopt.

Chapter and Accession Dates
Progression 33 / 33
100% complete
33 / 33
100% complete
32 / 33
97% complete
3 / 33
9.1% complete
Chapter Screening started Screening completed Chapter opened Chapter closed
Overview 33 out of 33 33 out of 33 32 out of 33[45] 3 out of 33[45]
1. Free Movement of Goods 2013-01-14 2013-03-06 2017-06-20
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers 2013-05-13 2013-06-07 2017-12-11[46]
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services 2012-10-23 2012-11-30 2017-12-11[46]
4. Free Movement of Capital 2013-01-18 2013-02-21 2014-06-24[47]
5. Public Procurement 2012-09-27 2012-11-19 2013-12-18
6. Company Law 2012-10-02 2012-11-22 2013-12-18
7. Intellectual Property Law 2012-10-11 2012-11-21 2014-03-31
8. Competition Policy 2012-10-03 2012-12-04
9. Financial Services 2013-04-17 2013-06-11 2015-06-22[48]
10. Information Society & Media 2012-12-06 2013-01-22 2014-03-31
11. Agriculture & Rural Development 2012-11-06 2012-12-13 2016-12-13
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy 2012-10-15 2013-02-01 2016-06-30
13. Fisheries 2013-03-14 2013-06-06 2016-06-30
14. Transport Policy 2013-04-22 2013-05-30 2015-12-21
15. Energy 2013-02-27 2013-04-11 2015-12-21
16. Taxation 2013-04-08 2013-04-30 2015-03-30
17. Economic & Monetary Policy 2013-01-10 2013-02-26 2018-06-25
18. Statistics 2013-06-03 2013-06-25 2014-12-16[49]
19. Social Policy & Employment 2013-01-23 2013-03-13 2016-12-13
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy 2012-10-25 2012-11-28 2013-12-18
21. Trans-European Networks 2013-04-22 2013-05-30 2015-06-22[48]
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments 2012-11-14 2012-12-18 2017-06-20
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights 2012-03-26[50] 2012-05-31 2013-12-18
24. Justice, Freedom & Security 2012-03-28[50] 2012-05-25 2013-12-18
25. Science & Research 2012-09-24 2012-09-25 2012-12-18 2012-12-18[51]
26. Education & Culture 2012-09-26 2012-11-16 2013-04-15 2013-04-15[52]
27. Environment & Climate Change 2013-02-04 2013-03-22 2018-12-10[53]
28. Consumer & Health Protection 2013-02-19 2013-04-16 2014-12-16[49]
29. Customs Union 2013-05-23 2013-06-21 2014-12-16[49]
30. External Relations 2013-05-14 2013-06-12 2015-03-30 2017-06-20
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy 2013-05-17 2013-06-27 2014-06-24[47]
32. Financial Control 2013-05-16 2013-06-19 2014-06-24[47]
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions 2013-05-15 2013-06-26 2014-12-16[49]
34. Institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A
35. Other Issues N/A N/A N/A N/A
May 2019 European Commission Report[54]
Acquis chapter Chapter Status Ability to Assume Acquis
Overview
  • 1 chapter unopened
  • 29 chapters open
  • 3 chapters provisionally closed
  • 2 chapters with nothing to adopt

Opened

  • 1 chapter at an early stage
  • 4 chapters with some level of preparation
  • 19 chapters with a moderate level of preparation
  • 5 chapters with a good level of preparation

Closed

  • 3 chapters with good level of preparation
1. Free Movement of Goods Open Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Open Some level of preparation
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Open Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Open Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Open Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Open Good level of preparation
7. Intellectual Property Law Open Good level of preparation
8. Competition Policy Not Yet Opened Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Open Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Open Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Open Moderately prepared
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Open Moderately prepared
13. Fisheries Open Some level of preparation
14. Transport Policy Open Good level of preparation
15. Energy Open Good level of preparation
16. Taxation Open Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Open Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Open Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Open Some level of preparation
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Open Moderately prepared
21. Trans-European Networks Open Moderately prepared
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Open Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Open Moderately prepared
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Open Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Provisionally closed Good level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Provisionally closed Good level of preparation
27. Environment & Climate Change Open Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Open Moderately prepared
29. Customs Union Open Moderately prepared
30. External Relations Provisionally closed Good level of preparation
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Open Good level of preparation
32. Financial Control Open Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Open Early stage
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend: Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Past European Commission Assessments
Acquis chapter October 2011[55] October 2012[56] October 2013[57] October 2014[58] November 2015[59] November 2016[60] April 2018[61] May 2019[62]
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Some level of preparation Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
7. Intellectual Property Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
8. Competition Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
13. Fisheries Further efforts needed Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation
14. Transport Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
15. Energy Moderately prepared Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
16. Taxation Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Early stage Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
21. Trans-European Networks Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Early stage Considerable efforts needed Early stage Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
27. Environment & Climate Change Considerable efforts needed Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
29. Customs Union Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
30. External Relations Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared No major difficulties expected Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
32. Financial Control Some level of preparation Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend: Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.

  totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Impact of joining[edit]

Member countries Population Area (km²) GDP
(billion US$)
GDP
per capita (US$)
Languages
 Montenegro 621,400 13,812 4.42 7,113 Montenegrin
EU27 446,824,564 4,138,071 14,550 32,563 24
EU27+1 447,445,964
(+0.14%)
4,151,883
(+0.33%)
14,554.42
(+0.030%)
32,528
(−0.11%)
25

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Factbook, CIA, accessed on 21 June 2017
  2. ^ Enlargement Process – Montenegro Key Events Archived 22 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, European Commission, accessed on 10 January 2007
  3. ^ Germany prepares to take over EU presidency, Southeast European Times, 19 December 2006, accessed on 10 January 2007
  4. ^ Montenegro formally applies to join European Union at the Wayback Machine (archive index) EUbusiness, 16 December 2008, archived on 26 April 2009 from the original Archived 17 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "EC questionnaire to Montenegro" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  6. ^ "Montenegro delivers answers to EC questionnaire". Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Montenegro". European Commission. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  8. ^ "SAA comes into force for Montenegro". Archived from the original on 3 May 2010.
  9. ^ "Montenegro: Stabilisation and Association Agreement comes into force".
  10. ^ "SAA Agreement with Macedonia". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  11. ^ "SAA Agreement with Croatia". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  12. ^ "SAA Agreement with Albania". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  13. ^ "SAA Agreement with Montenegro". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  14. ^ "EU, Montenegro complete negotiations on pre-membership deal to bring country closer to bloc". International Herald Tribune. The Associated Press. 1 December 2006. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  15. ^ "SAA Agreement with Bosnia". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  16. ^ "SAA Agreement with Serbia". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  17. ^ "SAA Agreement with Kosovo*". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  18. ^ "Feasibility Study for a Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Union and Kosovo" (PDF). European Commission. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  19. ^ a b "EU starts the Stabilisation and Association Agreement negotiations with Kosovo". European Commission. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  20. ^ "Stabilization and Association Agreement is initialled". Ministry of European Integration of the Republic of Kosovo. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  21. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Union and Kosovo signed". European Commission. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  22. ^ "Kosovo to negotiate on Stabilisation and Association Agreement". 27 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement negotiations successfully completed". European External Action Service. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Kosovo Launches Crucial SAA Talks With EU". Balkan Insight. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  25. ^ "Information relating to the entry into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, of the one part, and Kosovo (*), of the other part". EUR-Lex. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
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