Accession of North Macedonia to NATO

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North Macedonia NATO Accession Treaty
Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the Accession of the Republic of North Macedonia[1]
Member States Ratifying North Macedonia NATO Accession Protocol.svg
  Members ratifying accession treaty   
  Members who have not yet ratified
  Republic of North Macedonia
TypeAccession Treaty
SignedFebruary 6, 2019 (2019-02-06)
LocationBrussels
Effectivenot in force
ConditionEntry into force of the accession treaty after ratification by all current NATO members. Membership of North Macedonia starts after deposit of its instrument of accession after the treaty has entered into force.
Ratifiers
13 / 29
[2][3][4]
DepositaryUnited States
LanguagesEnglish and French
Coat of arms of North Macedonia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
North Macedonia
Flag of North Macedonia.svg North Macedonia portal

North Macedonia is currently in the process of acceding to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as a member state. In 1995, the country joined the Partnership for Peace. It then began taking part in various NATO missions, including the International Security Assistance Force and the Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan. At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Greece vetoed the country's invitation to join; however, NATO nations agreed that the country would receive an invitation upon resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute.[5] Following an agreement in June 2018 to rename the country, the permanent representatives to NATO of the member states signed a protocol on the accession of North Macedonia to NATO on 6 February 2019.[6]

History[edit]

The then Republic of Macedonia joined the Partnership for Peace in 1995, and commenced its Membership Action Plan in 1999 at the Washington Summit, at the same time as eight other countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia).

At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Greece vetoed the Republic of Macedonia's invitation to join, however, NATO nations agreed that the country would receive an invitation upon resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute.[5] Greece felt that its neighbor's constitutional name implies territorial aspirations against its own region of Macedonia. After the veto, Greece was sued in the International Court of Justice, over the use of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" as an acceptable option with which to enter NATO, while Greece counterargued that it was a collective decision of NATO not to invite the Republic of Macedonia, and therefore the interim accord signed between the two countries was not violated. Greece also considered blocking the Republic of Macedonia's accession to the European Union over the naming dispute.[7] Former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton asked the Republic of Macedonia and Greece to find an "acceptable solution" to the dispute, so that the Republic of Macedonia would be free to join NATO.[8] In 2014, prior to the 65th anniversary of its founding, NATO announced that it would not be offering any new countries membership in the organization that year. Some analysts, such as Jorge Benitez of the Atlantic Council think tank, argued that this reluctance was partly due to the new security climate after Russia's annexation of Crimea.[9] There has been continued debate about how Russia will view the republic's accession.[10]

Following an agreement in June 2018 to rename the country the Republic of North Macedonia, NATO agreed to consider extending an invitation to the country to join at its summit on 11–12 July.[11] On 11 July 2018, NATO invited the republic to begin membership talks, saying the country could join the organization once the naming issue was resolved.[12] Formal accession talks began on 18 October 2018.[13] On February 6, 2019, the permanent representatives to NATO of the member states signed a protocol on the accession of North Macedonia to NATO.[6]

North Macedonian Prime Minister Zoran Zaev, alongside NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, in Skopje on 3 June 2019, said that he expected the ratification process to be finalized by the end of October.[14]

Negotiation progress[edit]

Event Date
Partnership for Peace November 15, 1995[15]
Membership Action Plan April 19, 1999[16]
Invitation to join July 11, 2018[17]
Accession protocol February 6, 2019[6]
Full membership

Ratification process[edit]

Signatory Date Institution In favour Against AB Deposited[18][3][19] Reference
Albania Albania 14 February 2019 Parliament 140 0 0 1 April 2019 [20]
20 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [21]
Belgium Belgium 25 April 2019 Chamber of Representatives 131 2 2 6 June 2019 [22]
Bulgaria Bulgaria 20 February 2019 National Assembly 140 0 0 18 March 2019 [23]
23 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [24]
Canada Canada 19 June 2019 Government Granted 19 June 2019 [25]
Croatia Croatia 1 March 2019 Parliament 116 2 0 22 May 2019 [26]
6 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [27]
Czech Republic Czech Republic 12 June 2019 Senate 52 0 13 [28]
11 July 2019 Chamber of Deputies 169 2 0 [29]
Presidential Assent
Denmark Denmark 26 March 2019 Folketing 97 0 9 12 April 2019 [30]
Estonia Estonia 12 June 2019 Riigikogu 76 0 17 [31]
17 June 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [32]
France France Senate
National Assembly
Presidential Assent
Germany Germany 6 June 2019 Bundestag 545 160 4 [33]
28 June 2019 Bundesrat Passed [34]
4 July 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [35]
Greece Greece 8 February 2019 Parliament 153 140 0 21 February 2019 [36]
15 February 2019 Presidential Promulgation Granted [37]
Hungary Hungary 25 June 2019 National Assembly 153 0 0 [38]
27 June 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [39]
Iceland Iceland Althing
Presidential Assent
Italy Italy 25 June 2019 Chamber of Deputies 442 0 1 [40]
Senate
Presidential Assent
Latvia Latvia 16 May 2019 Saeima 81 0 0 4 June 2019 [41]
22 May 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [42]
Lithuania Lithuania 14 March 2019 Seimas 92 0 0 30 May 2019 [43]
20 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [44]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2 July 2019 Chamber of Deputies 58 2 0 [45]
12 July 2019 Grand Ducal Promulgation Granted [46]
Montenegro Montenegro 1 March 2019 Parliament 44 0 0 18 April 2019 [47]
4 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [48]
Netherlands Netherlands 4 July 2019 House of Representatives 129 21 0 [49]
Senate
Royal promulgation
Norway Norway 5 June 2019 Storting 96 1 0 [50]
Royal promulgation
Poland Poland 4 April 2019 Sejm 388 1 2 2 July 2019 [51]
11 April 2019 Senate 59 0 0 [52]
25 April 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [53]
Portugal Portugal 15 May 2019 National Assembly 193 36 1 [54]
16 June 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [55]
Romania Romania 27 February 2019 Chamber of Deputies 273 0 0 [56]
13 March 2019 Senate 96 0 0 [57]
18 March 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [58]
Slovakia Slovakia 4 April 2019 National Council 111 13 1 22 May 2019 [59]
24 April 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [60]
Slovenia Slovenia 12 February 2019 National Assembly 72 12 0 22 March 2019 [61]
20 February 2019 Presidential Assent Granted [62]
Spain Spain Senate
Congress of Deputies
Royal Assent
Turkey Turkey 11 July 2019 National Assembly 255 7 1 [63]
Presidential Assent
United Kingdom United Kingdom Government
Royal Assent
United States United States Senate
Presidential Assent

Public opinion[edit]

White spray painted text on a tan wall that reads "НАТО СЕ УБИЈЦИ ЈАС СУМ СПАС ЗА МАКЕДОНИЈА#БОЈКОТ" which translates to "NATO are killers. I am for the salvation of Macedonia. #Boycott."
Anti-NATO graffiti in Ohrid in 2018

During the Kosovo War of 1999, the Macedonian government maintained a pro-NATO position.[64] A majority of the population of the Republic of Macedonia criticized the government stance and opposed NATO intervention in Kosovo due to fears over irredentism from ethnic Albanian Macedonians, the unstable economy, disruption of trade brought about by war, and Slavic solidarity with Serbs.[65] Prime Minister Ljubčo Georgievski stated during the war that anti-NATO sentiment was the "second biggest threat" to the country after the arrival of Albanian refugees from Kosovo.[66] The country's Albanian population supported NATO and its intervention to assist the Albanians of Kosovo.[64]

In 2008, a poll following the NATO summit showed that 82.5% of ethnic Macedonian citizens opposed changing their country's constitutional name in order to join NATO.[67] NATO membership in general in 2008 was supported by 85.2% of the population.[68] Elections were called following the 2008 summit, resulting in further support for the center-right pro-NATO party, VMRO-DPMNE. The elections were marred by violence that attracted criticism from NATO members.[69]

In a statewide 2010 survey, 80.02% of respondents said they would vote for the Republic of Macedonia to become part of NATO if a referendum on accession were to take place.[70] In another survey, some 65% of ethnic Macedonians expressed that they opposed a name change of the state as being the price for NATO membership.[70]

In a 2016 poll, some 68% of ethnic Macedonians supported joining NATO, possibly under the FYROM name.[71]

Albanians of North Macedonia harbour strongly pro-NATO sentiments.[72]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Protocol to the North Atlantic-Treaty of the Republic of North Macedonia". ATA Macedonia. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
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  64. ^ a b Drezov 2001, p. 63.
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External links[edit]